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16 Fire Hose, Nozzles, Streams, and Foam. 2 Objectives (1 of 3) Describe how to prevent water hammers. Describe how a hose is constructed. Describe the.

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Presentation on theme: "16 Fire Hose, Nozzles, Streams, and Foam. 2 Objectives (1 of 3) Describe how to prevent water hammers. Describe how a hose is constructed. Describe the."— Presentation transcript:

1 16 Fire Hose, Nozzles, Streams, and Foam

2 2 Objectives (1 of 3) Describe how to prevent water hammers. Describe how a hose is constructed. Describe the types of hoses used in the fire service. Describe how to clean and maintain a hose. Describe how to inspect a hose. Describe how to note a defective hose. 16

3 3 Objectives (2 of 3) Describe how to roll a hose. Describe how to lay a supply line. Describe how to load a hose. Describe how to connect a hose to a water supply. Describe how to carry and advance a hose. 16

4 4 Objectives (3 of 3) Describe the types and designs of nozzles. Describe pressure effects and flow capabilities of nozzles. Describe how foam works. List the types of foam. Describe how to make foam. Describe how to apply foam. 16

5 5 Fire Hydraulics Deal with properties of energy, pressure, and water flow as related to fire suppression. 16

6 6 Flow Volume of water that is being moved Measured in gallons per minute (gpm) Metric measured in liters per minute (lpm) 16

7 7 Pressure Amount of energy in a body or stream of water Measured in pounds per square inch (psi) Metric measured in kilopascals (kPa) Required to push water through a hose or to a higher level Pumps usually provide the pressure. 16

8 8 Friction Loss Loss of pressure as water moves through a pipe or hose Loss represents the energy required to push the water. –Greater flow in same hose, greater friction loss –Smaller hose with same flow, greater friction loss –All else equal, loss proportional to distance 16

9 9 Elevation Pressure Elevation affects water pressure. Elevated water tanks supply pressure to pipes due to elevation. Difference between nozzle elevation and engine elevation affects pressure. –Hoses laid downhill have greater pressure. –Hoses laid up stairs will have less pressure. 16

10 10 Water Hammer Surge in pressure caused by sudden stop in the flow of water Shock wave is transmitted back through the hose. Can damage hose, couplings, and plumbing To prevent, open and close valves slowly. 16

11 11 Functions of Fire Hoses Attack hose –Carries water from engine to the nozzle –Carries water from engine to master streams –Carries water to standpipe and sprinkler systems Supply hose –Carries water to the engine –May come from a hydrant or another engine –Carries large quantities at lower pressures 16

12 12 Sizes of Hose (1 of 3) Small Diameter Hose –1" to 2 " in diameter –Used as attack lines –Each section is usually 50' long 16

13 13 Sizes of Hose (2 of 3) Medium Diameter Hose –2 1/2" or 3" in diameter –Used as attack line or supply line large handlines usually use 2 1/2“. master stream and fire department connections often use 3" hose. –Each section is usually 50' long. 16

14 14 Sizes of Hose (3 of 3) Large Diameter Hose –3 1/2" or 6" in diameter –Standard diameter is 4" or 5“. –Standard length is 50' or 100' long. 16

15 15 Pressure Testing Attack hose –Tested annually –Tested to 300 psi –Designed for use up to 275 psi Supply hose –Tested annually –Tested to 200 psi –Designed for use up to 185 psi 16

16 Hose Construction (1 of 2) Fire hose constructed of inner waterproof liner and one or two outer layers Outer layers –Provide strength for high pressures –Made from synthetic fibers –Provide some abrasion protection Can be double jacket hose Can be rubber-jacket hose 16

17 17 Hose Construction (2 of 2) Inner waterproof liner –Prevents water leakage –Provides smooth surface to reduce friction –Usually made of synthetic rubber compound thin flexible membrane –Attached to outer covering 16

