# Microhydro 2006 Environment Summit Sustainability in the High Country September 23, 2006 Diane Price Brent Summerville.

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Microhydro 2006 Environment Summit Sustainability in the High Country September 23, 2006 Diane Price Brent Summerville

Hydro, It’s Really Solar Power

Most of that global hydro power is produced by large- scale hydroelectric plants

Today, we will be talking about micro hydro Small in scale Minimum environmental impact Site specific: you must have the resource Affordable Consistent Produces continuously, 24/7

These Turbines are turned by water. That turning motion drives a generator which produced electricity. With the high head situations we commonly see in the mountains, small pelton wheels and turgo wheels are commonly used.

You need two things to make power Head and Flow

Measuring Head Sight level (2 people) Eye level

Measuring Head Pipe with pressure gauge at the bottom (1 person) 2.31 feet = 1 psi This gauge reads 38 psi 38 psi x 2.31 feet/psi = 88 ft of head

5 gallon bucket This may be tricky… Small stream, little waterfall Most typical method for microhydro

5 gallon bucket If the measured flow using a 5 gallon bucket and a stop watch was 5 gallons in 1.5 seconds, how many GPM would this be?

Larger Streams Float Method Weir

Power Estimate Power (watts) = Net Head (ft) * Flow (GPM) 9-14 (use 10) 10 assumes a system efficiency of 53%

Nozzles Flow through the pipe is controlled by the nozzle size

Harris Hydro The Harris system is an efficient, durable, battery charging pelton turbine with a PM generator. Probably the most abundant micro-hydro unit in the U.S. The multiple nozzle arrangement allows considerably more water to impact the runner, resulting in greater output at any head, and usable power at a much lower head. 1 nozzle \$1700 2 nozzle \$1800 4 nozzle \$1950 www.harrishydro.com

Energy Systems & Design Stream Engine Brushless, permanent magnet alternator which is adjustable Capable of outputs over 1 kilowatt Heads from 6 to 300 feet. Equipped with a rugged bronze turgo wheel, universal nozzles (adaptable to sizing from 1/8 to1 inch), and a digital multimeter which is used to measure output current. www.microhydropower.com 2 Nozzle Bronze \$2395 4 Nozzle Bronze \$2545 High Voltage Option \$200 High Current Option \$100

Hydro Induction Power Good for long wire runs, 60' - 500' head, 10 - 600 gpm The units produce 3-Phase 120V, 240V, or 480V 'wild' (unregulated) AC, which is then stepped down to battery voltage. The heavy-duty brushless alternator is housed on the Harris Housing Uses the Harris bronze Pelton Wheel for flows up to 200 gpm and the bronze Turgo Runner for flows of 200 to 600 gpm. www.hipowerhydro.com HV 600 with 2 Nozzles \$2500 HV 600 with 4 Nozzles \$2600 HV 1200 with 4 Nozzles \$3000 HV 1800 with 4 Nozzles \$3500 HV 3600 with 4 Nozzles \$5000 Turgo option \$600

Canyon Hydro Serious engineering 1854084 1013335 362415 121665 KWgpm Canyon 2435 15340 8277 3197 1139 KWgpm Canyon 751 300 200 100 50 100 KW Canyon Crossflow www.canyonhydro.com

Mollies Branch Case Study 100 ft of net head Stream flow: 300 gpm Design flow: 85 gpm Penstock: 1200’ of 4” HDPE Turbine: Harris Hydro 4- nozzle PM Power: 850 W for now Energy:.85 kW x 24 h/day x 30 day/mon = 612 kWh/mon Cost = about \$16,000

ARISE & ASUSES Site Assessment

Measuring Flow

The 4” HDPE arrives in 50’ lengths

Fusing the pipe with the ASU Wind & Hydro Class

Fusion welder Shave pipe ends Heat with 500 degree iron Press ends together to fuse Makes a “double roll back bead” as demonstrated by Liz

The penstock gradually drops 100 feet along the 1200 feet of pipe. It is supported along the bank with steel stakes and aircraft cable

This log house is moved into place to house the turbine

The wire run and Balance of System is roughed in

A battery box is built to contain the eight Trojan L16 batteries (48V)

A silt trap/intake filter is built from a 55 gallon plastic drum

The penstock is connected to the turbine house

A stand is constructed for the turbine. A union and hinge allows the turbine to be tilted back for servicing. Screw-type gate valves insures slow operation

The water passes through the floor and returns to the creek

Water is diverted from the creek to the silt trap

A second silt trap barrel is added to improve performance

The battery bank and inverter are wired. The electrician installs a subpanel for the hydro loads.

The log house does a nice job of reducing the sound level (sounds like a sewing machine)

The Mollies Branch microhydro project serves as an excellent demonstration site for regional farmers and landowners Questions?

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