1Intermediate SFFMA Objectives: 24-02.01 – 24-02.11 8Hrs received Pump OperationsIntermediateSFFMA Objectives: –8Hrs received
2SFFMA ObjectivesTrainee shall identify the type, design, operation, nozzle pressure and flow in GPM of various types of nozzles.Trainee shall list the different types of fire streams.Trainee, given a 2½ inch straight stream nozzle, shall demonstrate the proper opening and closing techniques and line movement procedures.Trainee shall calculate nozzle reaction for various nozzle pressures.Trainee, given the proper information, shall list advantages and disadvantages of various nozzles:A. straight streamB. fogC. master streamTrainee shall define water hammer and list ways of preventing water hammer.Trainee shall calculate the water flow rate needed to control fire in a room that is 20'x20'x 8'.Trainee, given a diagram of various nozzles, shall list major parts and trace flow routes through each.Trainee shall list factors that influence fire steams.Trainee shall list the proper procedures for inspection and maintenance of fire fighting nozzles.Trainee shall demonstrate the operations of the pumper pressure relief system and/or pressure control valve as follows:A. Trainee, given a pump panel, shall identify a pressure relief system.B. Trainee shall list the reasons a pressure relief system is used.C. Trainee shall list the different types of pressure relief systems used in the fire service.D. Trainee shall list three (3) reasons of how excessive pressure develops in fire hose.
3NOZZLE REACTIONCounterforce directed against a person holding a nozzle or a device holding a nozzle by the velocity of water being discharged.Measured in poundsNozzle reaction formulas NR= 1.57·d²·NP and NR= ·Q·NP
4Fire Stream Classifications Low-volume streamHandline streamMaster streamFirefighter I
5Fire Stream Considerations Volume discharged determined by design of nozzle, pressure at nozzleTo be effective, stream must deliver volume of water sufficient to absorb heat faster than it is being generated(Continued)Firefighter I
6Fire Stream Considerations Type of fire stream indicates specific pattern/shape of water streamRequirements of effective streamsRequirements of all streamsFirefighter I
7Solid Stream Produced from fixed orifice, solid-bore nozzle Has ability to reach areas others might not; reach affected by several factorsDesign capabilities(Continued)Firefighter I
8Solid Stream Velocity of stream a result of nozzle pressure Nozzle pressure, size of discharge opening determine flowCharacteristics of effective fire streamsFlow rateFirefighter I
9Advantages of Solid Streams May maintain better interior visibility than othersMay have greater reach than othersOperate at reduced nozzle pressures per gallon (liter) than othersMay be easier to maneuver(Continued)Firefighter I
10Advantages of Solid Streams Have greater penetration powerLess likely to disturb normal thermal layering of heat, gases during interior structural attacksLess prone to clogging with debris(Continued)Firefighter I
11Advantages of Solid Streams Produce less steam conversion than fog nozzlesCan be used to apply compressed-air foamFirefighter I
12Disadvantages of Solid Streams Do not allow for different stream pattern selectionsProvide less heat absorption per gallon (liter) delivered than othersHoselines more easily kinked at corners, obstructionsFirefighter I
13DISCUSSION QUESTIONWhat type of fire situation would be ideal for a solid-stream nozzle?Firefighter I
14Fog Stream Fine spray composed of tiny water droplets Design of most fog nozzles permits adjustment of tip to produce different stream patterns(Continued)Firefighter I
15Fog StreamWater droplets formed to expose maximum water surface for heat absorptionDesired performance of fog stream nozzles judged by amount of heat that fog stream absorbs and rate by which the water is converted into steam/vapor(Continued)Firefighter I
16Fog StreamNozzles permit settings of straight stream, narrow-angle fog, and wide-angle fogNozzles should be operated at designed nozzle pressure(Continued)Firefighter I
17Fog Stream Several factors affect reach of fog stream Interaction of these factors on fog stream results in fire stream with less reach than that of straight or solid stream(Continued)Firefighter I
18Fog StreamShorter reach makes fog streams less useful for outside, defensive fire fighting operationsWell suited for fighting interior firesFirefighter I
19Fog Stream: Waterflow Adjustment Two types of nozzles control rate of water flow through fog nozzleManually adjustable nozzlesAutomatic nozzlesFirefighter I
20DISCUSSION QUESTIONHow should adjustments to the rate of flow be made?Firefighter I
