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Solar Thermal Biomass Processor

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Presentation on theme: "Solar Thermal Biomass Processor"— Presentation transcript:

1 Solar Thermal Biomass Processor
Jeremy R.G. Anderson, Joshua A. Hoverman, and Matthew J. Traum, Ph.D. Engineering A Sustainable Earth Mechanical Engineering Department, Milwaukee School of Engineering Milwaukee, Wisconsin Opening slide.

2 Overview Thermal Processing Markets Benefits Progress Future Work
Desired Outcomes Overview Introduction

3 Parabolic Trough Thermochemical – not - Biochemical
Gasifiers (wood or producer gas), Pyrolysis (Syngas) – not – Digesters (methane), Fermentation (ethanol) Solar Thermal - not - Solar PV Concentrate thermal solar power with a mirrored parabolic trough (Typically used with a Rankine cycle) – not – Flat plate semiconductors (direct electrical conversion) Parabolic Trough

4 Receiver Tube (Reactor)
Hopper Currently available thermal processors use up to 30% of the biomass in syngas production to heat the reactor. The Solar Thermal Biomass Processor uses solar power saving that 30% of biomass for future energy production. An average solar constant of 1kW/m2 can be utilized for processing Controlling the temp rate of change with an automated variable feed rate can determine product % Controls Products Parabolic Trough

5 electricity Syngas Biochar Drying Torrefaction Pyrolysis 300K – 373K
Waste Biomass In electricity Syngas Biochar As the biomass is conveyed through the solar receiver tube the CSP raises the materials temperature which drives 3 basic processes. Any moisture in the biomass is released once temperatures exceed 373K. Then a thermo-chemical reaction called torreffaction takes place between K, this reaction creates a dense coal-like substance while releasing VOC’s made primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Finally, Pyrolysis takes place at temperatures exceeding 553K which continues the densification and off-gassing process. Drying Torrefaction Pyrolysis 300K – 373K 800F – 2100F 473K – 553K 3900F – 5350F 553K – 873K 5350F – 1,1110F fertilizer

6 System Parameters P=16kJ/s=16kW 16m2 Needed Heat Power
We developed a calculator to aid in determining a system’s parameters. We will assume an average specific heat of 1.7kJ/kg*K for our feedstock. For our horse farm we will seek to produce 35% bio-char 65% VOC’s. Extensive research has been completed on the pyrolysis of biomass. Using this research it was determined that our farm waste would need to be heated 573K/hr. During full sun conditions this would allow the system to process 60kg of waste material an hr. Power P=16kJ/s=16kW 16m2 Needed

7 Energy cycle per hour At 15 MJ/kg Heat Loss 8 MJ 617 MJ
Syngas Heat Biochar 333 MJ 900 MJ Solar Receiver Tube(Reactor) Employing the previous calculations and assuming 15 MJ/kg for the energy density of Biomass, in one hour the system is left with 950 MJ of accessible energy. At 65% Syngas and the raised heat value we have 617MJ that can be used for electricity production and 22kg of Bio-Char for use in fertilizer supplementation. 58 MJ

8 Markets Agriculture Forestry Municipal waste Bio-fuel production
Anywhere Biomass exist there also exist a market 1)Agriculture- from crop residue to chicken poo AQUAPONICS 2)Forestry- Harvest waste to paper mills 3)Municipal- grass clippings to sewage All of these can stand alone or become regional supplies to Bio-fuel processors which this system can preprocess the material

9 Environment Renewable energy Carbon sequestering process
Facilitates organic farming Improves soil quality Reduces run-off pollution If only 50% of the worlds unused biomass was processed in this manner, more than 1.5 Giga tons of Carbon could be sequestered every year. This would make up 20% of what the Kyoto protocol says is needed to offset the human carbon footprint by 2050.

10 Economics Energy products Eliminate solid-waste tipping fees
Reduce fertilizer costs (Biochar) Carbon credit sales Creates new sustainable jobs Retains current jobs Economic benefits align with other sustainable energy technologies.

11 Prototype Biomass Biochar Syngas
Prototype/Lab system is under construction and is to be completed in April. To be incorporated this quarter into MSOE’s Thermal applications class. Prototype uses resistive heat tape for solar simulation. Biochar Prototype

12 Components The exploded view displays the assembly of the auger, tube, insulation, hopper, and separator.

13 Phase II FF-MCHP system (Flexible Fuel Micro Combined Heat and Power)
Consolidate power generation with hot water and air services Develop a robust and inexpensive disc turbine for power generation Design intuitive turbine controls for optimal waste heat utilization Optimize total system thermal efficiency Create a co-generation system that works with multiple fuel types, is robust, simple, low maintenance, and affordable. An enabling and transition technology for syngas producing systems.

14 Modified Brayton Cycle Gen. Syngas Methane Combustion Chamber
Disc Turbine Comp Gen. This system diagram depicts a modified Brayton cycle developed using a holistic “systems engineering” approach. Focusing on the heating needs of customers as the main driver, with power generation as a byproduct. This approach is unconventional as power generation is typically of primary concern. However, the low cost of a disc type turbine makes this approach economically feasible. Hot Water Hot Air ATM ATM

15 Disk Turbine Components Nozzle Rotor
This really is how simple it is. Rotor Source: Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Ferenc Lezsovits

16 Desired Outcomes Pilot system for Sweet Water by May 2013
Closed loop urban agriculture Synergy of multiple technologies Proof of concept

17 Remember this graphic from a poster presentation at this conference
Remember this graphic from a poster presentation at this conference? If not, make sure to go see the full poster in the exhibit hall.

18 Solar Thermal Biomass Processor
Jeremy R.G. Anderson, Joshua A. Hoverman, and Matthew J. Traum, Ph.D. Engineering A Sustainable Earth Mechanical Engineering Department, Milwaukee School of Engineering Milwaukee, Wisconsin Thank you!

19 Acknowledgements EASE Board of Directors Sigma XI MSOE Research Team
Josh Hoverman Kyle Pace Matt Wesley Thank you!

20 References [1] Steinfeld A, Palumbo R: Solar Thermochemical Process Technology. In: Meyers RA, editor. Encyclopedia of physical science and technology. New York: Academic Press, ISBN , 2001;15:237–56. [2] Carolan J, Joshi S, Dale B: Technical and Financial Feasibility Analysis of Distributed Bioprocessing Using Regional Biomass Pre-Processing Centers. J Agric Food Ind Org 2007, 5:1-29. [3] Gallagher P, Dikeman M, Fritz J, Wailes E, Gauther W, and Shapouri H: Biomass from Crop Residues: Cost and Supply Estimates. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of the Chief Economist, Office of Energy Policy and New Uses. Agricultural Economic Report No. 819 [4] Kellig R, Brenta G, Stephen J, Norman R, Nelsehmann S: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW2251, Australia [5] Prins M, Ptasinski K, Janssen F: Thermodynamics of Gas-Char Reactions: First and Second Law Analysis. Chemical Engineering Science 58 (13-16): [6] Roberts K, Gloy B, Joseph S, Scott N, Lehmann J: Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar Systems: Estimating the Energetic. Economic and Climate Change Potential, Environmental Science and Technology 44, 827–833.

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