2Use of Fire Extinguishers 7Use of Fire ExtinguishersSimple to operate with basic trainingSix basic steps for extinguishing firesLocate the fireSelect the proper extinguisherTransport the extinguisher to the fireActivate the extinguisher to release the agentApply the extinguishing agentEnsure personal safetyPractice and training are essential.
3SELECTING PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS TS 5–24Factors to consider when selecting a portable extinguisher.Classification of the burning fuelRating of the extinguisherHazards to be protectedSeverity of the fireAtmospheric conditionsAvailability of trained personnelEase of handling extinguisherAny life hazard or operational concerns37
4Extinguisher Selection Considerations Select those that minimize risk to life/ property and are effective in extinguishing the fire typeDry chemical extinguishers should not be selected for use in areas where highly sensitive computer equipment is located
5GUIDELINES FOR PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISER USE TS 5–25Carry extinguisher by handle in upright position.Do not run.Make sure that you are within stream reach before discharging agent.Be familiar with specific operating instructions.Watch for hot spots, particularly flammable liquid hot spots, that might reflash.Always back away from an extinguished fire .38
6Locating a Fire Extinguisher 7Locating a Fire ExtinguisherKnow the types and locations of extinguisher on apparatus.Know where extinguishers are located in and around the fire station.Have at least one extinguisher in your home and another in your personal vehicle.
7Selecting the Proper Extinguisher 7Selecting the Proper ExtinguisherRequires an understanding of the classification and rating systemRequires understanding the different types of agentsFire fighters must quickly determine if a fire can be controlled by an extinguisher.Fire fighters should also determine the appropriate type of extinguisher to place in a given area.
8Transporting a Fire Extinguisher 7Transporting a Fire ExtinguisherBest method depends on size, weight, and design of extinguisher.Carry fixed nozzle units in stronger hand.Use weaker hand for units with a hose between trigger and nozzle.Place heavier extinguishers on ground near fire; one hand to depress trigger, one hand to hold nozzle and direct stream.
9Basic Steps of Fire Extinguisher Operation 7Basic Steps of Fire Extinguisher OperationP-A-S-S acronym:Pull the safety pin.Aim the nozzle at the base of the flames.Squeeze the trigger to discharge agent.Sweep the nozzle across the base of the flames.Practice discharging different types of extinguishers.
10Fire Extinguisher Operation Be sure agent reaches fireApply agent from point where stream reaches but does not disturb fuelAfter fire knocked down, move closer for final extinguishment(Continued)
11Ensure Your Personal Safety 7Ensure Your Personal SafetyApproach fire with an exit behind you.Have a planned escape route in case of extinguisher failure.Never let fire get between you and a safe exit.After suppression, back away; never turn your back on the fire.Watch fire for rekindle.Wear appropriate PPE and SCBA (if needed).
12Fire Extinguisher Operation If extinguishment not achieved after entire extinguisher discharged, withdraw/reassessIf fire is in solid fuel reduced to smoldering phase, may be overhauled using appropriate tool(Continued)
13Fire Extinguisher Operation If fire in liquid fuel, it may be necessary to apply foam through hoseline or simultaneously attack with more than one extinguisherIf more than one extinguisher used simultaneously, work in unison and maintain constant awareness
14The Care of Fire Extinguishers 7The Care of Fire ExtinguishersExtinguishers must be regularly inspected and properly maintained.Records keep inspections and maintenance on schedule.Proper training required for inspection and maintenance.Follow manufacturer’s recommendations.
15Fire Extinguisher Inspections NFPA® 10 and most fire codes require portable extinguishers inspected at least once/yearVerify that extinguishersAre in designated locationsNot tampered with or activatedNo obvious damage/other condition(Continued)
167Inspection (1 of 2)“Quick check” verifies availability for immediate use.Check extinguishers on apparatus regularly.Check tamper seals.Weigh or “heft” to determine fullness.Examine for obvious physical damage, corrosion, or leaks.
17Inspection (2 of 2) 7 Check pressure gauge. Confirm proper identification by type and rating.Shake dry chemicals to mix or redistribute agent.Check nozzle for damage or obstructions.Take problem units out of service and replace with spares.
18Fire Extinguisher Inspections Servicing responsibility of property owner/building occupantFirefighters should include inspections in building inspection program(Continued)
19Fire Extinguisher Inspections Three factors determine valueServiceabilityAccessibilitySimplicity of operationNFPA® 10 describes procedures for hydrostatic testing of cylinders
20Parts of Fire Extinguisher Inspections Ensure extinguisher in proper location/accessibleInspect discharge nozzleInspect extinguisher shellCheck for legible operating instructions on nameplateINACCESSIBLE(Continued)
21Parts of Fire Extinguisher Inspections Check locking pin, tamper sealDetermine whether full of agent, fully pressurizedCheck for date of previous inspectionExamine condition of hose/fittingsIf any items deficient, remove from service
22Damaged Fire Extinguishers Can fail at any time; could result in serious injuryLeaking, corroded, otherwise damaged shells/cylinders should be discarded or returned to manufacturer for repair(Continued)
23Damaged Fire Extinguishers Only slight damage/corrosion and uncertain whether safe — Should be hydrostatically testedIf allowed by SOP, leaking hoses, gaskets, nozzles, and loose labels can be replaced by firefighters
24OBSOLETE EXTINGUISHER FACTS Extinguishers made of copper or brass with soft-soldered or riveted cylinders were ruled out by NFPA in 1969.Jan., OSHA deadline for permanent removal of all obsolete extinguishers from workplace; some still found in old buildings.Carbon tetrachloride and chlorobromomethane extinguishing agents prohibited in workplace because of their toxicity.43
25Halon Fire Extinguishers Included in Montreal ProtocolU.S. stopped producing halogens at end of 1993Units may still be in service
27Hydrostatic Testing (1 of 3) 7Hydrostatic Testing (1 of 3)Measures extinguisher’s ability to withstand internal pressureSpecial test facility requiredAbove-normal pressure applied to water-filled cylinder
28Hydrostatic Testing (2 of 3) 7Hydrostatic Testing (2 of 3)
29Hydrostatic Testing (3 of 3) 7Hydrostatic Testing (3 of 3)Assigned maximum interval usually 5 or 12 years, depending on vessel typeMust indicate most recent test on the outside of the extinguisherExtinguisher may not be refilled if most recent test date is not within prescribed limit.All out of date extinguishers must be tested at an appropriate facility.
30Summary (1 of 3) 7 Two main uses of fire extinguishers: To control incipient-stage firesTo apply special extinguishing agentsFires and fire extinguishers are grouped by their characteristics.Fire extinguishers are classified and rated based on their characteristics and capabilities.Fire extinguishers are tested and approved.
317Summary (2 of 3)Two key factors to determine type of extinguisher to place in each area:Class of fire that is likely to occurMagnitude of an incipient fireBest agent for a hazard based on several factorsSeven basic types of extinguishing agentsMost portable extinguishers have six basic parts.
32Summary (3 of 3) Extinguishers vary by 7Summary (3 of 3)Extinguishers vary byExtinguishing agentCapacityEffective rangeTime it takes to discharge the agentSix basic steps to using an extinguisherExtinguishers require regular inspection and maintenance.