18 18 Hose Couplings Used to connect individual lengths of hose Used to connect hose to hydrants, valves, nozzles, and fittings Two types –Threaded –Nonthreaded (Storz-type) 16

19 19 Threaded Couplings (1 of 2) Used on most hose up to 3" A set consists of male and female couplings. Male threads are on the outside. Female threads are on the inside. Female couplings swivel. Fire hose has a male on one end and a female on the other. 16

20 20 Threaded Couplings (2 of 2) Higbee indicators indicate proper thread alignment. Female couplings have a gasket to prevent leaks and require periodic replacement. 16

21 21 Storz-type Couplings Has neither male nor female ends Most often used in large diameter hose Couplings are mated face-to- face and turned clockwise one third. Adapters are used to connect to threaded couplings. 16

22 22 Attack Hose (1 of 4) 1 1/2" and 1 3/4" –Most common attack line –Both use 1 1/2" couplings –Can be operated by one fire fighter –Most common preconnect lengths of 150' to 350' –1 1/2" generally flows gpm –1 3/4" generally flows gpm 16

23 23 Attack Hose (2 of 4) 2 1/2" hose –Used to attack larger fires –Generally flows about 250 gpm –Takes at least two fire fighters inside a building –Weight per 50' section Without water, weighs 30 pounds With water, weighs about 200 pounds –Can flow up to 350 gpm 16

24 24 Attack Hose (3 of 4) Booster hose –Usually carried on a hose reel with 150' to 200’ –Made of rubber with steel wire to give shape –Can be advanced by one fire fighter –1" line flows gpm –Used for small outdoor fires and trash dumpsters 16

25 25 Attack Hose (4 of 4) Forestry hose –Typically 1" or 1 1/2" –Used for grass, brush, or forestry fires –Extremely maneuverable 16

26 26 Supply Hose Used to supply attack engine Ranges from 2 1/2" to 6" Large diameter is more efficient than 2 1/2" Two types –Soft suction –Hard suction 16

27 27 Mechanical –Abrasion from road surfaces –Broken glass and sharp objects –Abrasion from hose reloaded dirty –Vehicles running over it –Couplings being damaged –Couplings being dragged Types of Damage to Hose (1 of 4) 16

28 28 Types of Damage to Hose (2 of 4) Heat and cold –Direct contact from fire –Burning coals and embers –Hot surfaces such as heating units and exhaust pipes –Freezing can rupture inner liner and break outer liner fibers. –Lines may be frozen or encased in ice. 16

29 29 Types of Damage to Hose (3 of 4) Chemicals –Encountered at many incidents, including vehicle fires and accidents –Wash hose as soon as possible with approved detergent. 16

30 30 Types of Damage to Hose (4 of 4) Mildew –Grows on fabrics in warm, moist conditions –Feeds on natural fibers and causes the hose to rot –Modern hose has synthetic fibers and resists mildew. –Rubber-covered hose fibers are protected from mildew. 16

31 31 Cleaning, Maintaining, and Inspecting Hose Cleaning and maintaining hose –Clean contaminated hose Hose inspections –Perform quarterly and after each use Hose records –Written history of each length of hose 16

32 32 Hose Appliances (1 of 10) Wyes –Split the stream into two hose streams –Commonly split a 2 1/2" hose into two 1 1/2" –Gated wyes have two quarter turn valves. 16

33 33 Hose Appliances (2 of 10) Water thief –Combines two hose lines into one –Has a 2 1/2" inlet, a 2 1/2" outlet, and two 1 1/2" outlets 16

34 34 Hose Appliances (3 of 10) Siamese –Combines two hose lines into one –Has two female inlets and one male outlet –Often used on engine outlets, master streams, and fire department connections 16

35 35 Hose Appliances (4 of 10) Adaptors –Used to connect same size hoses but with dissimilar threads –Are double- female or double- male 16

36 36 Hose Appliances (5 of 10) Reducers –Used to attach smaller hoses to larger hoses –Commonly used to reduce a 2 1/2" hose to a 1 1/2" hose 16

