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Colorado Space Grant Consortium Gateway To Space ASEN 1400 / ASTR 2500 Class #23 Gateway To Space ASEN 1400 / ASTR 2500 Class #23 T-18.

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Presentation on theme: "Colorado Space Grant Consortium Gateway To Space ASEN 1400 / ASTR 2500 Class #23 Gateway To Space ASEN 1400 / ASTR 2500 Class #23 T-18."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colorado Space Grant Consortium Gateway To Space ASEN 1400 / ASTR 2500 Class #23 Gateway To Space ASEN 1400 / ASTR 2500 Class #23 T-18

2 -Announcements - Guest Lecture – Spacecraft Propulsion -Launch is in 18 days Today:

3 3 Announcements… Brady’s Talk… - What did you think? HW #8… - Everyone turn it in? Movie Night Tonight… - Show of hands as to who is coming

4 Colorado Space Grant Consortium Next Class… Guest Lecture on Structures + Mission Simulations Next Class… Guest Lecture on Structures + Mission Simulations

5 Colorado Space Grant Consortium Next Class… Guest Lecture on Structures + Mission Simulations Next Class… Guest Lecture on Structures + Mission Simulations

6 6 Mission Simulations… Bring all hardware - Be prepared to give a 60 second into - Be prepared to activate at beginning of class - Be prepared to give a 60 second wrap up at end

7 Colorado Space Grant Consortium Spacecraft Propulsion Steve Hevert Lockheed Martin Spacecraft Propulsion Steve Hevert Lockheed Martin

8 An Introduction to Space Propulsion Stephen Hevert Affiliate Professor Metropolitan State College of Denver Stephen Hevert Affiliate Professor Metropolitan State College of Denver

9 What Is Propulsion? Initiating or changing the motion of a body Translational (linear, moving faster or slower) Rotational (turning about an axis) Space propulsion Rocket launches Controlling satellite motion Maneuvering spacecraft Jet propulsion Using the momentum of ejected mass (propellant) to create a reaction force, inducing motion Initiating or changing the motion of a body Translational (linear, moving faster or slower) Rotational (turning about an axis) Space propulsion Rocket launches Controlling satellite motion Maneuvering spacecraft Jet propulsion Using the momentum of ejected mass (propellant) to create a reaction force, inducing motion At one time it was believed that rockets could not work in a vacuum -- they needed air to push against!!

10 Jet Propulsion Classifications Air-Breathing Systems Also called duct propulsion. Vehicle carries own fuel; surrounding air (an oxidizer) is used for combustion and thrust generation Gas turbine engines on aircraft… Air-Breathing Systems Also called duct propulsion. Vehicle carries own fuel; surrounding air (an oxidizer) is used for combustion and thrust generation Gas turbine engines on aircraft… Rocket Propulsion Vehicle carries own fuel and oxidizer, or other expelled propellant to generate thrust: Can operate outside of the Earth’s atmosphere Launch vehicles, upper stages, Earth orbiting satellites and interplanetary spacecraft … or …or go karts! … a rocket powered scooter!

11 Space Propulsion Classifications Systems that use an expellant (e.g. on-board propellant) Stored Gas or Vapor o Compressed gas o Ammonia o Butane o Nitrous Oxide Chemical o Liquid o Solid o Hybrid Electric o Electrothermal o Electrostatic o Electromagnetic Nuclear o Nuclear thermal o Nuclear electric o Antimatter Solar o Solar thermal o Solar electric Beamed Energy o Laser thermal o Microwave thermal o Microwave electric Systems that do not carry an expellant (extract energy/force from external source) Sails o Solar sails (light or solar wind) o M2P2 (charged particles) Beamed Energy o Laser reflector (light sail) o Microwave (Starwisp) Tethers o Stationary o Rotating o Electrodynamic o Pumped Aero/Gravity Assist o Aero assist o Aero braking o Aero capture o Gravity assist Breakthrough Propulsion Physics o Space drives (warp drives) o Wormholes o Antigravity Interstellar Ramjet o Bussard drive We’ll look at some of these today…

12 Space Propulsion Applications Terrestrial/Atmosphere/ Suborbital Earth to Orbit In-Space Orbit Transfer Earth Orbiting Lunar Missions Interplanetary Missions Interstellar Space Exploration The Future Realm of Existing Technology Launch Vehicles Upper Stages & Satellites blog.wired.com Space Exploration Tactical Missiles Sounding Rockets Ballistic Missiles Star Trek!!

