# The JetToy Activity.

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The JetToy Activity

In an AWIM Challenge… Learning is viewed as an active process.
Open-ended problems are given to students. Higher-level thinking is encouraged. Students are engaged in experiences that encourage discussion. Students are engaged in dialogue with the teacher and with each other.

The Engineering Design Experience
Set Goals Build Knowledge Design Build and Test Present

Science Inquiry Standards
5-1.1 Identify questions suitable for generating a hypothesis. 5-1.2 Identify independent (manipulated), dependent (responding), and controlled variables in an experiment. 5-1.3 Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations, manipulating one variable at a time. 5-1.4 Use appropriate tools and instruments (including a timing device and a 10x magnifier) safely and accurately when conducting a controlled scientific investigation. 5-1.5 Construct a line graph from recorded data with correct placement of independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables. 5-1.6 Evaluate results of an investigation to formulate a valid conclusion based on evidence and communicate the findings of the evaluation in oral or written form. 5-1.7 Use a simple technological design process to develop a solution or a product, communicating the design by using descriptions, models, and drawings. 5-1.8 Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations.

Forces and Motion Standards
5-5.1 Illustrate the affects of force (including magnetism, gravity, and friction) on motion. 5-5.2 Summarize the motion of an object in terms of position, direction, and speed. 5-5.3 Explain how unbalanced forces affect the rate and direction of motion in objects. 5-5.4 Explain ways to change the effect that friction has on the motion of objects (including changing the texture of the surfaces, changing the amount of surface area involved, and adding lubrication). 5-5.5 Use a graph to illustrate the motion of an object. 5-5.6 Explain how a change of force or a change in mass affects the motion of an object.

Results Anderson One Number of Students Tested
% showing weakness in this standard % that may need more instruction % that show Strength in this standard 2011 Scores 389 13.6 49.1 37.3 2012 Scores 381 14.7 34.4 50.9 Pickens Number of Students Tested % showing weakness in this standard % that may need more instruction % that show Strength in this standard 2011 Scores 315 17.8 37.8 44.4 2012 Scores 407 8.6 41.3 50.1

CCSS Math Practice Standards
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Model with mathematics. Use appropriate tools strategically. Attend to precision. Look for and make use of structure. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

CCSS Math 5.NBT.3 Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.
5.NBT.4. Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place. 5.NBT.7. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. 5.MD.1. Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems.

CCSS ELA Writing Standards (Opinion/Argument)
1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose. b. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. c. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically). d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

CCSS ELA Writing Standards (Informative)
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. a. Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. c. Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially). d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

CCSS ELA Speaking/Listening Standards
1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. c. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others. d. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.

Teacher Manual ( page 129 ) ( page 130 )

Science Notes

Lesson Plans

Introducing the JetToy Challenge
Lesson 1 Introducing the JetToy Challenge (page 139)

Lesson 1 – Introducing the JetToy Challenge
During Class: Explain to students they will engage in a design experience Discuss the Engineering Design Experience Distribute Letter from Earth Toy Designs Read letter aloud with students Check for Understanding What is EarthToy Designs looking for? What requirements does EarthToy Designs have for the toy? Who will use the toy? From what materials will the toy be made? What does the toy have to be able to do? How will we know if the toys we design are successful?

Letter From EarthToy (page 143)
Fictitious toy company, EarthToy Designs Requests that students to design a number of JetToy designs Specific Performance Characteristics

Building and Testing the JetToy Chassis
Lesson 2 Building and Testing the JetToy Chassis (page 145)

JetToy Materials for Lesson 2
Other items for lesson 2: Shoe box for materials Masking tape Scissors Ruler Meter Stick 3 pieces of heavy cardboard Test Areas – 2 meters

Lesson 2 – Building and Testing the JetToy Chassis
During Class: Introduce Student Design Teams Introduce Design Logs Assemble JetToy Chassis

Student Design Teams

Student Design Teams Project Engineer
- helping members understand the team’s task - leading team discussions - checking to see the team’s task is complete

Student Design Teams Project Engineer Facilities Engineer
- collecting materials - directing model construction - directing clean-up - storing materials

Student Design Teams Project Engineer Facilities Engineer
Testing Engineers (2) -conducting formal/informal testing of JetToy -recording and organizing data in the design log

Team Design Log Content Organization Graphs & Tables Specifications
(supplemental handout) Content Organization Graphs & Tables Specifications

Building the JetToy Chassis (page 161)
Reproducible Student Handout Step by step instructions for building the JetToy chassis

JetToy Chassis – Top View
(axle lines on underside of chassis)

Common Student Mistakes
Students sometime confuse lines, Dotted lines = score & fold Solid lines = cut Student should read the directions, not just look at pictures. Take measurements from “zero” not the end of the ruler.

