2Objectives (1 of 3) Describe how to prevent water hammers. 16Objectives (1 of 3)Describe how to prevent water hammers.Describe how a hose is constructed.Describe the types of hoses used in the fire service.Describe how to clean and maintain a hose.Describe how to inspect a hose.Describe how to note a defective hose.
3Objectives (2 of 3) Describe how to roll a hose. 16Objectives (2 of 3)Describe how to roll a hose.Describe how to lay a supply line.Describe how to load a hose.Describe how to connect a hose to a water supply.Describe how to carry and advance a hose.
4Objectives (3 of 3) Describe the types and designs of nozzles. 16Objectives (3 of 3)Describe the types and designs of nozzles.Describe pressure effects and flow capabilities of nozzles.Describe how foam works.List the types of foam.Describe how to make foam.Describe how to apply foam.
516Fire HydraulicsDeal with properties of energy, pressure, and water flow as related to fire suppression.
6Flow Volume of water that is being moved 16FlowVolume of water that is being movedMeasured in gallons per minute (gpm)Metric measured in liters per minute (lpm)
7Pressure Amount of energy in a body or stream of water 16PressureAmount of energy in a body or stream of waterMeasured in pounds per square inch (psi)Metric measured in kilopascals (kPa)Required to push water through a hose or to a higher levelPumps usually provide the pressure.
8Friction Loss Loss of pressure as water moves through a pipe or hose 16Friction LossLoss of pressure as water moves through a pipe or hoseLoss represents the energy required to push the water.Greater flow in same hose, greater friction lossSmaller hose with same flow, greater friction lossAll else equal, loss proportional to distance
9Elevation Pressure Elevation affects water pressure. 16Elevation PressureElevation affects water pressure.Elevated water tanks supply pressure to pipes due to elevation.Difference between nozzle elevation and engine elevation affects pressure.Hoses laid downhill have greater pressure.Hoses laid up stairs will have less pressure.
1016Water HammerSurge in pressure caused by sudden stop in the flow of waterShock wave is transmitted back through the hose.Can damage hose, couplings, and plumbingTo prevent, open and close valves slowly.
11Functions of Fire Hoses 16Functions of Fire HosesAttack hoseCarries water from engine to the nozzleCarries water from engine to master streamsCarries water to standpipe and sprinkler systemsSupply hoseCarries water to the engineMay come from a hydrant or another engineCarries large quantities at lower pressures
12Sizes of Hose (1 of 3) 16 Small Diameter Hose 1" to 2 " in diameter Used as attack linesEach section is usually 50' long
13Sizes of Hose (2 of 3) Medium Diameter Hose 2 1/2" or 3" in diameter 16Sizes of Hose (2 of 3)Medium Diameter Hose2 1/2" or 3" in diameterUsed as attack line or supply linelarge handlines usually use 2 1/2“.master stream and fire department connections often use 3" hose.Each section is usually 50' long.
14Sizes of Hose (3 of 3) Large Diameter Hose 3 1/2" or 6" in diameter 16Sizes of Hose (3 of 3)Large Diameter Hose3 1/2" or 6" in diameterStandard diameter is 4" or 5“.Standard length is 50' or 100' long.
15Pressure Testing Attack hose Supply hose Tested annually 16Pressure TestingAttack hoseTested annuallyTested to 300 psiDesigned for use up to 275 psiSupply hoseTested to 200 psiDesigned for use up to 185 psi
16Hose Construction (1 of 2) 16Hose Construction (1 of 2)Fire hose constructed of inner waterproof liner and one or two outer layersOuter layersProvide strength for high pressuresMade from synthetic fibersProvide some abrasion protectionCan be double jacket hoseCan be rubber-jacket hose
17Hose Construction (2 of 2) 16Hose Construction (2 of 2)Inner waterproof linerPrevents water leakageProvides smooth surface to reduce frictionUsually made ofsynthetic rubber compoundthin flexible membraneAttached to outer covering
18Hose Couplings Used to connect individual lengths of hose 16Hose CouplingsUsed to connect individual lengths of hoseUsed to connect hose to hydrants, valves, nozzles, and fittingsTwo typesThreadedNonthreaded (Storz-type)
19Threaded Couplings (1 of 2) 16Threaded Couplings (1 of 2)Used on most hose up to 3"A set consists of male and female couplings.Male threads are on the outside.Female threads are on the inside.Female couplings swivel.Fire hose has a male on one end and a female on the other.