13 Space Propulsion Functions Primary propulsion Launch and ascent Maneuvering Orbit transfer, station keeping, trajectory correction Auxiliary propulsion Attitude control Reaction control Momentum management Primary propulsion Launch and ascent Maneuvering Orbit transfer, station keeping, trajectory correction Auxiliary propulsion Attitude control Reaction control Momentum management

14 A Brief History of Rocketry China (1232 AD) Earliest recorded use of rockets Black powder Russia (early 1900’s) Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Orbital mechanics, rocket equation United States (1920’s) Robert Goddard First liquid fueled rocket (1926) Germany (1940’s) Wernher von Braun V-2 Hermann Oberth Russia (USSR) Phenomenal contributions… Korolev, Glushko, Keldysh China (1232 AD) Earliest recorded use of rockets Black powder Russia (early 1900’s) Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Orbital mechanics, rocket equation United States (1920’s) Robert Goddard First liquid fueled rocket (1926) Germany (1940’s) Wernher von Braun V-2 Hermann Oberth Russia (USSR) Phenomenal contributions… Korolev, Glushko, Keldysh Wan-Hu tried to launch himself to the moon by attaching 47 black powder rockets to a large wicker chair! (…Chinese folk tale) onenew.wordpress.com Prof. Tsiolkovsky Dr. Goddard goddard.littleto npublicschools.net Dr. von Braun

15 Stored Gas Propulsion Primary or auxiliary propulsion High pressure gas (propellant) is fed to low pressure nozzles through pressure regulator Release of gas through nozzles (thrusters) generates thrust Currently used for momentum management of the Spitzer Space telescope Propellants include nitrogen, helium Very simple in concept Primary or auxiliary propulsion High pressure gas (propellant) is fed to low pressure nozzles through pressure regulator Release of gas through nozzles (thrusters) generates thrust Currently used for momentum management of the Spitzer Space telescope Propellants include nitrogen, helium Very simple in concept P Gas Fill Valve Pressure Gage High Pressure Isolation Valve Pressure Regulator Filter Thruster Propellant Tank Low Pressure Isolation Valve

16 Chemical Propulsion Classifications Liquid Propellant Pump Fed Launch vehicles, large upper stages Pressure Fed Smaller upper stages, spacecraft Monopropellant Fuel only Bipropellant Fuel & oxidizer Solid Propellant Launch vehicles, Space Shuttle, spacecraft Fuel/ox in solid binder Hybrid Solid fuel/liquid ox Sounding rockets, X Prize Liquid Propellant Pump Fed Launch vehicles, large upper stages Pressure Fed Smaller upper stages, spacecraft Monopropellant Fuel only Bipropellant Fuel & oxidizer Solid Propellant Launch vehicles, Space Shuttle, spacecraft Fuel/ox in solid binder Hybrid Solid fuel/liquid ox Sounding rockets, X Prize en.wikivisual.com news.bbc.co.uk

17 Monopropellant Systems Hydrazine fuel is most common monopropellant. N 2 H 4 Decomposed in thruster using iridium catalyst to produce hot gas for thrust. Older systems used hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) before the advent of hydrazine catalysts. Typically operate in blowdown mode (pressurant and fuel in common tank). Hydrazine fuel is most common monopropellant. N 2 H 4 Decomposed in thruster using iridium catalyst to produce hot gas for thrust. Older systems used hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) before the advent of hydrazine catalysts. Typically operate in blowdown mode (pressurant and fuel in common tank). P Fuel Fill Valve Pressure Gage Isolation Valve Filter Thrusters Propellant Tank Nitrogen or helium Hydrazine Thrusts of 1 to 400 N (0.2 to 100 lb f ) are common.

