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1 Herbicide Drift Management John Boyd University of Arkansas.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Herbicide Drift Management John Boyd University of Arkansas."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Herbicide Drift Management John Boyd University of Arkansas

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4 3 Movement of spray particles and/or vapors off- target. What is drift?

5 4 Types of Drift Vapor Drift Vapor Drift - associated with volatilization, gases and fumes. Particle Drift Particle Drift - movement of spray particles.

6 5 Misapplication Facts 2% 8% 24% 33% Equipment Drift Tank Mix Wrong Field Off Label Source: Farmland Insurance 1996

7 6 Contributions to Drift

8 7 Factors Affecting Drift Spray CharacteristicsEquipment & Application HerbicideNozzle type FormulationNozzle size AdditivesNozzle orientation Drop sizeNozzle pressure EvaporationHeight of release

9 8 Weather & other Factors Affecting Drift  Temperature & humidity  Wind (direction and velocity)  Air stability/inversions  Topography

10 9 Drift Potential Depends on  The percentage of small droplets in the droplet size range.  Droplet size is measured in microns.  The key factor is the percentage of the spray droplets less than 200 microns in diameter.

11 10 Droplet Size  Spray drift droplets are measured in microns and expressed as Volume Median Diameter or VMD  One micron = 1/25,000 th inch

12 11 Comparison of Micron Sizes 100 micronsHuman hair 150 micronsSewing thread 300 micronsToothbrush bristle 420 micronsStaple 850 micronsPaper clip 2000 microns#2 Pencil lead

13 12 1/2 of spray volume = larger droplets VMD 1/2 of spray volume = smaller droplets

14 13 Cutting Droplet Size in Half Results in Eight Times the Number of Droplets = = 2 more droplets fill in the sphere 500 Microns 500 Microns 250 Microns

15 14 Important Droplet Statistics: Operational Area

16 15 Evaporation and Deceleration of Various Size Droplets* Droplet Diameter (microns) Terminal Velocity (ft/sec) Final Drop diameter (microns) Time to evaporate (sec) Deceleration distance (in) < *Conditions assumed: 90 F, 36% R.H., 25 psi., 3.75% pesticide solution

17 16 SizeVery Fine MediumCoarseVery Coarse Dv0.1<55* >225 Dv0.5< >464 Dv0.9< >789 %< <2.9 *Numbers listed are in Microns Nozzle Drop Size Classification British Crop Protection Council (BCPC)

18 17 Drop Size Classification & Use  Very Fine  Fine  Medium  Coarse  Very Coarse  <119  m   m   m   m  >464  m Insecticides and Fungicides Herbicides and Postemergence Soil Applications of Herbicides

19 18 Software for estimating droplet size distribution is available on the web.

20 Evaporation of Droplets Wind High Relative Humidity Low Temperature Low Relative Humidity High Temperature Fall Distance

21 20 Wind Do not spray at any wind speed if it is blowing towards sensitive areas - all nozzles can drift. Spray when breeze is gentle, steady, and blowing away from sensitive areas. Spraying in dead calm conditions is never recommended.

22 21 Drift Potential May be High at Low Wind Speeds  Because:  Light winds (0-3 mph) tend to be unpredictable and variable in direction.  Calm and low wind conditions may indicate presence of a temperature inversion.  Drift potential is lowest at wind speeds between 3 and 10 mph (gentle but steady breeze) blowing in a safe direction.

23 22 Conditions  Where are what are the adjacent crops?  Are there houses, a town or other sensitive areas near the site?

24 23 Buffer Zone  A buffer zone means an area where pesticide is not directly applied thereby providing protection to a defined area.  Buffer zones may depend on:  state regulations  pesticide product labels  prevailing weather conditions  sensitive/protected area(s)

25 24 Product Selection  You may have several options on products.  Understand the product chemistry!  Consider the effect this product may have on homes and gardens near the application site.  Consider environmental and wildlife safety.

26 25 Equipment Selection and Setup  Select equipment to produce the largest droplet size possible and still provide adequate coverage.  Be aware that some products require relatively smaller droplets to ensure good coverage.

27 26 When Planning a Spray Application  Allow enough time for planning and executing the operation. Including weather and equipment delays.  Do not fall into the trap of declaring “I need to spray right now!”. Forcing a job under poor conditions almost always leads to drift or other errors.

28 27 Wind Direction Wind direction is very important Know the location of sensitive areas - consider safe buffer zones. Do not spray at any wind speed if it is blowing towards sensitive areas - all nozzles can drift. Spray when breeze is gentle, steady, and blowing away from sensitive areas. “Dead calm” conditions are never recommended.

29 28 Because: Light winds (0-3 mph) tend to be unpredictable and variable in direction. Calm and low wind conditions may indicate presence of a temperature inversion. Drift potential is lowest at wind speeds between 3 and 10 mph (gentle but steady breeze) blowing in a safe direction. However, Drift Potential May be High at Low Wind Speeds

30 Spray Droplet Movement with Various Wind Speeds

31 30 NameFeaturesCost* DwyerFloating Ball15.50 Wind WizardMechanical39.50 Turbo MeterWind speed - knots, feet/min, meters/sec, mph Kestrel 1000Maximum, average, current wind speed - knots, feet/min, meters/sec, mph Kestrel 2000Maximum, average, current wind speed, temp, wind chill- knots, feet/min, meters/sec, mph Kestrel 3000All wind speed features plus temp, wind chill, dew point, heat index, relative humidity Plastimo Iris 50**Compass89.00 Wind Meters and Compass *Prices for Wind Meters taken from Gempler’s 2000 Master Catalog **Plastimo Airguide Inc., 1110 Lake Cook Road, Buffalo Grove, IL 60089( )

32 31 Recognizing Inversions: Under clear to partly cloudy skies and light winds, a surface inversion can form as the sun sets. Under these conditions, a surface inversion will continue into the morning until the sun begins to heat the ground.

33 32 Precautions for Inversions Surface inversions are common. Be especially careful near sunset and an hour or so after sunrise, unless… There is low heavy cloud cover The wind speed is greater than 5-6 mph at ground level 5 degree temp rise after sun-up Use of a smoke bomb or smoke generator is recommended to identify inversion conditions.

34 33 Nozzles are important Control the amount – GPA. Determine uniformity of application. Affects the coverage. Influences the drift potential.

35 34 Spray Characteristics are Important to Understand Demonstrates Turbo Flat vs TurboDrop-5 MPH Wind

36 35 XR 40, 80 PSI Turbodrop 40, 80 PSI Boom Drift

37 36 Strategies to Reduce Drift  Increased drop size.  Higher application volumes.  Lower pressure.  Avoid adverse weather conditions.

38 37 Strategies to Reduce Drift  Buffer zones.  Drift reduction nozzles  Drift reduction additives Consider using new technologies: drift reduction nozzles


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