2“Minds are like parachutes. They only function when open “Minds are like parachutes. They only function when open.” – Thomas Dewar
3Objectives Explain how to prepare the hair for braiding. Demonstrate the procedure for cornrowing.LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)As a licensed cosmetologist, you may be asked to braid, plait, or cornrow the hair of children and adults alike. The art of braiding has played an important role in grooming and beauty practices throughout many different cultures for thousands of years. Braiding originated in Africa but has become widespread in today’s society. Like other elements of hair design and hair adornment, braiding has been known throughout history to signify one’s tribe, age, economic status, marital status, occupation, geographic location, or religious and social standing. Hair braiding can require an enormous amount of time, with some styles taking an entire day (or even longer) to complete, which means that the stylist can demand a hefty price for the service rendered. Hair branding is also known as natural hairstyling, which shouldn’t be confused with the reference to natural, or virgin, hair that has had no previous coloring, chemicals, or physical abuse. Natural hairstyling uses no chemicals or tints and does not alter the natural curl or coil pattern of the hair.Styles used in natural hairstyling include braid extensions, twists, and locks, which must all be done with a firm hand, using even tension to all strands.
4Client Consultation Focus on client expectations. Build trust and confidence.Follow standard consultation guidelines.Conduct in quiet spot.Be warm, be friendly, and listen.Complete client record card.CLIENT CONSULTATIONFocus on client expectations.Build trust and confidence with client.Follow standard consultation guidelines.Find a quiet spot for the consultation.Be warm, be friendly, and listen.Complete a client record card; update at each visit. Note any scalp or hair problems, chemical history, and home-care products used.
5Natural Hairstyling Natural hairstyling originated in Africa. Some procedures take many hours to complete and last from six weeks to three months.
6Natural or Virgin Hair No chemicals or dyes Natural or coil pattern of hair not alertedNever exposed to thermal styling tools, according to some
7Natural Hairstyling Braiding and extensions Twisting: overlapping two strands to form a candy-cane effectWeaving: intertwining a weft of faux hair with natural hairWrappingDreadlocks
8Hair Analysis Texture Density Hair condition Length Diameter of hair; feel; wave patternDensityHair conditionLengthHAIR ANALYSIS. Be particularly aware of the client’s hair texture. In natural hairstyling, texture refers to three qualities.TEXTUREDiameter of hair: Is it coarse, medium, or fine?Feel: Does hair feel oily, dry, hard, soft, smooth, coarse, or wiry?Wave pattern: Is the hair straight, wavy, curly, or coiled? (A coil is a very tight curl pattern. It is spiral in formation and, when lengthened or stretched, resembles a series of loops.)DENSITY: Also note areas that are thinner, damaged, or broken. Pay particular attention to hairlines. Don’t place direct tension on the hairline or partings along the hairline.CONDITION: Check for damage or breakage.LENGTH: Hair must be physically long enough to execute the braiding style.
9Tools for Braiding Boar-bristle brush Blow-dryer with pick nozzle Square paddle brushVent brushWide-tooth combTail combDouble-tooth combFinishing combCutting combPick with rounded teethBlow-dryer with pick nozzleDiffuser5-inch scissorsLong clipsButterfly and small clipsHood dryerSmall rubber bands or stringTOOLS FOR BRAIDINGBoar-bristle brush: Natural hairbrush; this is best for stimulating the scalp as well as removing dirt and lint from locks. Nylon-bristle brushes are not as durable, and many snag hair. Soft nylon brushes may be an option for fine, soft hair around the hairline.Square paddle brush: Good for short textured hair and long straight hair. Flexible, antiseptic rubber bristles bend and release tangles, knots and snarls.Vent brush: Has a single or double row of teeth; useful, when used gently, for removing tangles on wet wavy or dry curly hair; excellent also on human hair extensions.Wide-tooth comb: Available in a variety of shapes and designs, these combs ply through hair with little snarling. The teeth, which range in width from medium to large, have long rounded tips to avoid scratching the scalp. The distance between the teeth is the most important feature of this comb; larger spacing allows textured hair to move between the rows of teeth with ease.Tail comb: Excellent for design parting, sectioning large segments of hair, and opening and removing braids.Double-tooth comb: Excellent on wet curly hair; designed to minimize tangling and snarling.Finishing comb: Usually 8 to 10 inches in length, this is used while cutting and works well on fine or straight hair.Cutting comb: For cutting small sections. Should be used only after the hair is softened and elongated with a blow-dryer.Pick with rounded teeth: Useful for lifting and separating textured hair, this tool has long and widely-spaced teeth and is commonly made of metal, plastic, wood, or ivory.Blow-dryer with pick nozzle: Loosens the curl pattern in textured hair for braiding styles. Dries, stretches, and softens textured hair. Use hard plastic pick nozzles (metal attachments become too hot).Diffuser: Dries hair without disturbing the finished look and without removing moisture. (See Figure 13–7.)Five-inch scissors: For creating shape and finished look, and for trimming fringes and excess extension material.Long clips: For separating hair into large sections.Butterfly and small clips: For separating hair into small or large sections.Hood dryer: Used to remove excess moisture before blow-drying hair. Eliminates excessive use of blow-drying and reduces direct heat on the hair.Small rubber bands or string
11Implements and Materials Extension fibersHackleDrawing boardIMPLEMENTS AND MATERIALSEXTENSION FIBERS: Kanekalon, nylon, rayon, human hair, yarn, lin, and yak.HACKLE: A board of fine, upright nails through which human hair extensions are combed; used for detangling or blending colors and highlights.DRAWING BOARD: Flat leather pads with very close, fine teeth that sandwich the human hair extensions.