37 37 Hose Appliances (6 of 10) Hose jacket –Used to stop a leaking section of hose –Consists of a split metal cylinder that fits tightly over the hose 16

38 38 Hose Appliances (7 of 10) Hose roller –Used to protect a line being hoisted over an edge –Prevents chafing and kinking 16

39 39 Hose Appliances (8 of 10) Hose clamp –Used to temporarily stop the flow of water in a hose: so the hydrant can be opened that has burst 16

40 40 Hose Appliances (9 of 10) Master stream devices –Large capacity nozzles supplied by two or more lines –Include deck guns and portable nozzles 16

41 41 Hose Appliances (10 of 10) Valves –Control the flow of water through hose or pipe –Must be opened and closed slowly 16

42 42 Types of Valves (1 of 2) Ball valves –Used on nozzles, gated wyes, and engine discharges –Consist of a ball with a hole in it –When hole is in-line with inlet and outlet, water flows. –When ball is rotated, flow shuts off. 16

43 43 Types of Valves (2 of 2) Gate valves –Used on hydrants and sprinklers –Rotating spindle causes gate to move across opening Butterfly valves –Used on large pump intake –Opened by rotating handle one-quarter turn 16

44 44 Hose Rolls Hose roll is an efficient way to transport a single section of fire hose. Hose can be rolled in many different ways, depending on how it will be used. 16

45 45 Supply Hose Evolutions (1 of 4) Forward hose lay –Allows first engine to establish a water supply without assistance –Places the attack engine close to the fire –Can be used with medium or large diameter hose 16

46 46 Supply Hose Evolutions (2 of 4) Four-way hydrant valve –Used when a supply engine may be needed at the hydrant –When four-way is placed on the hydrant, water initially flows. –A second engine can then hook to the four- way and boost pressure to the supply hose. 16

47 47 Supply Hose Evolutions (3 of 4) Reverse hose lay –Hose is laid from the fire to the hydrant. –Often used when attack engines begin attack without a supply line –Later arriving company stops at the attack engine and lays line to the hydrant. 16

48 48 Supply Hose Evolutions (4 of 4) Split hose lay –Performed by two engines –Used when hose must be laid from two directions –Requires coordination by two- way radio 16

49 49 Loading Supply Hose (1 of 4) Hose can be loaded in different ways, depending on the way the hose is planned to be laid out. Learn the specific hose loads used by your department. 16

50 50 Loading Supply Hose (2 of 4) Flat hose load –Limits wear on hose edges –Used with single and split hose beds 16

51 51 Loading Supply Hose (3 of 4) Horseshoe hose load –Forms a U-shape –Cannot be used for large diameter hose –Causes more wear on hose edges –Tends to lay out in a wave-like manner –Has fewer sharp bends 16

52 52 Loading Supply Hose (4 of 4) Accordion hose load –Easy to load –Creates sharp bends in the hose –More wear than the flat load –Not recommended for large diameter hose 16

53 53 Connecting an Engine to a Water Supply Supply hose must be used to deliver water from the hydrant to the engine. In most cases, soft suction hose is used to connect directly to a hydrant. Connection can also be made with a hard suction hose. 16

54 54 Attack Line Evolutions Attack lines used to deliver water from an attack engine to a nozzle. Most engines are equipped with preconnected attack lines. Additional supply of attack hose is usually carried in a hose bed or compartment that is not preconnected. 16

55 55 Preconnected Attack Lines Intended for immediate use A preconnected hose line with a nozzle attached Commonly 1 3/4" in diameter and 150' to 250' in length May also be 2 1/2" A variety of loads can be used. 16

56 56 Wye Lines May be necessary to first advance a large diameter line and then split it into two attack lines –Accomplished by attaching a gated wye or a water thief to the end of the large diameter line 16

57 57 Hose Carries and Advances Best technique for carrying and advancing fire hose depends on size of hose, distance it must be moved, and number of fire fighters available. 16

