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Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 1 Biodiesel as a Vehicle Fuel.

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Presentation on theme: "Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 1 Biodiesel as a Vehicle Fuel."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 1 Biodiesel as a Vehicle Fuel

2 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 2 Drivers Need  Introduction to biodiesel  Why biodiesel as a vehicle fuel  Properties and characteristics of biodiesel  Biodiesel fueling station safety practices  Fire extinguishing equipment  Emergency procedures  Safe vehicle fueling procedures

3 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 3 Module 1 IntroductiontoBiodiesel

4 4 Module 1 Learning Objectives  What is biodiesel?  Why biodiesel as a vehicle fuel?  Biodiesel performance characteristics

5 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 5 What is Biodiesel?  General Definition Biodiesel (B100) is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines derived from natural oils, such as soybean oil, that meets the specifications of American Society of Testing & Materials (ASTM) D  Additional Information Biodiesel (B100) can be blended in concentrations of up to 20% with petroleum-based diesel fuel and used in existing diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel (B100) is not raw vegetable oil. Courtesy National Biodiesel Board

6 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 6 Little Known Fact Rudolph Diesel designed the diesel engine in 1894 to run on peanut oil “The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. But such oils may become in the course of time as important as petroleum and the coal tar products of the present time.” –1912 Courtesy National Biodiesel Board

7 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 7 Why Biodiesel? Courtesy National Biodiesel Board Emission TypeB100B20B2 Total Unburned Hydrocarbons-67%-20%-2.2% Carbon Monoxide-48%-12%-1.3% Particulate Matter-47%-12%-1.3% Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X )+10%+2%+.2% Reduced Emissions

8 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 8 Why Biodiesel? - 2  Biodiesel is non-toxic  Biodiesel does not contaminate ground water or soil  Most commonly used as B20 – 20% biodiesel & 80% diesel blend  Can be used in lower percentage blends (e.g., B5, B10)

9 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 9 Why Biodiesel? - 3 Biodiesel (B100) is an EPAct Designated Alternative Fuel  450 gallons B100 = 1 vehicle credit  Must be used in blends of at least 20% biodiesel to get credit  Can be used to meet up to 50% of a fleet’s EPAct requirement  Can not be banked or traded

10 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 10 Biodiesel Economics - 1  Fleet fuel costs typically “a penny a point” or more over diesel  New fueling station costs same as diesel  Retrofit existing diesel station at minimal cost

11 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 11 Biodiesel Economics – 2  No vehicle price premium – standard diesel vehicles  Little or no vehicle modification necessary – Many vehicles produced since 1994 are B20 compatible – Most manufacturers endorse B5 blends, higher blends “use at own risk”

12 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 12 Biodiesel Performance  Startup, range, cold weather performance similar to petroleum diesel  Fuel consumption, horsepower, torque, haulage rates similar to petroleum diesel Courtesy National Biodiesel Board

13 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 13 Biodiesel Performance - 2  High Lubricity – 2% biodiesel improves fuel lubricity by up to 66% – Protects, extends engine  High Flash Point – 260ºF vs. 125ºF diesel – Safest fuel to use, handle, and store Courtesy National Biodiesel Board

14 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 14 Biodiesel Performance - 3  Operates in conventional diesel engines and fuel injection equipment  Cold Flow – For B2-B20 use same precautions as #2 petroleum diesel – No special storage required Courtesy National Biodiesel Board

15 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 15 Module 2 PropertiesandCharacteristics of Biodiesel

16 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 16 Module 2 Learning Objectives  Understand biodiesel and how it compares to other fuels  Become familiar with biodiesel characteristics

17 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 17 Biodiesel Production - 1  Refined from – New vegetable oils U.S. – Soybeans Europe – Rapeseed (Canola) oil – Yellow grease Recycled cooking oil

18 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 18 Biodiesel Production - 2  Chemical process called “transesterification”  Result: Methyl esters and glycerin Courtesy National Biodiesel Board

19 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 19 Fuel Quality  Standard for B100 is as a mixing fuel – ASTM D6751  Standard for B20 under development

