# Exploring Space Chapter 22 Glencoe

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Exploring Space Chapter 22 Glencoe
P. Lobosco

Journal Entry How did we get this picture of a galaxy ?

Section 1 Radiation from Space
Objectives: Discuss the electromagnetic spectrum Identify the differences between refracting and reflecting telescopes Analyze the differences between op0tical and radio telescopes

Electromagnetic Waves
The light and other energy leaving a star are forms of radiation. Radiation is energy that transmitted form one place to another by electromagnetic waves. It can travel through both matter and space. It has both magnetic and electrical properties.

Sound waves can’t travel through space. When an astronaut speaks from space, the mechanical sound waves are converted to electromagnetic waves and travel to Earth where they are converted back.

Radio waves and visible light from the Sun are two types of electromagnetic radiation. Other types include gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet waves, infrared waves and microwaves. They all differ in their frequencies. This arrangement is called the electromagnetic spectrum.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Speed of Light Although the various electromagnetic waves differ in frequency, they all travel at 300,000 km/s in a vacuum. This is called the speed of light. Radiation from stars in the universe can take millions of years to reach the Earth. When the radiation reaches Earth, scientists use it to learn about the star it came from.

Telescopes One tool used to study the electromagnetic radiation is a telescope. Optical telescopes use light, a type of electromagnetic radiation, to produce magnified images of objects.

Optical Telescopes The optical was the first used by astronomers.
The two types of optical telescopes are refracting and reflecting. The refracting telescope uses a series of lenses. (Yerkes – 40 inches) The reflecting telescope uses a series of mirrors. (Mount Palomar – 200 inches)

Reflecting Telescopes
A reflecting telescope uses a curved mirror to direct light. Light from the object passes through the open end of the telescope and strikes a concave mirror. The light is reflected off this mirror to a focal point where it makes an image.

Journal Entry #47 What observations did Galileo make with his telescope? Why were these discoveries so important?

Galileo’s Obeservations
Craters on the moon Some of Jupiter’s moons Phases of Venus Sunspots on the sun Rings of Saturn

Refracting Telescopes
A refracting telescope uses convex lenses, which are curved outward like the surface of a ball. Light passes through a convex objective lens and is bent to form an image at the focal point. The eyepiece magnifies the image.

Using Optical Telescopes
Most optical telescopes are housed in buildings called observatories. They often have dome-shaped roofs that can be opened for viewing.

The Hubble Space Telescope
The Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990 by the space shuttle Discovery. After it was placed in space, they discovered the reflecting telescope was not shaped correctly.

Repair of the Hubble In 1993 a team of astronauts repaired the Hubble by installing a set of small mirrors designed to correct the images obtained by the faulty mirror. It was serviced again in 1997 and 1999.

Large Reflecting Telescopes
The twin Keck reflecting telescopes have segmented mirrors 10 m wide. In 2000, the largest reflecting telescope, the European Southern Observatory in Chile was built.

Active and Adaptive Optics
With active optics, a computer corrects for changes in temperature, mirror distortions, and bad viewing conditions. Adaptive optics use a laser to probe the atmosphere and relay information to a computer about air turbulence. The computer then adjusts the telescope’s mirror to lessen the effect of air turbulence.

Radio Telescopes In most radio telescopes a curved metal dish gathers and focuses radio waves onto an antenna. The signal picked up is fed into a computer and an image is produced.

Infrared and Ultraviolet Telescopes
Stars are the only objects in space that give off visible light. All objects give off infrared or heat energy. Infrared telescopes must be carried out into space. IN 1983, IRAS was the first infrared telescope. Ultraviolet lights do not pass easily into Earth’s atmosphere.

X-Ray Telescopes X-rays are another of electromagnetic radiation given off by stars. Of all the forms of light in the electromagnetic spectrum, X-rays are the least able to pass through the Earth’s atmosphere. X-ray telescopes must be sent into orbit above the Earth. (Uhuru, 1970)

Space Telescopes The most famous space telescope is the Hubble.
It also houses several other kinds of telescopes. In 1991, Hubble discovered the beginning of a new solar system, Beta Pictoris.

Journal Entry How does a rocket move?

Early Space Missions Section 2
Objectives: Compare and contrast natural and artificial satellites. Identify the differences between artificial satellites and space probes. Explain the history of the race to the moon.

Konstantin Tsoilkovsky
Konstantin Tsoilkovsky is the father of rocketry.

Robert Goddard Robert Goddard built the first liquid propellant rocket.

Escape Velocity To break free of the Earth’s gravity and enter orbit around the Earth, spacecraft must travel at speeds greater than 11 km/s. This is known as escape velocity.

