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Introduction to Sediment Sampling USGS Technical training in Support of Native American Relations (TESNAR) 2011 Klamath, Warm Springs, Yurok, and Karuk.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Sediment Sampling USGS Technical training in Support of Native American Relations (TESNAR) 2011 Klamath, Warm Springs, Yurok, and Karuk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Sediment Sampling USGS Technical training in Support of Native American Relations (TESNAR) 2011 Klamath, Warm Springs, Yurok, and Karuk Tribes Chiloquin, OR September 19-23, 2011 Design and Function of Suspended-Sediment and Water-Quality Samplers

2 Sediment-discharge measurements in the United States began in 1838 when Captain Talcott sampled flows in the Mississippi River. In 1843, J.L. Riddle started another sampling program on the Mississippi River, collecting only surface samples that were assumed to represent the full depth In 1851, this assumption was proven false by a study that collected samples at discrete depths. In the late nineteenth century, sediment- sampling activities increased rapidly as Federal agencies organized civil ‑ works programs. For the most part, engineers in charge of these programs developed their own sampling equipment. By the 1930's, agencies had started to develop equipment for use by their agency, but there was little if any consistency in the design of instruments developed by each of the agencies. Questions - - What are some consequences of inaccurate data? What if the inaccuracy is not random, but biased? What of inconsistent data? Why do we need accurate and consistent samplers?

3 The Federal Interagency Sedimentation Project (FISP) was created in 1939 to unify and standardize the research and development activities of Federal agencies involved in fluvial sediment studies. Focus is to develop, test, and supply physical samplers that collect representative samples. More recently focus is also on indirect, surrogate methods of measurement and analysis. Instrument design, development, qa, supply; and research Question: recall definition of Representative Sample? Federal Interagency Sedimentation Project

4 To obtain a sample in such a way that the water-sediment mixture moves with no change in velocity as it leaves the ambient flow and enters the sampler intake. Critical step toward collecting a representative sample. Isokinetic Sampling:

5 Why do we need Isokinetic?

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7 Relative Sampling Rate: Intake Velocity Divided by Stream Velocity Percent error Fraction of stream velocity

8 Isokinetic sampling (representative sample collection) is affected by; Sampler Design Vertical sampler transit rate Sample container (over) filling

9 WHAT ARE WE DEALING WITH? Changing Water Velocities Changing Suspended-Sediment Concentration

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13 A suspended-sediment sampler is designed to account for all these ever changing conditions

14 Nozzle Nozzle Air Exhaust ContainerContainer Body PARTS OF A SAMPLERS

15 Sampler parts

16 Nozzle Taper

17 Suspended-Sediment Samplers Suspended-Sediment Samplers Depth IntegratingDepth Integrating PointPoint Water-Quality Samplers Water-Quality Samplers Depth IntegratingDepth Integrating TYPES OF SAMPLERS

18 DEPTH INTEGRATING

19 Sampled & Un-sampled Zones

20 FISPFISPTM US DH-48

21 FISPFISPTM US DH lbs

22 FISPFISPTM US D lbs

23 US DH lbs FISPFISPTM

24 Suspended-Sediment Samplers Suspended-Sediment Samplers Depth IntegratingDepth Integrating PointPoint Water-Quality Samplers Water-Quality Samplers Depth IntegratingDepth Integrating TYPES OF SAMPLERS

25 Point Sampler, Valve Closed

26 Point Sampler, Valve Open

27 US P-61-A1 FISPFISPTM

28 P-61-A1 Head Parts

29 Rechargeable Battery Pack US RBP-95

30 US P-61-A1 105 lbs FISPFISPTM

31 US P lbs FISPFISPTM

32 US P lbs FISPFISPTM

33 Suspended-Sediment Samplers Suspended-Sediment Samplers Depth IntegratingDepth Integrating PointPoint Water-Quality Samplers Water-Quality Samplers Depth IntegratingDepth Integrating Rigid Bottle Rigid Bottle Bag Bag TYPES OF SAMPLERS

34 US DH-81A FISPFISPTM

35 US D-95 FISPFISPTM

36 US DH-95 FISPFISPTM

37 Suspended-Sediment Samplers Suspended-Sediment Samplers Depth IntegratingDepth Integrating PointPoint Water-Quality Samplers Water-Quality Samplers Depth IntegratingDepth Integrating Ridged Ridged Bag Bag TYPES OF SAMPLERS

38 FISPFISPTM US D-96 US D-96-A1

39 FISPFISPTM US D-99

40 FISPFISPTM

41 The US DH-2 TM The sampler collects at least 1-liter of sample isokinectally to 35 ft. Approximate Length: 20 in., Width: 6 in. Weight: 30 lb FISP

42 LIMITATIONS Transit Rates & Depth  Rigid bottle  < 15 ft with D samplers  < 180 ft with P samplers  < 0.4 times the mean velocity  (based on approach angle and pressure equalization)  Bag  Up to 220 ft  0.4 times the mean velocity (based on approach angle)

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45 Sampler Designation Nozzle ID (in) Container Size Max. Depth (ft) Min. Vel. (ft/sec) Max. Vel. (ft/sec) Unsampled Zone (in) Weight (lbs) US DH-481/4pint US DH-59¼, 3/16pint9, US DH-763/16, 1/4quart US DH-815/16, ¼, 3/16liter ,2.07.0, 7.6, US DH-955/16, ¼, 3/16liter152.1,1.7, , 7.0, US DH-25/16, ¼, 3/16liter13, 20, US D-74¼, 3/16pint/quart9, US D-74AL¼, 3/16pint/quart9, US D-955/16, ¼, 3/16liter151.7,1.7, , 6.7, US D-965/16, ¼, 3/163 liters39, 60, US D-96A15/16, ¼, 3/163 liters39, 60, US D-995/16, ¼, 3/166 liters78,120, , 3.0, US P-61A13/16pint/quart180, US P-633/16pint/quart180, US P-723/16pint/quart72,

46 FISPFISPTM US VTP-99

47 Operating Specifications ● Constant Speed ● 12 or 24 Volts ● Speed Setting: 0.1 to 4.5 ft/sec ● Bi-Directional Motor operation ● “B” & “E” Reels w/2 Pulley Sizes High-Torque Reel Drive System

48 Wireless Remote Control Unit Operating Specifications ● Works Up to >100 ft. Distance ● Will be Backward Compatible to Existing Reel Drive ● Has Many Advantages Over ‘Bluetooth’ Including Security ● No External Antenna Required ● 250k 2.4 GHz ● Very Long Battery Life ● Lower Cost Uses ZigBee ™ Wireless Technology High-Torque Reel Drive System

49 Information from FISP: Mark Landers- FISP Chief Phone: (770)

50 TO ORDER EQUIPMENET (Federal Agencies) USGS Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility Building 2101 Stennis Space Center, MS (800) ext USGS:

51 Non Federal Agencies use the following commercial distributors:

52 Geotech Environmental Equipment, Inc East 40 th Ave. Phone: (303) Fax: (303) Toll free: (800) Website: Rickly Hydrologic Company 1700 Joyce Ave Columbus, OH Phone: (614) Fax: (614) Website: Wildlife Supply Company 95 Botsford Place Buffalo, NY Phone: (800) Fax: (800) Website:

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