21Fog Stream: Nozzle Pressure Combination nozzles designed to operate at different pressuresDesignated operating pressure for most combination nozzles is 100 psi (700 kPa)(Continued)Firefighter I
22Fog Stream: Nozzle Pressure Nozzles with other designated operating pressures availableSetbacks of nozzles with lower operating pressuresCourtesy of Elkhart Brass Manufacturing Company.Firefighter I
23Advantages of Fog Streams Discharge pattern can be adjusted for situationCan aid ventilationReduce heat by exposing maximum water surface for heat absorptionWide fog pattern provides protection to firefightersFirefighter I
24DISCUSSION QUESTIONWhat type of fire situation would be ideal for a fog-stream nozzle?Firefighter I
25Disadvantages of Fog Streams Do not have as much reach/penetrating power as solid streamsMore affected by wind than solid streamsMay disturb thermal layeringMay push air into fire area, intensifying the fireFirefighter I
26Water HammerWater moving through a pipe or hose has both weight and velocity. The weight of water increases as the pipe or hose size increases. Suddenly stopping water moving through a hose or pipe results in an energy surge being transmitted in the opposite direction, often at many times the original pressure. This surge is called Water Hammer200 PSI x 7 = 1400 PSI or 1400 pounds of pressures returning, finding the weakest spot in the system and breaking it.This could be the pump, hose, nozzle, pump piping, supply line, or water main.
27WATER HAMMERForce created by the rapid acceleration or deceleration of water. It generally results from closing a valve or nozzle too quickly.Can be up to seven (7) times the original pressure.
28[Tell any water hammer stories if you have them.]
29GAUGES Master Intake gauge (Compound) Master Discharge gauge Discharge gauge (individual gauges)Oil PressureVoltmeterTachometer (engine RPM)Pump overheat indicatorEngine coolant temperature gaugeThe master intake and discharge gauges are the two primary gauges used to determine the water pressure entering and leaving the pump.
30Master Intake Gauge Measures positive or negative pressure Calibrated from 0 to 600 PSI (usually) for positive and from 0 to 30 inches of vacuum for negative pressureProvides indication of residual pressure from a hydrant or relay operationProvides indication of maximum capacity of pump when at draftCommonly referred to as compound or vacuum gaugeUsually calibrated from PSI positive pressure and 0-30 inches of vacuum on the negative sideObtain residual pressure with this gauge
32Master Discharge Gauge Measures positive pressureCalibrated from 0 to 600 PSIUp to 1000 PSI on special pumpersMeasures pressure as it leaves the pump and before it gets to the individual gaugesAlways reads the highest pressure the pump is producingMay differ from individual gauge in relation to PSI, individual more reliable for specific line
34Discharge GaugeIndividual gauges measure the pressure for each individual discharge.Use these gauges not the master discharge gauge when flowing any line.
35Oil Pressure Gauge Measures oil pressure of the motor. Normal operating pressures vary with different brands of apparatus.Variations from normal may indicate pending problems.Shows that an adequate supply of oil is being delivered to the critical areas of the engineIt is not a measure of the oil in the crankcase
36VoltmeterProvides a relative indication of battery condition and alternator output by measuring the drop in voltage as some of the more demanding electrical accessories are used.Indicates the top voltage available when the battery is fully charged.Measures drop when electrical demand is high.
37Tachometer Records the engine speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) It can give valuable information about the condition of the pump.May refer to the acceptance test rating panel to check on pump efficiency (identification plate on the pump panel)
38Pump Overheat Indicator Audible or visual indicator* Overheating occurs when the pump impeller is spinning, for prolonged periods, but no water is being dischargedWarning indicators can be flashing lights or an audible alarm. Not standard equipment, must be ordered for pump panel.New Houston Fire Department E-1 pumpers have a TRV or Temperature Relief Valve. This valve is a “gel” type. When the gel heats to 120ºF the valve opens slowly and lets out a stream of water underneath the pumper. This assists in keeping the pump from overheating, but does not eliminate it from occurring. The gel keeps the valve from opening and closing quickly.The operator of the pump must discharge or flow water constantly to keep the pump from overheating and damaging the fire pump.