58 58 Working Hose Drag Used to deploy hose from a hose bed and advance the line a short distance Several fire fighters may be needed for the task. 16

59 59 Shoulder Carry Used to transport full lengths of hose over a longer distance Useful for advancing a hose line around obstructions Requires practice and good teamwork 16

60 60 Advancing an Attack Line (1 of 3) Advanced in two stages Flake extra hose in a serpentine pattern. Flake out with lengths parallel to front of building. Signal pump operator to charge line. 16

61 61 Advancing an Attack Line (2 of 3) Open nozzle slowly to bleed out air. Set nozzle to appropriate stream. Ensure personal protective equipment is secure. Check partner’s equipment. Start breathing from SCBA. 16

62 62 Advancing an Attack Line (3 of 3) Stand to the side when opening the door. Stay low as you move in. If you can’t see, feel as you go. Communicate as you advance. Two members should be at the nozzle and one at the door feeding hose. 16

63 63 Connecting Hose Lines to a Standpipe System Fire fighters connect attack lines to outlets inside. Fire fighters outside supply water to the fire department connections. 16

64 64 Advancing an Attack Line from a Standpipe Outlet Standpipe outlets are often located in stairways. Before charging the hose line, the hose should be flaked out on the stairs going up from the fire floor. 16

65 65 Replacing a Defective Section of Hose A burst hose line should be shut down as soon as possible. A hose clamp can be used to stop the flow in an undamaged section of hose upstream from the problem. Replace the damaged section and replace it with two sections of hose. 16

66 66 Draining and Picking Up Hose The hose must be drained of water to be put back in service. Lay hose straight on a flat surface, then lift one end to shoulder level. Fold hose back and forth over your shoulder. 16

67 67 Unloading hose Disconnect gate valves and nozzles. Grasp hose end and pull from engine. When coupling comes off, disconnect hose. Repeat until all hose bed is empty. Brush off dirt and debris from each side. Sweep out hose bed. Roll hose into donut rolls. Store hose on racks. 16

68 68 Nozzles Give fire streams shape and direction Classified into groups: –Low volume –Handline –Master stream Shut offs –Bale closes a quarter-turn valve –Rotary control valves 16

69 69 Smooth Bore Nozzles (1 of 3) Consist of shut off valve and smooth bore tips Fit handlines and master stream devices 16

70 70 Smooth Bore Nozzles (2 of 3) Advantages: –Longer reach than combination fog nozzle –Capable of deeper penetration into burning materials –Operate at lower pressures –Extinguishes fire with less air movement 16

71 71 Smooth Bore Nozzles (3 of 3) Disadvantages: –Do not absorb heat as readily as fog streams –Not as effective as fog streams for hydraulic ventilation –Cannot change setting to produce a fog pattern 16

72 72 Fog Stream Nozzles (1 of 4) Produce fine droplets of water Absorb heat quickly and efficiently 16

73 73 Fog Stream Nozzles (2 of 4) Advantages: –Create a variety of stream patterns –Can be used to create a water curtain to protect fire fighters from extreme heat –Can be used to exhaust smoke and gases through hydraulic ventilation 16

74 74 Fog Stream Nozzles (3 of 4) Disadvantages: –Move large volumes of air, which can result in a sudden heat inversion that pushes hot steam and gases onto fire fighters –If used incorrectly, can push fire into unaffected areas 16

75 75 Fog Stream Nozzles (4 of 4) Types of fog stream nozzles: –Fixed gallonage: deliver a preset flow in gpm at the rated discharge pressure. –Adjustable gallonage: allow the operator to select a desired flow. –Automatic adjusting: deliver a wide range of flows. 16

76 76 Other Types of Nozzles Piercing nozzle –Makes holes in automobile sheet metal, aircraft, or building walls Cellar nozzle –Fights fires in cellars and other inaccessible places Water curtain nozzle –Delivers a flat screen of water to form a protective sheet of water 16

