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FIRE FIGHTING PROCESS HAZARDS DRY DISTILLATIONS CHEMICAL REACTIONS BOILER UPTAKE FIRES FIRE IN WATER TUBE BOILERS.

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Presentation on theme: "FIRE FIGHTING PROCESS HAZARDS DRY DISTILLATIONS CHEMICAL REACTIONS BOILER UPTAKE FIRES FIRE IN WATER TUBE BOILERS."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIRE FIGHTING PROCESS HAZARDS DRY DISTILLATIONS CHEMICAL REACTIONS BOILER UPTAKE FIRES FIRE IN WATER TUBE BOILERS

2 Dry Distillation Combustion process which flammable material burns with sufficient oxygen to achieve complete combustion of the material Combustion process which flammable material burns with sufficient oxygen to achieve complete combustion of the material Example – process in making the charcoal Example – process in making the charcoal

3 Sequence of events, danger of dry distillation Fire outbreak in closed space Fire outbreak in closed space Heat builds up but incomplete burning Heat builds up but incomplete burning Opening of access will introduces fresh air Opening of access will introduces fresh air Result - flash towards the opening access Result - flash towards the opening access Persons in process of entering will be injured / burned unless protected Persons in process of entering will be injured / burned unless protected

4 Dangers of dry distillation may mitigated by Cooling the compartment externally by water hosing Cooling the compartment externally by water hosing Entering access in crouched position behind water screen (spray nozzle) Entering access in crouched position behind water screen (spray nozzle) Directing water towards ceiling of fire space Directing water towards ceiling of fire space

5 Because of that, it is inadvisable of taking hurried action when smoke is seen issuing from closed cabin

6 Chemical reactions The effect of addition one or more following substances to a chemical The effect of addition one or more following substances to a chemical Water Water Heat Heat Steam Steam Oil Oil Foam Foam Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide Sand Sand

7 Effects of chemical reaction Explosion from development of flammable gas Explosion from development of flammable gas Spontaneous combustion Spontaneous combustion Development of toxic fumes Development of toxic fumes Generation of smoke Generation of smoke Chemical reactions during fire fighting are likely to occur with fire in cargoes and accommodation areas Chemical reactions during fire fighting are likely to occur with fire in cargoes and accommodation areas

8 Examples chemical reactions causing / exacerbating fires Production of acetylene - calcium carbide contact with water Production of acetylene - calcium carbide contact with water Steam decomposition when applied to coal fires Steam decomposition when applied to coal fires Production of hydrogen - Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) contact with water Production of hydrogen - Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) contact with water Cargo oxidizing (fertilizers) – sustain fire even blanketed in extinguishing gas Cargo oxidizing (fertilizers) – sustain fire even blanketed in extinguishing gas Cargoes spontaneously igniting in air - phosphorous when its packaging gets damaged Cargoes spontaneously igniting in air - phosphorous when its packaging gets damaged Self heating cargoes - grain when wet Self heating cargoes - grain when wet Production of methane in coal cargoes to dangerous levels when ventilation restricted Production of methane in coal cargoes to dangerous levels when ventilation restricted

9 Correct response to fire in dangerous goods given under “Emergency Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods” Correct response to fire in dangerous goods given under “Emergency Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods” Correct response to fire in bulk materials possessing chemical hazards given under “Emergency Schedules of the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes” Correct response to fire in bulk materials possessing chemical hazards given under “Emergency Schedules of the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes” List of fire response action for given substance given under “General Index of the IMDG Code” & “Emergency Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods” List of fire response action for given substance given under “General Index of the IMDG Code” & “Emergency Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods” List of fire response action for given bulk cargo given under “Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes” List of fire response action for given bulk cargo given under “Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes”

10 Boiler Uptake Fires Occurring in: Occurring in: Uptakes, economizers & air heaters – steamships Uptakes, economizers & air heaters – steamships Exhaust pipes, economizers & waste heat boilers - ships propelled by ICE Exhaust pipes, economizers & waste heat boilers - ships propelled by ICE Usual cause - accumulation of carbon deposits, with / without oil, become overheated & catch fire Usual cause - accumulation of carbon deposits, with / without oil, become overheated & catch fire

11 Difficulties & hazards of fighting these fires Inaccessibility to all sections of uptake in upper section Inaccessibility to all sections of uptake in upper section Possibility of explosion if access doors to economizer are opened Possibility of explosion if access doors to economizer are opened

12 Possibility of economizer tubes reaching temperature of 700°C Possibility of economizer tubes reaching temperature of 700°C Iron in the tubes will burn in steam Iron in the tubes will burn in steam Reaction – self sustaining & will generate heat Reaction – self sustaining & will generate heat Combustion products - black oxide of iron & free hydrogen Combustion products - black oxide of iron & free hydrogen Iron burning in steam are independent of oxygen supply Iron burning in steam are independent of oxygen supply Hydrogen produced will burn if air introduced Hydrogen produced will burn if air introduced Explosion Explosion

13 Procedure containing & extinguishing the fire shut down boiler and/or main engine shut down boiler and/or main engine Spray external surfaces iwo fire with water - keep temperature down Spray external surfaces iwo fire with water - keep temperature down Close necessary dampers and boiler change valve (if any) – halt supply air to fire Close necessary dampers and boiler change valve (if any) – halt supply air to fire Protect essential electrical & other equipment below fire zone against water damage Protect essential electrical & other equipment below fire zone against water damage Continue cooling until considered safe to open economizer for examination & thorough cleaning on fire side Continue cooling until considered safe to open economizer for examination & thorough cleaning on fire side

14 Fires in water tube boilers Iron-in-steam fires can occur in water tube boilers due to Iron-in-steam fires can occur in water tube boilers due to shortage of water in boiler causing tubes overheating above water level and undue delay in boiler shut down shortage of water in boiler causing tubes overheating above water level and undue delay in boiler shut down Uncontrollable soot fire in furnace after boiler shut down in a port Uncontrollable soot fire in furnace after boiler shut down in a port Coupled with water shortage in boiler causing tubes overheating above water level Coupled with water shortage in boiler causing tubes overheating above water level

15 If fire discovered before tubes reached 700°C, the preferred method of fire fighting If fire discovered before tubes reached 700°C, the preferred method of fire fighting Direct maximum amount of water available as solid jets through burner apertures (or equivalent) and through feed pumps to source of fire – assuming boiler tubes have fractured or burned Direct maximum amount of water available as solid jets through burner apertures (or equivalent) and through feed pumps to source of fire – assuming boiler tubes have fractured or burned Keep air casings and uptakes cool by hose down them with water Keep air casings and uptakes cool by hose down them with water Avoid using fire spray nozzles, foam appliances or carbon dioxide directly on the fire Avoid using fire spray nozzles, foam appliances or carbon dioxide directly on the fire

16 Fire fighting procedures under “boiler uptake fire” can be used if the iron-in-steam fire has developed


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