18 Monopropellant Systems Northrop Grumman 5 lbf thrusters used on the Compton Space Telescope (Gamma Ray Observatory) 1 lbf thrusters manufactured by Northrop Grumman

19 Bipropellant Systems A fuel and an oxidizer are fed to the engine through an injector and combust in the thrust chamber of the engine Combustion products accelerate in a converging- diverging nozzle Hypergolic: no igniter needed -- propellants react on contact in thrust chamber Cryogenic propellants include LOX (-423 ºF) and LH2 (-297 ºF). Igniter required Storable propellants include kerosene (RP-1), hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide (N 2 O 4 ), monomethylhydrazine (MMH) FUEL OX P P Isolation Valves Engine Thrust Chamber Nozzle

20 Bipropellant Thrusters AMPAC-ISP Astrium 4 N AMPAC-ISP Bipropellant thrusters are used for orbit transfer and for attitude control, with thrusts ranging from 4 to 440 N (1 to 100 lb f )

21 Liquid Propellant Systems Pump fed systems Propellant delivered to engine using turbopump Gas turbine drives centrifugal or axial flow pumps Large, high thrust, long burn systems: launch vehicles, space shuttle Different cycles developed. Photos history.nasa.gov F-1 Engine Turbopump H-1 Engine Turbopump F-1 engine turbopump: 55,000 bhp turbine drive 15,471 gpm (RP-1) 24,811 gpm (LOX) A 35’x15’x4.5’ (ave. depth) backyard pool holds about 18,000 gallons of water. How quickly could the F-1 turbopumps empty it ? Ans: In ~27 seconds!

22 Rocket Engine Power Cycles Gas Generator Cycle Simplest Most common Small amount of fuel and oxidizer fed to gas generator Gas generator combustion products drive turbine Turbine powers fuel and oxidizer pumps Turbine exhaust can be vented through pipe/nozzle, or dumped into nozzle Saturn V F-1 crosslink/winter2004/03_side bar3.html

23 Rocket Engine Power Cycles - cont Expander Fuel is heated by nozzle and thrust chamber to increase energy content Sufficient energy provided to drive turbine Turbine exhaust is fed to injector and burned in thrust chamber Higher performance than gas generator cycle Pratt-Whitney RL-10 crosslink/winter2004/03_sidebar3. html science.nasa.gov

24 Rocket Engine Power Cycles - cont Staged Combustion Fuel and oxidizer burned in preburners (fuel/ox rich) Combustion products drive turbine Turbine exhaust fed to injector at high pressure Used for high pressure engines Most complex, requires sophisticated turbomachinery Not very common, but very high performance SSME (2700 psia) crosslink/winter2004/03_side bar3.html shuttle.msfc.nasa.gov

25 The Big Engines… F-1 Engine Saturn V 1.5 million lbs thrust (SL) LOX/Kerosene Main Engine Space Shuttle 374,000 lbs thrust (SL) LOX/H 2 spaceflight.nasa.gov RD million lbs thrust (SL) LOX/Kerosene

26 Solid Propellant Motors Fuel and oxidizer are in solid binder. Single use -- no restart capability. Lower performance than liquid systems, but much simpler. Applications include launch vehicles, upper stages, and space vehicles. Fuel and oxidizer are in solid binder. Single use -- no restart capability. Lower performance than liquid systems, but much simpler. Applications include launch vehicles, upper stages, and space vehicles.

27 Hybrid Motors Combination liquid-solid propellant Solid fuel Liquid oxidizer Multi-start capability Terminate flow of oxidizer Fuels consist of rubber or plastic base, and are inert. Just about anything that burns… Oxidizers include LO 2, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and nitrous oxide (NO 2 ) Shut-down/restart capability. Combination liquid-solid propellant Solid fuel Liquid oxidizer Multi-start capability Terminate flow of oxidizer Fuels consist of rubber or plastic base, and are inert. Just about anything that burns… Oxidizers include LO 2, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and nitrous oxide (NO 2 ) Shut-down/restart capability. Solid Propellant Oxidizer Tank Ox Control Valve Nozzle

28 Propulsion Calculations Thrust & Specific Impulse Thrust is the amount of force generated by the rocket. Specific impulse is a measure of performance (analogous to miles per gallon) Units are seconds Thrust & Specific Impulse Thrust is the amount of force generated by the rocket. Specific impulse is a measure of performance (analogous to miles per gallon) Units are seconds Rocket Equation Rocket equation assumes no losses (gravity effects, aerodynamic drag). Actually very accurate for short burns in Earth orbit or in deep space!

