Presentation on theme: "Additive Manufacturing Using Laser Applied Powder® Processes"— Presentation transcript:
1Additive Manufacturing Using Laser Applied Powder® Processes AWS New Welding TechnologiesJune , 2010Salay StannardA brief overview and lessons learned from the LAP® processes including hard facing, corrosion-resistant coatings, worn surface restoration to laser applied manufacturing (LAM) of components. Discussion will also include focus on equipment capabilities as related to various industries such as aerospace, medical, oil and gas exploration, mining, power generation and industrial equipment repair.Cladding andAdditive Manufacturing UsingLaser Applied Powder® Processes
2Who Is Joining Technologies? About 60 employees25,000 SF, With Room to Expand At Current Location2,000 SF Dedicated to Laser CladdingLaser Applied Wire (LAW®) Additive ProcessingLaser Applied Powder (LAP®) Additive ProcessingLaser WeldingEB WeldingGTAWLasers Systems Design & IntegrationSupply Chain ManagementISO 9001:2000AS9100NADCAP Certified for WeldingWho Is Joining Technologies?
3The Necessity for Component Repair and Surfacing Technologies Why repair technologies are needed:Wear and DamageSealing SurfacesMounting / Fretting SurfacesBearing and Loaded SurfacesTools and DiesManufacturing NonconformitiesUnder filled castingsIncorrect MachiningDesign ChangesHigh Value PartsLong Lead TimesSimple truth: component wear out and either need replacement or repair.Cladding and additive manufacturing offer repair solutions for worn surfacesMounting / fretting surfacesBearing and loaded surfacesServicing tools and dies need in turn need restorationOften there are manufacturing nonconformities that require attentionThese come in the form of under filled castingsIncorrect machining and design changesEach of the components we are talking of are high value parts that have extraordinarily long lead times for replacement, the solution is to perform a cladding operation to place the component back into service sooner.
4Laser Based Repair Technologies Pulsed Wire CladdingCW Laser Wire CladdingLaser Blown Powder CladdingThe three methods of additive that I will be addressing arePulsed Wire CladdingCW Laser Wire CladdingAnd Laser Blown Powder CladdingSo, a brief introduction as to what each are for those in the audience that are not familiar with cladding:
5Pulsed Laser Wire Cladding Wire is positioned on top of substrateWire is stationary relative to partLaser fuses wire to substrate by a series of spot weldsManual or automated processingManual process is well suited to limited production or highly irregular repairsNot well suited to crack sensitive materials due to rapid heating and cooling ratesLow deposition rates due to low average laser power, limited pulse rate and need to synchronize wire and part feedPulsed Laser Wire Cladding is an operation by which wire is position on top of the substrate while a series of laser spots welds are used to fuse base material and wire together.The process is completed in either an automated or manual method, the manual method being more suited for the limited production or high irregular repairsWire cladding is not well suited to crack sensitive materials due to the rapid heating and cooling ratesAnd low deposition rates due to low average laser power, limited pulse rate and the need to synchronize the wire and part feeds
6Continuous Wave (CW) Laser Wire Cladding Laser beam creates molten pool on partFiller wire is fed into pool by precision wire feedWire is melted and incorporated into the pool to create a beadProcess is nearly always automatedBetter for crack sensitive materials~10x higher deposition rates than pulsed wireCW Laser Wire Cladding like pulsed utilizes the laser beam to create a molten pool on the substrate into which filler wire is precision fed into the pool. The wire is thus melted and metallurgically fused to the part.The process is nearly always automated and better for crack sensitive materialsIn turn CW Laser Wire Cladding produces approximately 10X higher deposition rated than pulsed operations
7Laser Powder Cladding Laser beam creates molten pool on part Metal powder is blown into poolby precision powder feed systemPowder is melted andincorporated into the pool tocreate a beadProcess is always automatedLargest selection of available clad materials~10x higher deposition rates thanCW wire feedingFinally Laser Powder Cladding uses the laser source to create a molten pool on the component into which metal powder is blown by a precision powder feed. The powder is melted and incorporated into the pool to create a bead.This method of cladding is always automated and benefits from the largest selection of clad materialsAdditionally, Laser Powder Cladding has approximately 10X higher deposition rates than CW wire feeding
8Blown Powder Nozzle Schematic Laser Powder CladdingBlown Powder Nozzle SchematicMultijet NozzleCoaxial NozzleHere we can see how metal powder is incorporated into the laser puddle and fused to the component.This is accomplished using either a multijet or coaxial nozzle.The multijet has three discret streams of powder while the coaxial nozzle employs a full cone of blown powder. Generally speaking the coaxial nozzle is better suited for detail and fine depositions.