20Threaded Couplings (2 of 2) 16Threaded Couplings (2 of 2)Higbee indicators indicate proper thread alignment.Female couplings have a gasket to prevent leaks and require periodic replacement.
21Storz-type Couplings 16 Has neither male nor female ends Most often used in large diameter hoseCouplings are mated face-to-face and turned clockwise one third.Adapters are used to connect to threaded couplings.
22Attack Hose (1 of 4) 1 1/2" and 1 3/4" Most common attack line 16Attack Hose (1 of 4)1 1/2" and 1 3/4"Most common attack lineBoth use 1 1/2" couplingsCan be operated by one fire fighterMost common preconnect lengths of 150' to 350'1 1/2" generally flows gpm1 3/4" generally flows gpm
23Attack Hose (2 of 4) 2 1/2" hose Used to attack larger fires 16Attack Hose (2 of 4)2 1/2" hoseUsed to attack larger firesGenerally flows about 250 gpmTakes at least two fire fighters inside a buildingWeight per 50' sectionWithout water, weighs 30 poundsWith water, weighs about 200 poundsCan flow up to 350 gpm
24Attack Hose (3 of 4) Booster hose 16Attack Hose (3 of 4)Booster hoseUsually carried on a hose reel with 150' to 200’Made of rubber with steel wire to give shapeCan be advanced by one fire fighter1" line flows gpmUsed for small outdoor fires and trash dumpsters
25Attack Hose (4 of 4) Forestry hose Typically 1" or 1 1/2" 16Attack Hose (4 of 4)Forestry hoseTypically 1" or 1 1/2"Used for grass, brush, or forestry firesExtremely maneuverable
26Supply Hose 16 Used to supply attack engine Ranges from 2 1/2" to 6" Large diameter is more efficient than 2 1/2"Two typesSoft suctionHard suction
27Types of Damage to Hose (1 of 4) 16Types of Damage to Hose (1 of 4)MechanicalAbrasion from road surfacesBroken glass and sharp objectsAbrasion from hose reloaded dirtyVehicles running over itCouplings being damagedCouplings being dragged
28Types of Damage to Hose (2 of 4) 16Types of Damage to Hose (2 of 4)Heat and coldDirect contact from fireBurning coals and embersHot surfaces such as heating units and exhaust pipesFreezing can rupture inner liner and break outer liner fibers.Lines may be frozen or encased in ice.
29Types of Damage to Hose (3 of 4) 16Types of Damage to Hose (3 of 4)ChemicalsEncountered at many incidents, including vehicle fires and accidentsWash hose as soon as possible with approved detergent.
30Types of Damage to Hose (4 of 4) 16Types of Damage to Hose (4 of 4)MildewGrows on fabrics in warm, moist conditionsFeeds on natural fibers and causes the hose to rotModern hose has synthetic fibers and resists mildew.Rubber-covered hose fibers are protected from mildew.
31Cleaning, Maintaining, and Inspecting Hose 16Cleaning, Maintaining, and Inspecting HoseCleaning and maintaining hoseClean contaminated hoseHose inspectionsPerform quarterly and after each useHose recordsWritten history of each length of hose
32Hose Appliances (1 of 10) Wyes Split the stream into two hose streams 16Hose Appliances (1 of 10)WyesSplit the stream into two hose streamsCommonly split a 2 1/2" hose into two 1 1/2"Gated wyes have two quarter turn valves.