29 Specific Impulse Comparison Stored gas Monopropellant hydrazine Solid rocket motors Hybrid rockets Storable bipropellants LOX/LH2 Stored gas Monopropellant hydrazine Solid rocket motors Hybrid rockets Storable bipropellants LOX/LH sec sec sec sec sec 450 sec Specific impulse depends on many factors: altitude, nozzle expansion ratio, mixture ratio (bipropellants), combustion temperature, combustion pressure This thruster was used on the Viking Lander. It has a specific impulse of about 225 seconds.

30 Mission Delta-V Requirements Mission (duration)ΔV (km/sec) Earth surface to LEO7.6 LEO to Earth Escape3.2 LEO to Mars (0.7 yrs)5.7 LEO to Neptune (29.9 yrs)13.4 LEO to Neptune (5.0 yrs)70 LEO to Alpha-Centauri (50 yrs)30,000 LEO = Low Earth orbit (approx. 274 km) That’s actually very low….

31 Propellant Calculation Exercise Determine the mass of propellant to send a 2500 kg spacecraft from LEO to Mars (0.7 yr mission). Assume the 2500 kg includes the propellant on-board at the start of the burn. Assume our engine has a specific impulse of 310 sec (typical of a small bipropellant engine). Use the rocket equation: Determine the mass of propellant to send a 2500 kg spacecraft from LEO to Mars (0.7 yr mission). Assume the 2500 kg includes the propellant on-board at the start of the burn. Assume our engine has a specific impulse of 310 sec (typical of a small bipropellant engine). Use the rocket equation: Most of our spacecraft is propellant! Only 383 kg is left for structure, etc! How could we improve this?

32 Electric Propulsion Classifications Electrothermal Electrostatic Electromagnetic Characteristics Very low thrust Very high Isp > 1000 sec Requires large amounts of power (kilowatts) Classifications Electrothermal Electrostatic Electromagnetic Characteristics Very low thrust Very high Isp > 1000 sec Requires large amounts of power (kilowatts) This image of a xenon ion engine, photographed through a port of the vacuum chamber where it was being tested at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, shows the faint blue glow of charged atoms being emitted from the engine. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu

33 Electrothermal Propulsion Electrical power is used to add energy to exhaust products Resistojet Catalytic decomposition of hydrazine is augmented with high power electric heater 800 – 5,000 W Arcjet High voltage arc at nozzle throat adds thermal energy to exhaust Various gaseous or vaporized propellants can be used. rocket.itsc.uah.edu

34 Electrostatic Propulsion Electrostatic forces are used to accelerate charged particles to very high velocities Xenon Ion Thruster Xenon propellant Xenon is ionized by electron bombardment Thermionic cathode Positively charged particles accelerated by grid Electrons routed to second anode and injected into beam to neutralize aerospace.engin.umich.edu ESA’s SMART-1 uses a xenon ion propulsion system (XIPS)

35 Electromagnetic Propulsion Electromagnetic forces are used to accelerate a plasma A gas consisting of positive ions, electrons 5000 – 9000 R Neutral beam is produced Higher thrust per unit area than electrostatic thruster Classifications Magnetoplasmadynamic Pulsed plasma Electric discharge creates plasam from solid Telfon Hall effect Developed in Russia Flew on U.S. STEx mission (1998)

36 Interstellar Missions – The Future The challenges are formidable Immense distances… Alpha Centauri = 4.5 LY (closest interstellar neighbor)  1 LY = 9.46x10 12 km = 5.878x10 12 mi  Universe = ~156 billion LY across Immense size & mass & energy & speeds required… Propulsion systems with dimensions of 1000’s km Power levels 1000’s x greater than Human Civilization now produces ( > 14 TW est.) Speeds ~.4c -.6c (c = speed of light) Trip times… Robotic Rendezvous goals 4.5 LY in < 10 years 40 LY in < 100 years (radius of nearest 1000 stars) Relativistic effects… Because of time dilation and mass increase; length contraction On telecommunications From collisions with interstellar matter The challenges are formidable Immense distances… Alpha Centauri = 4.5 LY (closest interstellar neighbor)  1 LY = 9.46x10 12 km = 5.878x10 12 mi  Universe = ~156 billion LY across Immense size & mass & energy & speeds required… Propulsion systems with dimensions of 1000’s km Power levels 1000’s x greater than Human Civilization now produces ( > 14 TW est.) Speeds ~.4c -.6c (c = speed of light) Trip times… Robotic Rendezvous goals 4.5 LY in < 10 years 40 LY in < 100 years (radius of nearest 1000 stars) Relativistic effects… Because of time dilation and mass increase; length contraction On telecommunications From collisions with interstellar matter