Assembling the Axles and Wheels (page 163)
Reproducible Student Handout Step by step instructions for assembling axles and wheels.

JetToy Chassis – Underside View
Tape Position Wheel & Axle Position (side of chassis)

JetToy Chassis Components

Test the JetToy

Common Student Problems
The wheels may be rubbing against the sides of the body. The wheels’ hubs (the piece in the center) may be sticking against the end of the straw. The axle may be sticking or rubbing excessively inside the straw bearing. The vehicle may not have been set down straight on the ramp. The axles may not be parallel to each other.

Class Discussion What was hard about putting the vehicle together?
What was hard about making it roll straight and smoothly? What problems did you solve in getting your vehicle to roll straight and smoothly?

JetToy Features (page 165)
Assess students’ prior knowledge Each student to complete individually and keep in design log.

Lesson 3 Adding a Balloon Motor

Lesson 3 – Adding a Balloon Motor
Before Class: Prepare space for vehicle testing (Hallway, classroom, science lab, stage, empty classroom, etc)

Lesson 3 – Adding a Balloon Motor
During Class: Present the challenge to students Assemble the balloon motor Mount the balloon motor on the chassis

Constructing the Balloon Motor
Place a piece of plastic tubing inside the opening of a balloon Use a rubber band to secure balloon to tubing

Mounting Options (pages 170 - 171)
Hole or notch in chassis Vertical support Platform

Lesson 3 – Adding a Balloon Motor
During Class: Present the challenge to students (page 169) Assemble the balloon motor (page 170) Mount the balloon motor on the chassis Test the JetToys Modify and Retest (record results) Facilitate Student Exploration Assessment

JetToy Data Conduct Test in designated area
(page 175) Conduct Test in designated area Demonstrate how to measure distance Record results on JetToy Data sheet

Design Team Evaluation
(page 177) Self Assessment Monitor Teamwork Address interpersonal conflicts Demonstrate challenges of teaming in real world situations

Sharing Our First Results
Lesson 4 Sharing Our First Results

Lesson 4 – Sharing Our First Results
Before Class: Prepare chart paper and markers

Sharing Our First Results
Look at Progress • How well did your vehicle roll at the beginning of the ramp test? • How well did your vehicle roll at the end of the balloon test? Look at Data Ask each design team to state the farthest distance its vehicle traveled: • Why are these distance numbers similar or different? Form Hypothesis • What problems arose in getting the vehicle to go straight and far? • What problems were there with the design of the chassis? • What were some of the solutions you tried? • What problems were you not able to solve?

Lesson 4 – Sharing Our First Results
Introduce Science Concepts: Accelerating Forces Air Resistance Friction Inertia

Lesson 5 Revising the Vehicle

Lesson 5 – Revising the Vehicle
Before Class: Have appropriate materials available Prepare space for vehicle testing

Lesson 5 – Revising the Vehicle
Vehicle Performance Goals travels straight can use any of the three nozzles can go at least one meter with each nozzle has a place to hold two stacks of pennies securely is sturdy enough to be used for repeated testing

Lesson 5 – Revising the Vehicle
During Class: Present the challenge Assemble the balloon motors and weights Design and build new features to solve problems

Possible New Features (pages 185 - 186)
fenders holder for balloon nozzle guide

Lesson 5 – Revising the Vehicle
During Class: Present the challenge Assemble the balloon motors and weights Design and build new features to solve problems Test the JetToys

JetToy Data Table 1 (page 189)
Test each new feature separately Test each new feature with the same amount of air Complete every section

Designing Experiments
Lesson 6 Designing Experiments

Variables Nozzle Size Amount of air in balloon Number of weights

JetToy Data Table 2 (page 199)
Test each nozzle with the same amount of air Test each nozzle with and without weight

Lesson 7 Formal Testing (page 203)

Lesson 7 – Formal Testing
Before Class: Have appropriate materials available (page 203) Prepare space for vehicle testing.