12Fibers Human hair: most imported from Asia Kanekalon: excellent qualityNylon or rayon: less expensive; may cut or break natural hairFIBERS: Cheaper is not always the most economical. Investing in quality products will pay off in higher-quality services.HUMAN HAIR: Most imported from Asia; know and trust your supplier.KANEKALONManufactured synthetic fiber. Excellent quality; texture similar to extremely curly or coiled hair.Does not reflect light, which means it has less shine.Comes in a variety of colors. Versatile and easy to match with natural hair.NYLON OR RAYON SYNTHETICLess expensive than kanekalonReflects light and appears shinyCan cut or break the hairRendered less durable with repeated shampooingMay melt under high heat
13Fibers (continued) Yarn: made of cotton or nylon blend Lin: wool fiber from AfricaYak: from Tibetan or Asian oxYARNTraditional yarn used for adornmentMade of cotton or nylon blendInexpensive and easy to findMay expand when shampooed. Will not slip from the base, making it durable for braids.Light, soft, and detangles easilyDoes not reflect light and gives a matte finishAvailable in many colors. Most commonly used are brown and black. Some blacks show a blue or green tint in natural light.LINWool fiber from AfricaMatte finishOnly available in black and brownComes in a roll and used in any length and sizeCottonlike fabric that is very flammableYAK. (See Figure 18–20.)Strong fiber from domestic ox. Found in the mountains of Tibet and Central Asia.Shaved and processed to use alone or blended with human hair. Mixing with human hair helps remove shine.
14Wet or Dry Hair Dry is best for braiding. Allow for shrinkage when braiding wet.WET OR DRY HAIRBest to braid dry hair. Wet hair shrinks and recoils as it dries, which creates excess pulling and tension and can result in breakage or hair loss.If braiding wet hair, allow for shrinkage.
15Straight Hair Braid dry. Let hair fall without tension. Shampoo first. Towel-blot without rubbing.Apply leave-in conditioner.Detangle from ends to scalp.Blow-dry hair.Use pomade, gel, or lotion to hold.STRAIGHT HAIRBraid dry for best results.Allow hair to fall naturally without tension.Shampoo first.Towel-blot without rubbing.Apply leave-in conditioner.Comb ends first and detangle, moving toward scalp. Use wide-tooth comb.Blow-dry the hair.Pomades, gels, or lotions can be used to hold hair in place.
16Blow-Drying Benefits Dries hair quickly Softens hair Loosens and elongates wave patternAids manipulation processBLOW-DRYING BENEFITSDries hair quicklySoftens hair, making it more manageable for combing and sectioningLoosens and elongates the wave pattern while stretching the hair shaft lengthHelps the pick-up and manipulation process. Helps with short hair. Control while blow-drying to prevent frizzing.
17Preparation for Braiding ProcedureNOTE TO INSTRUCTOR: Distribute handouts from LP 18.0 and have students follow along as you go through the procedure for preparing for braiding.
18Tree Braids Hair is braided with an extension. Finished look shows mostly faux hair.Process takes about four hours.Two methodsTying Individual strands in place about an inch from scalp areaAdding long pieces of hair to cornrows
19DreadlocksSeparate networks of curly, textured hair that have been intertwined and meshed togetherPerformed without chemicals in several slow phasesProcess can take from six to twelve monthsRefer students to Figure 18–10 and Table 18–1.