9Need for Cladding and Additive Manufacture AerospacePower GenerationOil/GasNow that we’ve discussed the foundation of cladding and additive who has the need?From the experience of Joining Technologies we’ve found a lot of the repair and restoration needs come from Aerospace, Power Generation and the Oil and Gas Industries.
10Special Challenges in Aerospace Processing Need: Overhaul and RepairProcess: Limited industry specificationsFAA & OEM barriersLimited to repair and design workDocument/ControlStringent metallurgical requirementsMinimal heat input requiredPoor capture rate: 30-40% detail, 12-20% knife edgesMachine cannot be modified after source approvalTest pieces are rare due to high cost of partAerospace components are primarily in need of overhaul and repair.In our experience there are a lot of challenges associated with aerospace processing. These are largely due to the limited industry specifications and barriers from the FAA & OEMs. Each want to know what spec you are welding to? Is it D17.1? Does it fall under any AWS qualification? They are very concerned with DERs. The one exception will be blade tip repairs that have been accepted under Huffman.Because of this any work for cladding will be restricted to design and repair work. Be aware that like all that surrounds the aerospace industry your cladding repairs must be well documented and controlled. There will be stringent metallurgical requirements in which distortion and the amount of heat input must be minimal. Typically the powder efficiency or powder rate will be low, 30-40% for detail work and what we’ve found as 12-20% for knife edge repairs.You’re work cell cannot be modified after source approvalAnd test pieces will be rare due to their high associated costs – coupon work will be necessary
11Special Challenges in Power Generation Need: Hard facing,corrosion resistanceLonger processing timesfor large part surface areasJT: 9.6lb/hr approx 90% capturePart geometry varies job to jobLess stringent on powder qualityOpen metallurgy requirementsAccepting of ↑HAZ, dilution, etc.Power generation components need hard facing and corrosion resistance.Biggest associated hurdle will be the long processing times for the surface area that must be covered. Best way to overcome this is to develop your processing parameters. Joining Tech has been able to obtain a 9.6lb/hr cladding at 90% capture, again largely dependent on feeds, speeds, parameter settings.You will find that that part geometry varies greatly from job to job- one job will be valve work and the next could be a flat surface.What is nice about cladding for power generation components is they are more open on metallurgy, accepting of increased HAZ, dilution, porosity, etc.
12Special Challenges in Oil/Gas Need: Hard facing,corrosion resistance,wear resistanceLonger processing timesfor large part surface areasLess stringent on powder qualityAccepting of ↑HAZ, dilution, etc.Like Power Generation, the Oil and Gas components need hard facing, corrosion resistance and also wear resistanceThe same challenges will be encountered here for longer processing times while there are benefits of open powder and metallurgy quality.
13Work Cell for Aerospace Processing Platform:Cartesian CNC preferredBeam quality is importantSolid-state systems -Disk or fibre lasersJT: 2kW → 4kW Trumpf disk laserClad Requirements:Powder- Rotary vs. AtomizedQuality is critical!Accepting of additive with wireTypical repair thickness < 0.060”Materials deposited include:Stellite 6, 21SS410, 410LIN 100If you aren’t deterred by these hurdles then lets discuss what type of work cell is preferred for each.Aerospace processing will benefit the most from a Cartesian CNC platform. May ask why not use robotics? You will need real time calculation and distribution of moments or loading between each axis for the high precision work of aerospace repair. The tool path accuracy CNC surpasses that of a robotic system.Beam quality is very important for that detail repair and so you can venture into using disk or fiber lasers, each provide better focusability! , 2kW of power will be sufficientIn terms of the clad powder itself the quality is very important. Each can be manufactured as rotary or atomized powder. Better quality comes from atomized, but you will pay the price per pound. If you can stick to repair processes using wire as the aerospace industry is more accepting of this method. The typical repair thickness will be above 0.060”Materials deposited can include:Inconel 625, 7184047