Rockets Rockets are engines that have everything they need for the burning of fuel. They do not require air to carry out the process so they can work in space.

Theory of Rocketry The Theory of Rocketry is based on Newton’s Third Law of Motion: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Movement in Space A spaceship will continue to move once in space without fuel because there is no external force, such as gravity or friction, being applied to the spaceship. This is Newton’s First Law of Motion: An object in motion will continue in motion unless an external force is applied.

Rocket The simplest rocket is made of a burning chamber and nozzle.
More complex rockets have more than one burning chamber.

Rocket Types There are two types of rockets. They use different fuels.
One type is the liquid-propellant rocket. The other is a solid-propellant rocket. Liquid propellants are better for space travel because they can be shut down after they are ignited and restarted. Solid-propellants cannot.

Solid-Propellant Rocket Launching
Solid propellant rockets use a rubberlike fuel that contains its own oxidizer. The burning chamber of a rocket is a tube that has a nozzle at one end. As the solid-propellant burns, hot gases exert pressure on all inner surfaces of the tube. The tube pushes back on the gas except at the nozzle where gases escape. Thrust builds up and the rocket move forward.

Liquid-Propellant Rockets
Liquid-propellant rockets use a liquid fuel and an oxidizer, such as liquid oxygen, stored in separate tanks. To ignite the rocket, the oxidizer is mixed with the liquid fuel in the burning chamber. As the mixture burns, forces are exerted and the rocket is pushed forward.

Space Shuttle The space shuttle uses both solid and liquid propellants.

Journal Entry What is the difference between a space probe and a satellite?

Satellites A satellite is any object that revolves around another object. Artificial satellites are manmade. The moon is an example of a natural satellite.

Orbit An object in space will travel in a straight line.
Earth’s gravity pulls a satellite. toward the Earth. The result of traveling forward while at the same time being pulled toward earth is a curved path, an orbit.

Orbit The period of the orbit is the length of time it takes for the satellite to revolve around the earth. The distance between the Earth’s surface and a satellite’s orbit is called orbital altitude. The payload is the amount of mass of the satellite that it carries.

Journal Entry What caused the space race of the ’s?

Space Race The space race began in when the former Soviet Union used a rocket to send a satellite into space. It orbited 560 miles above the earth. It had a diameter of 22 inches and weighed 184 pounds.

Sputnik Sputnik I was an experiment to show that artificial satellites could be made and placed into orbit around the Earth. Sputnik orbited Earth for 57 days before gravity pulled it back and it burned up.

Space Race The space race began when the Soviet Union placed Sputnik into orbit. The U.S. and the Soviet Union were not on friendly terms in the 1950’s and early 1960’s. If the USSR could place a satellite into orbit, they would be able to bomb the United States.

Space Race At first the Soviet Union was ahead of the United States in space exploration, but the United States would be the first and only country ( to this day) to place humans on the moon. There were six manned Apollo flights that landed men (12 total) on the moon.

Laika, First Dog in Space
Laika (Russian: Лайка, literally meaning "Barker"; c – November 3, 1957) was a Soviet space dog that became the first animal to orbit the Earth and the first orbital death.

Soviet Union Firsts 1957: First intercontinental ballistic missile, the R-7 Semyorka 1957: First satellite, Sputnik 1 1957: First animal in Earth orbit, the dog Laika on Sputnik 2 1959: First rocket ignition in Earth orbit, first man-made object to escape Earth's gravity, Luna 1 1959: First data communications, or telemetry, to and from outer space, Luna 1. 1959: First man-made object to pass near the Moon, first man-made object in Heliocentric orbit, Luna 1 1959: First probe to impact the Moon, Luna 2 1959: First images of the moon's far side, Luna 3 1960: First animals to safely return from Earth orbit, the dogs Belka and Strelka on Sputnik 5.

Soviet Union Firsts 1961: First probe launched to Venus, Venera 1
1961: First person in space (International definition) and in Earth orbit, Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1, Vostok programme 1961: First person to spend over 24 hours in space Gherman Titov, Vostok 2 (also first person to sleep in space). 1962: First dual manned spaceflight, Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 1962: First probe launched to Mars, Mars 1 1963: First woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova, Vostok 6 1964: First multi-person crew (3), Voskhod 1 1965: First extra-vehicular activity (EVA), by Aleksei Leonov, Voskhod 2

