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Liquid Fuel Rockets Liquid Fuel Rockets COSMOS Cluster 3 8-2-07 Nupur Dokras Alejandro Arambula Aaron Brinkman

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Presentation on theme: "Liquid Fuel Rockets Liquid Fuel Rockets COSMOS Cluster 3 8-2-07 Nupur Dokras Alejandro Arambula Aaron Brinkman"— Presentation transcript:

1 Liquid Fuel Rockets Liquid Fuel Rockets COSMOS Cluster Nupur Dokras Alejandro Arambula Aaron Brinkman

2 Outline History of Liquid Fuel Rockets History of Liquid Fuel Rockets Basics of Operation and Design Basics of Operation and Design Uses in modern day world Uses in modern day world

3 Introduction Space Race Space Race Military use: USSR, Germany and U.S.Military use: USSR, Germany and U.S. Space exploration: Apollo and Soyuz programsSpace exploration: Apollo and Soyuz programs Communication and Globalization Communication and Globalization Cell phones, satellite TV, GPS, video conferencingCell phones, satellite TV, GPS, video conferencing Transportation: X-Prize Transportation: X-Prize Scientific Experiments Scientific Experiments Space Shuttle ProgramSpace Shuttle Program

4 History Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Early modern astronautic theoristEarly modern astronautic theorist Rockets derivation of the rocket equation Rockets derivation of the rocket equation Robert H. Goddard Robert H. Goddard Launched 1st liquid fuel rocket in 1926Launched 1st liquid fuel rocket in 1926 Patented multi-stage rocketsPatented multi-stage rockets

5 Basics of a Rocket Thrust Thrust Newton’s 3rd LawNewton’s 3rd Law To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Specific ImpulseSpecific Impulse Measurement of the efficiency of a rocket engine Measurement of the efficiency of a rocket engine Momentum per unit of propellant Momentum per unit of propellant Thrust vs. weight flow of propellants Thrust vs. weight flow of propellants

6

7 Nozzles Low altitude Low altitude Medium Altitude Medium Altitude High Altitude High Altitude

8 Nozzle Types

9 Stability Center of pressure below center of gravity Center of pressure below center of gravity Fins Fins SpinSpin Center of Gravity Center of Gravity Rotates around one pointRotates around one point Pressure forces force rocket back into stable positionPressure forces force rocket back into stable position

10 Fuel and Oxidizer Hydrazine (monopropellant) Hydrazine (monopropellant) 3N 2 H 4  3N 2 + 8H 2 3N 2 H 4  3N 2 + 8H 2 Hydrazine (fuel) and Dinitrogen Tetroxide Hydrazine (fuel) and Dinitrogen Tetroxide 2N 2 H 4 + N 2 O 4  3N 2 + 4H 2 O2N 2 H 4 + N 2 O 4  3N 2 + 4H 2 O Liquid Oxygen and Hydrogen Liquid Oxygen and Hydrogen 2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O Hydrogen Peroxide (mono- or bipropellant) Hydrogen Peroxide (mono- or bipropellant) 2H 2 O 2  2H 2 O + O 22H 2 O 2  2H 2 O + O 2

11 Hybrid Uses solid fuel and liquid oxidizer Uses solid fuel and liquid oxidizer Fuels: Polyethylene, Poly-Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA), Poly-Vinyl Chloride (PVC)Fuels: Polyethylene, Poly-Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA), Poly-Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Oxidizer: Nitrous Oxide, Gaseous Oxygen, Hydrogen Peroxide, Liquid OxygenOxidizer: Nitrous Oxide, Gaseous Oxygen, Hydrogen Peroxide, Liquid Oxygen SpaceShipOne SpaceShipOne Flies at twice the speed of soundFlies at twice the speed of sound Solid fuel - tire rubber: Hydroxyl- terminated polybutadieneSolid fuel - tire rubber: Hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene Oxidizer - laughing gas (Nitrous Oxide)Oxidizer - laughing gas (Nitrous Oxide)

12 Liquid Rockets vs. Hybrid Rockets Advantages to Hybrids Advantages to Hybrids Easier to control throttleEasier to control throttle Safer to produce and storeSafer to produce and store More environmentally friendlyMore environmentally friendly Reusable partsReusable parts Advantages to Liquid Rockets Advantages to Liquid Rockets More reliableMore reliable More control over thrustMore control over thrust More variable (interchangeable parts)More variable (interchangeable parts) Light weightLight weight

13 Liquid Rockets vs. Hybrid Rockets Disadvantages to Hybrids Disadvantages to Hybrids More complex - technologyMore complex - technology More expensiveMore expensive Less commonLess common Not as strong as liquid propellantNot as strong as liquid propellant Disadvantages to Liquid Rockets Disadvantages to Liquid Rockets Difficult to store liquid fuel at cold temperatureDifficult to store liquid fuel at cold temperature Less dense propellantLess dense propellant Complex - too many partsComplex - too many parts

14 Conclusion Liquid rockets increasingly more important Liquid rockets increasingly more important Project ConstellationProject Constellation

15 Bibiliography Benson, Tom. “Rocket Stability.” ml. July 24, Benson, Tom. “Rocket Stability.” ml. July 24, Benson, Tom. “Rocket Stability.” ml. Benson, Tom. “Rocket Stability.” ml. Bellis, Mary. “How Rockets Work.” llant_2.htm July 31, Bellis, Mary. “How Rockets Work.” llant_2.htm July 31, Bellis, Mary. “How Rockets Work.” llant_2.htm Bellis, Mary. “How Rockets Work.” llant_2.htm “Hybrid Rocket Motor Solid Fuel Grain” ://www.patentstorm.us/patents/ description.html August 23, July 27, “Hybrid Rocket Motor Solid Fuel Grain” ://www.patentstorm.us/patents/ description.html August 23, July 27, ://www.patentstorm.us/patents/ description.html “Launch Systems and Launch Sites: Principles of Rocket Propulsion.” 6im.htm. July 30, “Launch Systems and Launch Sites: Principles of Rocket Propulsion.” 6im.htm. July 30, im.htm 6im.htm

16 Bibliography “Rocket Nozzle Shapes.” July 30, “Rocket Nozzle Shapes.” July 30, “Rocket Nozzle Shapes.” “Rocket Nozzle Shapes.” “Solid Fuel vs. Liquid Fuel Rockets.” tml. July 25, “Solid Fuel vs. Liquid Fuel Rockets.” tml. July 25, “Solid Fuel vs. Liquid Fuel Rockets.” tml. “Solid Fuel vs. Liquid Fuel Rockets.” tml. Valdes, Robert. “How SpaceShipOne Works.” July 26, Valdes, Robert. “How SpaceShipOne Works.” July 26, Valdes, Robert. “How SpaceShipOne Works.” Valdes, Robert. “How SpaceShipOne Works.”

17 Acknowledgements Michael Paskowitz Michael Paskowitz Professor Hafez Professor Hafez


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