33Hose Appliances (2 of 10) Water thief Combines two hose lines into one 16Hose Appliances (2 of 10)Water thiefCombines two hose lines into oneHas a 2 1/2" inlet, a 2 1/2" outlet, and two 1 1/2" outlets
34Hose Appliances (3 of 10) Siamese Combines two hose lines into one 16Hose Appliances (3 of 10)SiameseCombines two hose lines into oneHas two female inlets and one male outletOften used on engine outlets, master streams, and fire department connections
35Hose Appliances (4 of 10) Adaptors 16Hose Appliances (4 of 10)AdaptorsUsed to connect same size hoses but with dissimilar threadsAre double-female or double-male
36Hose Appliances (5 of 10) Reducers 16Hose Appliances (5 of 10)ReducersUsed to attach smaller hoses to larger hosesCommonly used to reduce a 2 1/2" hose to a 1 1/2" hose
37Hose Appliances (6 of 10) Hose jacket 16Hose Appliances (6 of 10)Hose jacketUsed to stop a leaking section of hoseConsists of a split metal cylinder that fits tightly over the hose
38Hose Appliances (7 of 10) Hose roller 16Hose Appliances (7 of 10)Hose rollerUsed to protect a line being hoisted over an edgePrevents chafing and kinking
39Hose Appliances (8 of 10) Hose clamp 16Hose Appliances (8 of 10)Hose clampUsed to temporarily stop the flow of water in a hose:so the hydrant can be openedthat has burst
40Hose Appliances (9 of 10) Master stream devices 16 Large capacity nozzles supplied by two or more linesInclude deck guns and portable nozzles
41Hose Appliances (10 of 10) Valves 16Hose Appliances (10 of 10)ValvesControl the flow of water through hose or pipeMust be opened and closed slowly
42Types of Valves (1 of 2) Ball valves 16 Used on nozzles, gated wyes, and engine dischargesConsist of a ball with a hole in itWhen hole is in-line with inlet and outlet, water flows.When ball is rotated, flow shuts off.
43Types of Valves (2 of 2) 16 Gate valves Butterfly valves Used on hydrants and sprinklersRotating spindle causes gate to move across openingButterfly valvesUsed on large pump intakeOpened by rotating handle one-quarter turn
4416Hose RollsHose roll is an efficient way to transport a single section of fire hose.Hose can be rolled in many different ways, depending on how it will be used.
45Supply Hose Evolutions (1 of 4) 16Supply Hose Evolutions (1 of 4)Forward hose layAllows first engine to establish a water supply without assistancePlaces the attack engine close to the fireCan be used with medium or large diameter hose
46Supply Hose Evolutions (2 of 4) 16Supply Hose Evolutions (2 of 4)Four-way hydrant valveUsed when a supply engine may be needed at the hydrantWhen four-way is placed on the hydrant, water initially flows.A second engine can then hook to the four-way and boost pressure to the supply hose.
47Supply Hose Evolutions (3 of 4) 16Supply Hose Evolutions (3 of 4)Reverse hose layHose is laid from the fire to the hydrant.Often used when attack engines begin attack without a supply lineLater arriving company stops at the attack engine and lays line to the hydrant.
48Supply Hose Evolutions (4 of 4) 16Supply Hose Evolutions (4 of 4)Split hose layPerformed by two enginesUsed when hose must be laid from two directionsRequires coordination by two-way radio
49Loading Supply Hose (1 of 4) 16Loading Supply Hose (1 of 4)Hose can be loaded in different ways, depending on the way the hose is planned to be laid out.Learn the specific hose loads used by your department.
50Loading Supply Hose (2 of 4) 16Loading Supply Hose (2 of 4)Flat hose loadLimits wear on hose edgesUsed with single and split hose beds
51Loading Supply Hose (3 of 4) 16Loading Supply Hose (3 of 4)Horseshoe hose loadForms a U-shapeCannot be used for large diameter hoseCauses more wear on hose edgesTends to lay out in a wave-like mannerHas fewer sharp bends
52Loading Supply Hose (4 of 4) 16Loading Supply Hose (4 of 4)Accordion hose loadEasy to loadCreates sharp bends in the hoseMore wear than the flat loadNot recommended for large diameter hose
53Connecting an Engine to a Water Supply 16Connecting an Engine to a Water SupplySupply hose must be used to deliver water from the hydrant to the engine.In most cases, soft suction hose is used to connect directly to a hydrant.Connection can also be made with a hard suction hose.
54Attack Line Evolutions 16Attack Line EvolutionsAttack lines used to deliver water from an attack engine to a nozzle.Most engines are equipped with preconnected attack lines.Additional supply of attack hose is usually carried in a hose bed or compartment that is not preconnected.
55Preconnected Attack Lines 16Preconnected Attack LinesIntended for immediate useA preconnected hose line with a nozzle attachedCommonly 1 3/4" in diameter and 150' to 250' in lengthMay also be 2 1/2"A variety of loads can be used.
5616Wye LinesMay be necessary to first advance a large diameter line and then split it into two attack linesAccomplished by attaching a gated wye or a water thief to the end of the large diameter line
57Hose Carries and Advances 16Hose Carries and AdvancesBest technique for carrying and advancing fire hose depends on size of hose, distance it must be moved, and number of fire fighters available.