14Work Cell for Power Generation Processing Platform:Flexible beam quality,direct diode systems possible3 -7mm spot sizeCoaxial system, He powder deliveryClad requirements:Typical thickness 0.040” – 0.200”JT: deposited 0.040” – 3+”30-60 HRc, > 45 HRc cracking possible with carbide powdersMaterials deposited include:Inconel 622, 625, 718CarbidesSince the power generation industry is less stringent on quality of the clad you can be more flexible in terms of beam quality, this means direct diode systems are possibilities. Typically deposition will be between 3-7mm spot size and you will want to use a coaxial system with helium powder deliveryClad requirements:Materials deposited:Stellite 6, 21Ni-CrTool Steels
15Work Cell for Oil/Gas Processing Platform:Flexible beam quality, direct diodesystems possible3 -7mm spot sizeCoaxial system, He powder deliveryClad requirements:Typical thicknesses 0.040” – 2”> 0.080” cracking possibleMaterials deposited include:CarbidesNi-CrInconel 622, 625, 718Stellite 6, 21Like power generation, oil and gas processing is not restricted by quality and neither will your beam.Clad requirements:Materials deposited can include:WC-CrWC-Co-Cr
16Advantages of Powder vs. Wire Laser Wire CladdingWelding with wire is a well established aerospace processTypically lower capital investment than for powderCrack and pore free deposition is attainable for many common aerospace materials using commercially available wire100% utilization of filler materialSo you may now be wondering what do I choose, wire or powder?Laser wire cladding is a well established aerospace process….Conversely, laser powder cladding has higher maximums for deposition rates….Laser Powder Cladding:Higher maximum deposition ratesLarger variety of possible clad materialsProcessing head is compact, omnidirectional and completely non contactMinimum feature size and heat input are limited only by minimum laser focus size and economicsLower dilution
17Joining Technologies Laser Additive Systems LAW ® Work Cell EquipmentDesigned and built by Joining TechnologiesTrumpf TruDisk 1000 Laser supply3- Axis CNC control with rotaryWire 0.010” – 0.025” diameterClosed loop servo controlled wire feedReal time power density control while weldingNon contact profile scanning with data storageHighly efficient wire placement algorithmsVision based wire tracking within 0.003”Real time work piece temperature controlAt Joining Technologies we started additive processing with a completely home built system coined the LAW, or Laser Applied Wire. It is a Trumpf TruDisk 1000 (1kW) system with….
18Joining Technologies Laser Additive Systems LAP ® Work Cell EquipmentTrumpf TruDisk 4002 (4kW) Laser SupplyKUKA KR 30/HA (High Accuracy) RobotApprox. 6ft radius hemisphere range66lbs. payloadKUKA DKP Rotary/Tilt TableApprox. 880lbs. loadProgrammable Dual Powder FeedersOn the Fly Focus spot size controlMulti-jet or Coaxial powder deliveryWe like additive and cladding so much we then expanding to powder with the LAP or Laser Applied Powder platform. Started with a 2kW laser supply and recently upgrade to a Trumpf TruDisk 4002 (4kW) supply. Utilizing a KUKA KR 30 high accuracy robot with approximately….
19Joining Technologies Laser Additive Systems Equipment AcquisitionAugust installation of Trumpf 505 Powder Cladding system6kW CO2 Laser6.5ft X 3.2ft X 2.5ft envelope5 Axis motion platformHigh capacity rotaryProgrammable spot sizeHigh absolute and relative accuracyTwo hopper powder feedJoining Technologies is happy to announce that we are expanding our cladding capabilities with the acquisition of ….
20Joining Technologies Laser Additive Systems Lab Expansion and LAP ® UpgradeAdditional 10,000 sq ft cladding workspaceAccommodations for parts up to3ft dia x 40ft long x 5 tons30ft linear rail for robot positioningMulti-ton capacity precision head stock,tail stock and steady restsTo complement our new acquisition we are upgrading our lab for an additional 10,000 sq ft of workspace….
21ConclusionsBoth laser additive technologies, wire and powder, have many overhaul and repair applications for the aerospace, power generation, and oil/gas industries.When compared to traditional repair processes additive manufacturing maintains base metallurgy with low heat inputs and a high degree of control.Industry acceptance remains a challenge, but is sure to improve with continued research, development and testing.In conclusion we have found that both laser additive technologies, ….
22Thank You!Salay Stannard Process Development EngineerScott Poeppel Manager of Additive ProcessesDave Hudson PresidentVisitfor a detailed list of capabilitiesand to sign up for ourindustry video blogThank you again for inviting us and I’ll now take some time to try and answer any questions you may have about cladding or Joining Technologies….