20 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 20 Appearance & Smell  Transparent, usually yellow color  Smell – Fuel is odorless – After burning, pleasing aroma, often smells like French fries

21 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 21 Compared to Other Fuels Biodiesel (Palmitic) C 15 H 31 CO 2 CH 3 Gasoline C 8 H 30 Diesel C 14 H 30 Methanol CH 3 OH Ethanol CH 3 CH 2 OH Natural Gas CH 4 Propane C3H8C3H8

22 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 22 Fuel Value  Cetane – Typical B20: 50 – #2 diesel:40-45 – #1 diesel:48-52

23 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 23 Flammability  Flash point – B100 (soybean):425° F – B20:245° F – Typical #2 diesel:160° F

24 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 24 Flammability - 2  B20 flammability limits (by vol in air) – Lower flammability limit – 0.6% – Upper Flammability limit – 7.5%  Diesel flammability limits – Lower Flammability Limit - 0.3% – Upper Flammability Limit - 10%

25 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 25 Module 3 Biodiesel Fueling Stations

26 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 26 Module 3 Learning Objectives  Understand similarity to normal diesel fueling  Become familiar with fueling components

27 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 27 Fueling Station Components  Biodiesel fueling equipment is similar to conventional diesel fueling equipment source: Deer Valley School District

28 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 28 Fueling Station Components - 2  Biodiesel storage Courtesy of the National Biodiesel Board

29 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 29 Fueling Station Components - 3  Dispenser(s)

30 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 30 Module 4 Emergency Action Plan And Safety Practices

31 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 31 Module 4 Learning Objectives  Know purpose and content of Emergency Action Plan  Become knowledgeable about safety practices  Understand emergency actions

32 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 32 Purpose of Emergency Action Plan  Identification of emergencies  Action items  Notification procedures  Evacuation procedures  Safety systems  Emergency event action items

33 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 33 Facility Layout Plan  May exist for private stations  Designates important information such as: – Biodiesel storage tank location – Emergency shutdown device (ESD) – Fire extinguisher location – Pre-planned evacuation route – Designated assembly area – Street address of facility

34 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 34 Safety Practices  Same as diesel fuel  Emergency telephone numbers – Fire department – Emergency medical help – Police – Maintenance – Adjoining facilities  Safety Signs

35 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 35 Safety Practices – 2  Equipment condition and inspection – Before using, inspect Dispenser hoses Fueling nozzle and vehicle fuel receptacle – Do not use defective equipment – Report defective equipment to station maintenance technician or attendent

36 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 36 Safety Practices – 3  Turn off the vehicle during fueling  Turn off/do not use cell phone in fueling station  Do not re-enter vehicle during fueling  Keep ignition sources away from biodiesel  Do not light matches or smoke cigarettes

37 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 37 Fire Involving Biodiesel  Do not attempt to remove nozzle from vehicle  Evacuate immediate area of fire  Trigger ESD button  Contact fire department

38 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 38 Combustible Debris Fire  Press ESD button  Extinguish only if trained and it is safe to do so  Near fueling equipment, extinguishing a fire should be attempted only by qualified fire fighters

39 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 39 Module 5 Correct Use of Safety Equipment

40 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 40 Module 5 Learning Objectives  Understand purpose and function of fueling station safety equipment – Fire extinguisher – Emergency shutdown device

41 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 41 Correct Use of Safety Equipment  Fire Extinguisher – Media Dry chemical Foam Carbon dioxide – Water fog may be used to cool exposed containers and equipment

42 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 42 Correct Use of Safety Equipment - 3  Emergency shutdown system – Same system as a diesel fueling facility – Emergency shutdown device location

43 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 43 Module 5 BiodieselFuelingProcedures

44 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 44 Biodiesel Fueling  Receptacle – Remove receptacle cap  Dispenser – Authorize fuel sale – Remove nozzle  Nozzle – Insert nozzle into fuel tank – Initiate fueling

45 Developed for DOE by AFV Institute 45 Biodiesel Fueling - 2  Nozzle – End fueling  Dispenser – Replace nozzle on dispenser  Receptacle – Replace receptacle cap


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