20Ways to Cultivate Locks Double twistingWrapping with cordCoilingPalm rollingBraidingNot combing or brushing
21Three Lock Methods Comb technique THREE LOCK METHODS COMB TECHNIQUE: Particularly effective during the early stages of locking while the coil is still open, this method involves placing the comb at the base of the scalp and, with a rotating motion, spiraling the hair into a curl. With each revolution, the comb moves down until it reaches the end of the hair shaft. This method offers a tight coil and is excellent on short (1-inch to 3-inch) hair. (Figures 18–11 and 18–12)
22Three Lock Methods (continued) Palm rollBraids or extensionsPALM ROLL: This method is the gentlest on the hair, and it works through all the natural stages of locking. Palm rolling takes advantage of the hair’s natural ability to coil. This method involves applying gel to dampened subsections, placing the portion of hair between the palms of both hands, and rolling in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction (Figure 18–13). With each revolution, as you move down the coil shaft, the entire coil is formed (Figure 18–14). Partings can be directional, horizontal, vertical, or brick-layered. Decorative designs and sculpting patterns are some of the creative options you can choose.BRAIDS OR EXTENSIONS: Another effective way to start locks involves sectioning the hair for the desired size of lock and single-braiding the hair to the end. Synthetic hair fiber, human hair fiber, or yarn can be added to a single braid to form a lock. After several weeks, the braid will grow away from the scalp, at which time the palm roll method can be used to cultivate the new growth to form a lock.Shaping dreadlocks takes patience and commitment on the part of clients. In the beginning, clients must have frequent professional hair shapings to ensure a good outcome.
23Developmental Phases of Locks Phase 1: Hair is soft and coiled in spirals.Phase 2: Hair begins to interlace and mesh.Phase 3: A bulb can be felt at end of lock.Phase 4: Hair begins to regain length.Phase 5: Locks are closed at ends, are dense and dull, and do not reflect light.
24Procedures Visible Braid Procedure Rope Braid Procedure Fishtail Braid ProcedureInvisible Braid ProcedureSingle Braids without ExtensionsNOTE TO INSTRUCTOR: This begins the practical portion of your presentation. Hand out procedure sheets for each practical demonstration scheduled. Milady’s DVD series is recommended for demonstrations to ensure consistency from class to class and student to student.
25Procedures (continued) Single Braids with ExtensionsCornrows ProcedureCornrows with Extensions
26Summary and ReviewWhat is the most effective way to prepare hair for braiding?What are the steps in creating basic corn rows?SUMMARY AND REVIEWThis chapter takes a look at a variety of hair braiding and extension methods. Hair braiding reached its peak of social and esthetic significance in Africa, where it has always been regarded as an art form to be handed down from generation to generation. As the chapter notes, hair braiding can take an enormous amount of time, with some styles taking an entire day or even longer to complete. That’s why, many African cultures, it is considered an opportunity for women to socialize and form bonds of trust. Hair braiding is used by people of all races today because of its beauty and versatility. Natural hairstyling has certainly brought a new and diverse approach to hair care.What is the most effective way to prepare hair for braiding?Answer: The most effective way to prepare the hair for braiding is to:Shampoo, condition, condition and towel-dry the hair.Part damp hair into sections and separate the sections with clips.Comb the hair from the ends to the base of the scalp, and lightly spray each section as you go along with detangling solution if needed.Place client under a medium heat hood dryer for 5 to 10 minutes to remove excess moisture.Using fingers, apply blow-drying cream to hair from scalp to ends.Using a pick nozzle attachment on a blow-dryer, hold hair down and away from client’s head and begin drying.What are the steps in creating basic corn rows?Answer: Determine direction and size. With a tail comb, part hair into 2-inch (5-centimeter) sections and apply a light oil to the scalp. Create a panel by taking two even partings to form a neat row for the corn-row base. With a tail comb, part the hair into a panel, using butterfly clips to keep the other hair pinned to either side. Then divide the panel into three even strands of same size. Place fingers close to the base. Cross the left strand under the center strand. Then cross the right strand under the center strand. With each crossing under or revolution, pick up from the base of the panel a new strand of equal size and add it to the outer strand before crossing it under the center strand. As you move along the braid panel, pick up a strand from the scalp with each revolution, and add it to the outer strand before crossing it under, alternating the side of the braid on which you pick up the hair. Add new strands, and braid to the end. Then simply stop, or otherwise finish the ends. Braid the next panel in the same direction and in the same manner. Repeat until all the hair is braided. Apply oil sheen and follow post-service procedures.
27You have completed one unit of study toward course completion. Congratulations!You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.