Lesson 7 – Formal Testing
During Class: Prepare students and vehicles Inflate balloon to standard size Change nozzle sizes Fasten weight securely Review Testing Process Conduct tests and record results

Testing Process Vehicle handler. Inflates the balloon to the standard size, transfers it to the starting line and releases it when the starter says, “go.” Observer/recorder. Holds the template or string to measure balloon size. Calls “stop” to the timekeeper when the vehicle stops rolling. Records distance traveled and time or relative speed. Starter/timekeeper. Watches the clock and reports time if the team is recording time, checks to see when the testing floor is clear, and says “clear” when it is, then “ready, set, go.”

JetToy Data Table 2 (page 199)
Test each nozzle with the same amount of air Test each nozzle with and without weight Graph results

Reviewing Experimental Data
Lesson 8 Reviewing Experimental Data (page 207)

Distance vs. Weight Carried (student graphs)
What conclusions can you draw? Do the graphs support what you experienced? What new information do you see? How many weights do you think each nozzle can carry? Why? What are the similarities in the graphs? Differences? What relationships do you see in these graphs?

Lesson 8 – Reviewing Experimental Data
During Class: Present the Activity Review student work leading to this point Distance vs. Weight Carried for each nozzle Time vs. Weight Carried for each nozzle

Summary Discussion Where does the force come from that makes the vehicle go? How does size of the nozzle relate to the amount of force? How does size of the nozzle relate to the amount of time the vehicle travels? How does adding weight affect the distance the vehicle travels?

Lesson 9 Designing a JetToy (page 211)

Lesson 9 – Designing a JetToy
During Class: Present the Activity Complete JetToy Design Specifications Assessment Review each team’s Design Specifications: Is it clearly written? Does it include all the required information? Does the design show evidence that the team incorporated the conclusions the class made about the effects of nozzle size and weight on the JetToy’s performance? Do the reasons given in Part C indicate an understanding of the relationship between a JetToy’s characteristics and its performance?

JetToy Olympics Introduce the JetToy Olympics Challenge
Compete in 8 categories: Distance Weight Accuracy Time Artistic Design Design Logs Presentations Design one or more JetToys

JetToy Design Specifications (page 215)
Part A – determine type of JetToy Part B – choose performance targets (based on competition) Part C – reasons for design decisions Complete one for each design choice

Building and Testing a JetToy
Lesson 10 Building and Testing a JetToy (page 217)

Lesson 10 – Building and Testing a JetToy
During Class: Present the Activity Facilitate Student Exploration Prepare for final presentations

JetToy Data Table 3 (page 221)
Students build and test their JetToys for the competition Use Data Table to record tests for each design specification (competition category) Repeat tests until students are satisfied with performance Make modifications as necessary Time Distance Weight

Presentation Planner (page 223)
Clear definition of presentation expectations for students Easy to follow checklist for preparation

JetToy Presentation Rubric (supplemental handout)
Student Presentations should include: an introduction to the JetToy and its function a short summary of the team’s JetToy Design Specifications a discussion of how the team modified its design based on results of testing the prototype a demonstration of the JetToy to show how it meets the performance goals on the team’s JetToy Design Specifications a brief question-and-answer session

Presenting JetToy Designs
Lesson 11 Presenting JetToy Designs (page 229)

Lesson 11 – Presenting the JetToy Designs
During Class: Present the Activity – Student Presentations Share and Interpret Ask follow up questions of each group Assessment

JetToy Presentation Rubric (supplemental handout)
Student Presentations should include: an introduction to the JetToy and its function a short summary of the team’s JetToy Design Specifications a discussion of how the team modified its design based on results of testing the prototype a demonstration of the JetToy to show how it meets the performance goals on the team’s JetToy Design Specifications a brief question-and-answer session

JetToy Presentation Rubric (supplemental handout)
When assessing ask yourself: What are the differences between the initial JetToys the students made and their final designs? How have students used the information they learned in the Build Knowledge phase of the challenge? Are students’ reasons for their design decisions carefully thought through? Do students base their decisions on the results of their experiments? Do students understand the correlations between the features of their JetToy and its performance? Do students understand why their models move in such different ways?

Competitions & Scoring Guidelines

JetToy Olympic Categories
Race Categories Distance Weight Accuracy Time Design Categories Artistic Design Design Log Presentations

Distance

Accuracy

Speed

Time

Artistic Design, Design Logs, Presentations

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