77 77 Nozzle Maintenance and Inspection Nozzles should be: –Inspected regularly –Checked after each use –Kept clean and clear of debris Inspect fog nozzle fingers Send nozzles to competent technicians for repairs 16

78 78 Foam Used to fight several types of fires Used to prevent ignition of materials Used to neutralize hazardous materials Produced by mixing foam concentrate with water and air 16

79 79 Foam Classifications (1 of 2) Class A foam –Used to fight fires involving ordinary combustible materials –Increases effectiveness of water by reducing the surface tension of water –Can be added to water streams and applied with several types of nozzles 16

80 80 Foam Classifications (2 of 2) Class B foam –Used for class B fires –Specific foam varies by type of flammable liquid –Separates fuel from the fire –Foam blanket must not be disturbed –Can be applied to flammable liquid spills to prevent fire 16

81 81 Class A Foam Concentrates From 0.1% to 1% solution “Wet” foam has good penetration properties. “Stiff” foam is more effective when applied for protecting buildings. 16

82 82 Class B Foam Concentrates (1 of 3) Used as either 3% or 6% solution Types of foams should not be mixed. Brands of the same foams should not be mixed. Incompatible mixtures may congeal and plug foam systems. Older foams have environmental hazards. 16

83 83 Class B Foam Concentrates (2 of 3) Protein foams –Made from animal byproducts –Effective on hydrocarbon fires Fluoroprotein foams –Made with same base materials as protein foam –Includes a flurochemical surfactant –Produce fast-spreading membrane –Provide a greater seal against edges of objects 16

84 84 Class B Foam Concentrates (3 of 3) Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) –Synthetic base –Particularly suited for gasoline –Seals across surface quickly –Excellent vapor suppression ability Alcohol-resistant foam –Properties similar to AFFF –Won’t dissolve in alcohols and other polar solvents 16

85 85 Foam Equipment Includes proportioning equipment to mix water and foam concentrate May be portable or built-in to apparatus 16

86 86 Foam Proportioners (1 of 3) Eductors –Use venturi effect to draw foam into stream –May be built-in to pump plumbing –May be portable and inserted into attack line –Portable is most common Used with 1 1/2" hose Requires 200 psi of water pressure Draws foam from portable containers Only 150' of 1 1/2" can be used after eductor 16

87 87 Foam Proportioners (2 of 3) Injectors –Add concentrate to the water stream under pressure –Most work across a range of flow rates and pressures –A metering system takes measurements and adjusts the injector to the proper amounts. 16

88 88 Foam Proportioners (3 of 3) Batch mixing –Concentrate poured directly into booster tank Premixing –Commonly used in 2 1/2-gallon extinguishers –Extinguisher is filled with foam solution and pressurized. –Some vehicles have large tanks of premixed foam. 16

89 89 Foam Application Systems Types –Portable extinguishers –Hand lines –Master stream devices –Fixed systems Foam is applied with a variety of nozzles. 16

90 90 Foam Application Rates Low expansion foam Medium expansion foam High expansion foam Compressed air foam systems (CAFS) 16

91 91 Foam Application Techniques Sweep method (roll-on) –Used on a pool of product on open ground Bankshot method (bank down) –Used where there is an object to deflect stream Rain-down method –Lofts foam into air to gently fall on surface 16

92 92 Other Considerations Request back up resources to ensure foam supply is uninterrupted. –Manufacturers have emergency supplies available. Specialized apparatus may be available. –Carry large quantities of foam concentrate and water. –Use remote control nozzles for delivery. 16

93 93 Summary (1 of 2) Fire hydraulics deals with energy, pressure, and water flow. Fire hoses vary in size and construction. A hose appliance is any device used with fire hose to deliver water. Fire hose evolutions are standard methods of working with fire hose. 16

94 94 Summary (2 of 2) Nozzles give fire streams shape and direction. Foam can be used to extinguish a variety of fires or to prevent their ignition. 16


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