39Pump Overheat Best place to check for overheat is right here Best way to never overheat the pump is to always be moving water.Place your hand on the large intake pipe. If it is warm or not cool to the touch, then the pump is too HOT! Discharging water is the only way to cool it down. Open the tank fill valve or open a discharge and flow water on the ground.
40Engine Coolant Engine coolant temperature gauge Shows the temperature of the engine coolant - the normal operating range of the Detroit Diesel Series 60 Engine is between 192° - 205° FahrenheitCaution: An engine that operates too cool is not efficient. An engine that has an operating temperature that is too high may be damaged.
41Cavitation Firefighters definition: Cavitation: Water is discharged from the pump faster than it is coming in.Cavitation:A condition in which vacuum pockets form in the pump and causes vibrations, loss of efficiency, and possible damage.
42Cavitation During Cavitation: The pressure at the eye of the impeller falls below normal atmospheric pressure.The water boils faster at temperatures less than normal atmospheric pressure.Steam and air bubbles are created.The air bubbles move outward in the impeller and into the high-pressure zone.The air bubbles collapse, producing noise and vibration.Cavitation has a cumulative effect. Cavitation of the pump each time it is used it will eventually eat away, or destroy the pump impeller.
43Cavitation To Avoid Cavitation: Intake pressure from pressurized sources should not drop below 20 psi.Cavitation can be recognized by the fact that increasing the engine rpm does not result in an increase in discharge pressure.
44PRESSURE RELIEF SYSTEMS Intake Pressure Relief ValvesPressure Relief ValvesPressure Governors
45Intake Pressure Relief Valves Piston intake relief valves decrease the potential for a water hammer.Two types of pressure relief devices:Piston intake relief valveDump valve (on pump)Should be 100 PSICan be set from 50 to 175 PSITwo types of piston intakesHarrington uses set screw to adjust setting (Allen wrench is needed) and has a chart (on the intake) to refer to when setting relief pressure.Elkhart uses 7/8 adjustment bolt to adjust setting and has to be adjusted while under pressure.
46Intake relief valves-dump valves Relieves pressure from incoming supply lines, before it goes into the pump.
48Pressure Relief Valves Pressure relief valves must be set while pumping the desired pressure with water flowing.Must be set at highest pressure necessary (gate back other lines).Pressure relief valves do not provide cavitation protection.
49Pressure Relief Valves They prevent an excessive amount of pressure being transferred to another line.Engine rpm will not fluctuate as lines are opened or closed.Pressure Relief Valves divert water internally.PRVs send water and the excess pressure from the discharge side back to the intake side.PRVs do not respond rapidly. They may take several seconds to react.
51Manual Throttle Operated via a cable to the fuel system. CCW to increase and CW to decrease speed.Red button in center is the Emergency Shut-Down.Do not use the Emergency button for routine shut downs, as it may break the cable or pump parts.Manual back-up throttles generally are of this type.
52Pressure GovernorsPressure governors regulate engine pressure by adjusting engine rpm to compensate for attack lines being opened or shut.This prevents an excessive amount of pressure being transferred to another line.Engine rpm will fluctuate as lines are opened or closed.PGs can respond rapidly to pressure changes.
53Pressure GovernorsPressure governors must be set while pumping the desired pressure.Must be set at highest pressure necessary (gate back other lines)Pressure governors provide cavitation protection.If the pressure governor senses an increase in rpm without a corresponding increase in pressure, the engine will return to idle after 3-5 seconds.
56Electronic Pressure Governor Detroit Diesel Fire commanderOn all E-One Fire Apparatus
57Practical Exercise Firefighter shall: Identify the type, design, operation, nozzle pressure and flow in GPM of various types of nozzlesFogStraight StreamMaster StreamGiven a 2 ½’’ straight stream nozzle, shall demonstrate the proper opening and closing and line movement procedures