Soviet Union Firsts 1965: First probe to hit another planet of the Solar system (Venus), Venera 3 1966: First probe to make a soft landing on and transmit from the surface of the moon, Luna 9 1966: First probe in lunar orbit, Luna 10 1967: First unmanned rendezvous and docking, Cosmos 186/Cosmos 188. (Until 2006, this had remained the only major space achievement that the US had not duplicated.) 1969: First docking between two manned craft in Earth orbit and exchange of crews, Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 1970: First soil samples automatically extracted and returned to Earth from another celestial body, Luna 16 1970: First robotic space rover, Lunokhod 1 on the Moon. 1970: First data received from the surface of another planet of the Solar system (Venus), Venera 7

Soviet Union Firsts 1971: First space station, Salyut 1
1971: First probe to orbit another planet (Mars)Mars 2 1971: First probe to reach surface and make soft landing on Mars, Mars 2 1975: First probe to orbit Venus, to make soft landing on Venus, first photos from surface of Venus, Venera 9 1984: First woman to walk in space, Svetlana Savitskaya (Salyut 7 space station) 1986: First crew to visit two separate space stations (Mir and Salyut 7) 1986: First probes to deploy robotic balloons into Venus atmosphere and to return pictures of a comet during close flyby Vega 1, Vega 2 1986: First permanently manned space station, Mir, 1986–2001, with permanent presence on board (1989–1999) 1987: First crew to spend over one year in space, Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov on board of Soyuz TM-4 - Mir

Project Mercury The goals of Project Mercury were to orbit a piloted spacecraft around Earth and to bring it back safely.

Ham the Chimp The first flight took place on January 31, Ham the chimp experienced 6.6 minutes of weightlessness during the survived the 16 1/2 minute space flight in his Mercury MR-2 space capsule. He reached an altitude of 157 miles and a speed of 5857 mph.

First U. S. Astronauts to Orbit
On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard became the first U. S. citizen in to orbit the Earth. His flight was considered a suborbital flight. In 1962, John Glenn became the first U.S. citizen to orbit the Earth.

Moon Quest In April 1961, Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet cosmonaut, became the first human in space when he orbited Earth. The U. S. Program to reach the moon began with Project Mercury.

Mercury Seven Top: Alan Shepard, Jr., Walter Schirra, Jr., John Glenn, Jr. Bottom: Virgil "Gus" Grissom, M. Scott Carpenter, Donald "Deke" Slayton, L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.

Mercury Seven The Mercury Seven astronauts were selected by NASA based on their performance on a series of extremely difficult tests.  After their selection, the astronauts started their training.  Their training consisted of numerous mental and physical tests in order to make certain they knew the details of the mission and machinery, and to simulate the effects of space flight on their bodies.

Project Gemini The goal of Project Gemini was to place teams of astronauts into space. One Gemini team met and connected with another spacecraft in orbit. The Gemini spacecraft were launched by the Titan II rocket.

Project Apollo The goal of Project Apollo was to successfully land astronauts on the moon. On July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 landed.

Robotic Probes A series of robotic probes were sent to the moon to make sure a spacecraft could land. In 1966, the Surveyor land on the surface proving that the Moon’s surface could support the spacecraft and humans. The Lunar Orbiter took pictures of the moon so NASA could determine the best place to land.

Moon Landing Neil Armstrong was the first human to step on the moon. He explored the moon with Buzz Aldrin for two hours. Michael Collins stayed in orbit in the Command Module.

Apollo 11 Crew Neil Armstrong Buzz Aldrin Michael Collins

Satellites Today thousands of satellites orbit the Earth.
Communication satellites transmit radio and television programs to locations around the world. Other satellites gather scientific information.

Weather Satellites Weather satellites monitor weather patterns.
The Terra, launched in 1999, takes data on carbon monoxide concentrations, reflected sunlight, spring sea growth and other data.

Types of Orbits Different Orbits are best for certain views.
Polar-weather Geosynchronous- Communication satellites Low Earth Orbit –International Space Station

Altitude, Period and Tilt
Period- The time it takes a satellite to orbit the earth Low tilt - a satellite with a tilt of less than 90 degrees Altitude- the distance between Earth’s surface and the satellite

Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO)
A geosynchronous Satellite is a satellite whose orbit on the Earth repeats regularly over points on the Earth over time. If such a satellite's orbit lies over the equator, the orbit is circular, and its direction is the same as the earth's then it is called a geostationary satellite.

Polar Orbit (POES) A polar orbit is an orbit in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly another body such as the Sun) being orbited on each revolution. It therefore has an inclination of (or very close to) 90 degrees to the equator.

Low Earth Orbit A low Earth orbit (LEO) is generally defined as an orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2,000 km. Orbital decay is rapid.