5816Working Hose DragUsed to deploy hose from a hose bed and advance the line a short distanceSeveral fire fighters may be needed for the task.
5916Shoulder CarryUsed to transport full lengths of hose over a longer distanceUseful for advancing a hose line around obstructionsRequires practice and good teamwork
60Advancing an Attack Line (1 of 3) 16Advancing an Attack Line (1 of 3)Advanced in two stagesFlake extra hose in a serpentine pattern.Flake out with lengths parallel to front of building.Signal pump operator to charge line.
61Advancing an Attack Line (2 of 3) 16Advancing an Attack Line (2 of 3)Open nozzle slowly to bleed out air.Set nozzle to appropriate stream.Ensure personal protective equipment is secure.Check partner’s equipment.Start breathing from SCBA.
62Advancing an Attack Line (3 of 3) 16Advancing an Attack Line (3 of 3)Stand to the side when opening the door.Stay low as you move in.If you can’t see, feel as you go.Communicate as you advance.Two members should be at the nozzle and one at the door feeding hose.
63Connecting Hose Lines to a Standpipe System 16Connecting Hose Lines to a Standpipe SystemFire fighters connect attack lines to outlets inside.Fire fighters outside supply water to the fire department connections.
64Advancing an Attack Line from a Standpipe Outlet 16Advancing an Attack Line from a Standpipe OutletStandpipe outlets are often located in stairways.Before charging the hose line, the hose should be flaked out on the stairs going up from the fire floor.
65Replacing a Defective Section of Hose 16Replacing a Defective Section of HoseA burst hose line should be shut down as soon as possible.A hose clamp can be used to stop the flow in an undamaged section of hose upstream from the problem.Replace the damaged section and replace it with two sections of hose.
66Draining and Picking Up Hose 16Draining and Picking Up HoseThe hose must be drained of water to be put back in service.Lay hose straight on a flat surface, then lift one end to shoulder level.Fold hose back and forth over your shoulder.
67Unloading hose Disconnect gate valves and nozzles. 16Unloading hoseDisconnect gate valves and nozzles.Grasp hose end and pull from engine.When coupling comes off, disconnect hose.Repeat until all hose bed is empty.Brush off dirt and debris from each side.Sweep out hose bed.Roll hose into donut rolls.Store hose on racks.
68Nozzles Give fire streams shape and direction Classified into groups: 16NozzlesGive fire streams shape and directionClassified into groups:Low volumeHandlineMaster streamShut offsBale closes a quarter-turn valveRotary control valves
69Smooth Bore Nozzles (1 of 3) 16Smooth Bore Nozzles (1 of 3)Consist of shut off valve and smooth bore tipsFit handlines and master stream devices
70Smooth Bore Nozzles (2 of 3) 16Smooth Bore Nozzles (2 of 3)Advantages:Longer reach than combination fog nozzleCapable of deeper penetration into burning materialsOperate at lower pressuresExtinguishes fire with less air movement
71Smooth Bore Nozzles (3 of 3) 16Smooth Bore Nozzles (3 of 3)Disadvantages:Do not absorb heat as readily as fog streamsNot as effective as fog streams for hydraulic ventilationCannot change setting to produce a fog pattern
72Fog Stream Nozzles (1 of 4) 16Fog Stream Nozzles (1 of 4)Produce fine droplets of waterAbsorb heat quickly and efficiently
73Fog Stream Nozzles (2 of 4) 16Fog Stream Nozzles (2 of 4)Advantages:Create a variety of stream patternsCan be used to create a water curtain to protect fire fighters from extreme heatCan be used to exhaust smoke and gases through hydraulic ventilation
74Fog Stream Nozzles (3 of 4) 16Fog Stream Nozzles (3 of 4)Disadvantages:Move large volumes of air, which can result in a sudden heat inversion that pushes hot steam and gases onto fire fightersIf used incorrectly, can push fire into unaffected areas
75Fog Stream Nozzles (4 of 4) 16Fog Stream Nozzles (4 of 4)Types of fog stream nozzles:Fixed gallonage: deliver a preset flow in gpm at the rated discharge pressure.Adjustable gallonage: allow the operator to select a desired flow.Automatic adjusting: deliver a wide range of flows.