37 Consider the Voyager I Spacecraft… 29 years after launch in 1977: It had travelled ~100 AU Far beyond Pluto ~150 million km 13.9 light-hours from sun Moving at 17.4 km/s 0.006% of the speed of light One of the fastest man-made vehicles It would take another 74,000 years to reach Alpha Centauriat this rate Advanced technologies and breakthroughs will be necessary to reach the stars… 29 years after launch in 1977: It had travelled ~100 AU Far beyond Pluto ~150 million km 13.9 light-hours from sun Moving at 17.4 km/s 0.006% of the speed of light One of the fastest man-made vehicles It would take another 74,000 years to reach Alpha Centauriat this rate Advanced technologies and breakthroughs will be necessary to reach the stars… spacetoday.org Source: Frisbee, R., “Impact of Interstellar Vehicle Acceleration and Cruise Velocity on Total Mission Mass and Trip Time,” AIAA , July 2006

38 Future Propulsion Technologies Interstellar Ramjet Bussard Drive (1960) Electromagnetic scoop gathers interstellar hydrogen for propellant EM “Scoop” is 1000’s of km in size! Beamed Energy Laser Light Sails Driven by massive space- based laser and space- based optics bibliotecapleyades.net daviddarling.info

39 Future Propulsion Technologies- cont Matter-Antimatter Other Space Drive Ideas… Highest energy per unit mass of any reaction known in physics Energy released by annihilation of matter by antimatter counterpart

40 Future Propulsion Technologies- cont Breakthrough Physics Yes, NASA funds research on Wormholes Warp drives bibliotecapleyades.net daviddarling.info When I began my career in the late 1970’s, we’d joke about electric propulsion being the “propulsion of the future…and always will be!” Today it is used on communications satellites and interplanetary spacecraft. What does the future hold for interstellar propulsion? Now it is the “propulsion of the future”... but will it always be? Wormhole: a “shortcut” through the spacetime continuum

41 References Theory and design Sutton, G. P. and Biblarz, O., Rocket Propulsion Elements, 7th ed.,Wiley, 1987 A classic; covers most propulsion technologies Huzel, D.K, and Huang, D. H., Modern Engineering for Design of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines (revised edition), Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics, Vol. 147, American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1992 Dieter Huzel was one of the German engineers who came to the U.S. after WW II. Humble, R. W., et. al., Space Propulsion Design and Anaylsis (revised edition), McGraw-Hill, 1995 Covers chemical (liquid, solid, hybrid), nuclear, electric, and advanced propulsion systems for deep space travel Theory and design Sutton, G. P. and Biblarz, O., Rocket Propulsion Elements, 7th ed.,Wiley, 1987 A classic; covers most propulsion technologies Huzel, D.K, and Huang, D. H., Modern Engineering for Design of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines (revised edition), Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics, Vol. 147, American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1992 Dieter Huzel was one of the German engineers who came to the U.S. after WW II. Humble, R. W., et. al., Space Propulsion Design and Anaylsis (revised edition), McGraw-Hill, 1995 Covers chemical (liquid, solid, hybrid), nuclear, electric, and advanced propulsion systems for deep space travel

42 References - cont Rocket engine history Macinnes, P., Rockets: Sulfur, Sputnik and Scramjets, Allen & Unwin, 2003 Clary, D. A., Rocket Man: Robert H. Goddard and the Birth of the Space Age, Hyperion Special Markets, 2003 Ordway, F. I. and Sharpe, M., The Rocket Team, Apogee Books, 2003 The story of Werner von Braun, the V-2 and the transition of the German engineers to the United States following WW II Sutton, G. P., History of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines, American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006 New, over 800 pages of rocket engine history Rocket engine history Macinnes, P., Rockets: Sulfur, Sputnik and Scramjets, Allen & Unwin, 2003 Clary, D. A., Rocket Man: Robert H. Goddard and the Birth of the Space Age, Hyperion Special Markets, 2003 Ordway, F. I. and Sharpe, M., The Rocket Team, Apogee Books, 2003 The story of Werner von Braun, the V-2 and the transition of the German engineers to the United States following WW II Sutton, G. P., History of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines, American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006 New, over 800 pages of rocket engine history

43 When things go badly…


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