Space Probes Space probes are also carried into space by rockets.
A space probe is an instrument that gathers information and sends it back to Earth. Space probes go into space and do not return.

Mariner 2 Mariner 2 was launched in 1962 and traveled to Venus.
It verified the high temperatures in the atmosphere on Venus.

Pioneer 10 Pioneer 10, launched in 1972 traveled through the solar system and exited. Communication was lost in 2003.

Viking 1 Some space probes land on other planets.
Viking I landed on Mars in 1975. It mapped the surface and looked for signs of life.

Magellan In 1989, Magellan returned to Venus to map the surface.
It also gathered information on the composition of the atmosphere.

Voyager 2 The Voyager 1 and 2 mission (1977) included flybys of the outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and They will transmit information back to Earth for another 20 years.

Galileo The Galileo space probe arrived at Jupiter in 1995 and sent a smaller probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter which before being crushed sent back data.

Europa Galileo also sent back images of Europa, one of Jupiter’s 63 moons. Studies indicate that an ocean of water may exist under the surface of Europa. A cracked layer of ice makes up the surface.

Europa The cracks in the surface may be caused by geologic activity that heats the ocean. Since sunlight can penetrate the cracks, scientists believe life may exist on Europa.

Io In 1999, Galileo came within 300 km of Io, another moon of Jupiter, and took pictures of a volcanic vent named Loki, which emits more energy than all of the volcanoes on Earth combined.

Current and Future Space Missions Section 3
Objectives: Discuss the benefits of the space shuttle. Identify the usefulness of orbital stations. Discuss future space missions. Identify the application of space technology to everyday life.

Journal Entry What are the advantages of the space shuttle and orbital stations?

The Space Shuttle The space shuttle was the first reusable spacecraft.
At launch, the space shuttle stands on one end and is connected to an external liquid fuel tank and two solid fuel booster.

Space Shuttle When the shuttle reaches an altitude of 45 km, the empty solid fuel booster drop off and parachute back to earth. These are recovered and used again. The external liquid tank separates but is not recovered.

Work on Shuttle The shuttle begins to orbit earth. The crew of astronauts perform scientific experiments such as monitoring the effect of space on a human. It places satellites into orbit with a mechanical arm.

Space Shuttle The shuttle can also launch or retrieve satellites. The satellites can be returned to earth to be repaired. After a mission is complete the shuttle returns to earth like an airplane.

Space Stations The space shuttle is too small for long term living. A space station has living quarters, work and exercise areas. In 1973, the United States launched Skylab.

Skylab Crews were able to live and work on Skylab for up to 84 days.
In 1979 an abandoned Skylab fell back to earth and burned up in the atmosphere.

Mir The Soviet cosmonaut Dr. Valery Polyakov spent 438 days in space to study the effects of long term weightlessness.

Soyuz In 1995 American and Russian crews began to work together on the Russian space station, Mir. Dr. Thargard was the first U.S. astronaut to go into space on the Russian Soyuz.

International Space Station
Crews from more than 15 nations work together today on the International Space Station. The ISS was put together was put together as units were transported to space in 80 separate missions.

Exploring Mars Two of the most successful missions recent missions were the 1996 launchings of the Mars Global Surveyor and the Mars Pathfinder. The Pathfinder went to the surface to look for signs of water. The Mars Odyssey began to map the surface in 2002.

Mars Rovers Spirit and Opportunity (2003) were twin rovers that explored the surface to analyze rocks and soils. Phoenix lander arrived at Mars in 2008.

New Millennium Program
NASA created the New Millennium Program to develop advanced technology to send a smart spacecraft into the solar system. The smart spacecraft will be smaller and not dependent on ground control.

Exploring the Moon The Lunar Prospector spacecraft was sent to the moon in 1998 to search for water. It found that water ice might be present in the craters at the moon’s poles. At the end of its one year mission, the probe was crashed.

Cassini In October 1997, NASA launched the space probe Cassini. It arrived at Saturn in It also placed a probe on the Titan, one of Saturn’s moons.

Next Generation Space Technology
The James Webb Space Telescope, set to launch in 2014, is part of the Origins program. It will study the evolution of galaxies, the process of star formation and the production of elements by stars.

Everyday Space Technology
Many people have benefited from space technology. Space medicine led to better ways to diagnose and treat heart disease by using pacemakers. A screening system helped doctors detect and treat early eye problems. Cochlear implants help deaf people.

Everyday Space Technology
Space technology can help catch criminals and prevent accidents. A method devised to sharpen images helps police read license plate. Instruments used on emergency vehicles to automatically change traffic lights was originally created for spacecraft. Hand-held GPS systems came from the space program.

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