76Other Types of Nozzles Piercing nozzle Cellar nozzle 16Other Types of NozzlesPiercing nozzleMakes holes in automobile sheet metal, aircraft, or building wallsCellar nozzleFights fires in cellars and other inaccessible placesWater curtain nozzleDelivers a flat screen of water to form a protective sheet of water
77Nozzle Maintenance and Inspection 16Nozzle Maintenance and InspectionNozzles should be:Inspected regularlyChecked after each useKept clean and clear of debrisInspect fog nozzle fingersSend nozzles to competent technicians for repairs
78Foam Used to fight several types of fires 16FoamUsed to fight several types of firesUsed to prevent ignition of materialsUsed to neutralize hazardous materialsProduced by mixing foam concentrate with water and air
79Foam Classifications (1 of 2) 16Foam Classifications (1 of 2)Class A foamUsed to fight fires involving ordinary combustible materialsIncreases effectiveness of water by reducing the surface tension of waterCan be added to water streams and applied with several types of nozzles
80Foam Classifications (2 of 2) 16Foam Classifications (2 of 2)Class B foamUsed for class B firesSpecific foam varies by type of flammable liquidSeparates fuel from the fireFoam blanket must not be disturbedCan be applied to flammable liquid spills to prevent fire
81Class A Foam Concentrates 16Class A Foam ConcentratesFrom 0.1% to 1% solution“Wet” foam has good penetration properties.“Stiff” foam is more effective when applied for protecting buildings.
82Class B Foam Concentrates (1 of 3) 16Class B Foam Concentrates (1 of 3)Used as either 3% or 6% solutionTypes of foams should not be mixed.Brands of the same foams should not be mixed.Incompatible mixtures may congeal and plug foam systems.Older foams have environmental hazards.
83Class B Foam Concentrates (2 of 3) 16Class B Foam Concentrates (2 of 3)Protein foamsMade from animal byproductsEffective on hydrocarbon firesFluoroprotein foamsMade with same base materials as protein foamIncludes a flurochemical surfactantProduce fast-spreading membraneProvide a greater seal against edges of objects
84Class B Foam Concentrates (3 of 3) 16Class B Foam Concentrates (3 of 3)Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)Synthetic baseParticularly suited for gasolineSeals across surface quicklyExcellent vapor suppression abilityAlcohol-resistant foamProperties similar to AFFFWon’t dissolve in alcohols and other polar solvents
8516Foam EquipmentIncludes proportioning equipment to mix water and foam concentrateMay be portable or built-in to apparatus
86Foam Proportioners (1 of 3) 16Foam Proportioners (1 of 3)EductorsUse venturi effect to draw foam into streamMay be built-in to pump plumbingMay be portable and inserted into attack linePortable is most commonUsed with 1 1/2" hoseRequires 200 psi of water pressureDraws foam from portable containersOnly 150' of 1 1/2" can be used after eductor
87Foam Proportioners (2 of 3) 16Foam Proportioners (2 of 3)InjectorsAdd concentrate to the water stream under pressureMost work across a range of flow rates and pressuresA metering system takes measurements and adjusts the injector to the proper amounts.
88Foam Proportioners (3 of 3) 16Foam Proportioners (3 of 3)Batch mixingConcentrate poured directly into booster tankPremixingCommonly used in 2 1/2-gallon extinguishersExtinguisher is filled with foam solution and pressurized.Some vehicles have large tanks of premixed foam.
89Foam Application Systems 16Foam Application SystemsTypesPortable extinguishersHand linesMaster stream devicesFixed systemsFoam is applied with a variety of nozzles.
90Foam Application Rates 16Foam Application RatesLow expansion foamMedium expansion foamHigh expansion foamCompressed air foam systems (CAFS)
91Foam Application Techniques 16Foam Application TechniquesSweep method (roll-on)Used on a pool of product on open groundBankshot method (bank down)Used where there is an object to deflect streamRain-down methodLofts foam into air to gently fall on surface
9216Other ConsiderationsRequest back up resources to ensure foam supply is uninterrupted.Manufacturers have emergency supplies available.Specialized apparatus may be available.Carry large quantities of foam concentrate and water.Use remote control nozzles for delivery.
9316Summary (1 of 2)Fire hydraulics deals with energy, pressure, and water flow.Fire hoses vary in size and construction.A hose appliance is any device used with fire hose to deliver water.Fire hose evolutions are standard methods of working with fire hose.
94Summary (2 of 2) Nozzles give fire streams shape and direction. 16Summary (2 of 2)Nozzles give fire streams shape and direction.Foam can be used to extinguish a variety of fires or to prevent their ignition.