2Pesticide Application Procedures This module will help you:Select appropriate application equipment and pesticide formulationsUnderstand equipment componentsDetermine pesticide application ratesChose drift reduction practicesYou must understand what types of application equipment are available and how to use them correctly in order to get effective pest control. Depending on your equipment, you’ll select a pesticide formulation that can be efficiently applied.This requires that you understand basic equipment concepts and the major components of the equipment.Once you have selected the equipment, you need to understand label directions regarding how to apply the product and how to calculate the amount of spray and product needed.Because most applications are made by spraying, we’ll review some practices you can use to reduce spray drift.
3Application Methods Broadcast Air, ground, boat Band Crack and crevice Univ. of Missouri - LincolnBroadcastAir, ground, boatBandCrack and creviceIn the Directions for Use section of the label, it states what application methods can be used for the product. As you remember from the Federal Law module, it’s legal to use a method that’s not listed on the label, but manufacturers give instructions on the most common approaches. Let’s look at some.Broadcast treatments can be made by aircraft, ground application equipment and by boats. By broadcast you fully cover a large area.Band treatments are common in agriculture when crops are grown in rows. You then band a treatment either over the crop row and skip the unplanted area, or treat between the crop rows without treating the crop. By using band treatments, you greatly reduce the amount of product needed.Crack and crevice treatments are common when treating in and around buildings.
4Application Methods Spot Basal Space treatment Tree/stem injection NV Dept. of AgSpotBasalSpace treatmentTree/stem injectionRope-wick or wiper treatmentSpot treatments are used to target a small area only. They are common for agriculture, landscapes, and rights-of-way applications. If sensitive species are in the area, it’s often wise to use a very targeted approach to pesticide use and spot spraying works well for this.Basal treatments are used for woody plant control. You simply apply to the lower portions of the tree or shrub and the exposed portions of the roots. Over time the pesticide is absorbed.Tree or stem injection is a more direct method for getting pesticide into the vascular systems of plants. When using injection, you typically use very concentrated amounts of product.Ropewick or wiper treatments rely on height differences between the crop and the weeds. For short crops and tall weeds, you can simply use equipment that wipes a herbicide across the tops of the tall weeds. This way the herbicide does not come in contact with the shorter crop and control is achieved.
5Application Placement FoliarSoil injectionSoil incorporationTillage, rainfall, irrigationWashington State UniversityThe label also indicates where the product needs to be placed. Foliar applications are just that, applying the pesticide to foliage. Soil injection is used around structures for termite control and in agriculture for soil pests.Soil incorporation is a term that directs the applicator to use tillage, rainfall, or irrigation to move a recently applied surface application into the soil. The spray application equipment may be combined with tillage equipment for incorporation, or incorporation may be a separate process. If you recall, incorporation was important for products that could be lost through volatility or blowing dust. Incorporation is also used to target pests that live in the soil or to move the product into the root zone for plant uptake.
6Types of Safety Systems Closed mixing and loading systemsMechanical systemsWater-soluble packetsEnclosed cabsPesticide Containment PadLynn County, ORRuss GloverThere are some safety considerations related to application equipment and planning. Several types of safety systems are used to protect either the applicator or the environment. Let’s look at three systems: Closed mix/load systems, enclosed cabs and pesticide containment pads.
7Closed Mixing and Loading Systems Prevent human contact with pesticides while mixing or loadingBenefitsIncrease human safetyReduce need for PPEDecrease likelihood of spillingAccurately measure pesticideClosed mixing and loading systems prevent human contact with the pesticide. They are a great way to reduce human exposure and also reduce the need for personal protective equipment. In addition, they reduce the possibility for mixing errors by accurately measuring the pesticide and decreasing the chance of spills. There are two primary closed systems, either mechanical or water-soluble packets.Camlock System
8Closed Mixing and Loading Systems: Mechanical Systems All in one systemRemove pesticide product from containerby gravity or suctionRinse pesticide containerTransfer pesticide and rinse solution to tank without being exposed to pesticide!Continuum™Mechanical closed systems are available for many different equipment sizes, from backpacks to large volume rights-of-way or agricultural application equipment.A mechanical device removes pesticide from the product container using either suction or gravity and transfers it into the spray tank or directly into the spray line.It also allows for closed system rinsing and transfer of the container rinsate into the tank.Again, no human exposure.
9Closed Mixing and Loading Systems: Mechanical Systems Product specificMini-bulk containersgallonsPump, drive and meter units deliver accurate amount from mini-bulk container to sprayerRefill containers – eliminates wasteThese systems are product-specific and when used with computer controls, the applicator can switch between several different products as they make their application.Mini-bulk tanks from 40 to 600 gallons also use a mechanical closed system to transfer material from the mini-bulks to the sprayer. By using mini-bulks, the containers can be returned and refilled. Some distributors actually make custom mixes to meet your specific needs.
10Closed Mixing and Loading Systems: Water-soluble packaging Easy systemUnopened pesticide package is dropped into the mix tankBag dissolves and pesticide is released into the tankAnother closed system is the easy to use water-soluble packets. You calculate the amount of product needed, and use the number of packets necessary for a spray batch. Simply drop the unopened packet into the spray mix water and it dissolves. As the packet dissolves, the pesticide is released into the spray mix.
11Enclosed Cabs May prevent exposure to pesticides if sealed correctly Supplement to PPE but not a replacementConsider cab contamination issuesEnclosed cabs provide protection for sprays and dusts. However, be very careful so you don’t contaminate the inside of the cab. Too often, applicators climb into the cab with contaminated clothing and gloves. This contaminates the cab and it is never clean again. If you use an enclosed cab, fit the unit with a toolbox where you can place your contaminated PPE before entering the clean cab. It’s also wise to use soap and water on your hands and face prior to climbing aboard.
12Pesticide Containment System Containment PadCatch spills, leaks, overflows and wash waterPrevent environmental contaminationImpermeable material (sealed concrete, synthetic liners, glazed ceramic tile, etc.)System for recovering and removing materialA mix/load containment pad protects the environment from accidental spills, leaks, and overflows. It also captures equipment rinsewater.Typically containment pads are constructed with an impermeable material like sealed concrete, synthetic liners or glazed ceramic tile. There’s no drain, unless the drain leads directly to a holding tank. A pump is used to recover the rinsewater or any spilled materials. This material is then placed in holding tanks for later use or disposal.This photo shows a brightly painted containment pad that indicates where the equipment should be parked. Portable mix/load containments pads are available.
13Application Equipment Hydraulic SprayerLiquidLarge power sprayers, small backpack and hand-held sprayersOkay, let’s shift to looking at some different types of application equipment and their major components. We won’t cover all the different types, such as the specialty equipment used for termites, seed treatment, and stored grain.If we look at turf, ornamental, forestry, and agricultural applications, the hydraulic sprayer is the primary piece of liquid spray application equipment. Hydraulic sprayers range in size from hand-held and back-packs to small, medium, and large power sprayers.
14Application Equipment Air-blast sprayerMistUses air as the carrierKen Giles, UC DavisAir-blast sprayers apply liquids by using air as the carrier to move the spray droplets into tree and vine canopies.
15Sprayer Components Tank Non-corrosive and easily cleaned Opening top and bottom for ease in filling and cleaningSprayers need a tank that is large enough to do the job, so you don’t have to go back and refill time and time again. The tank material must be non-corrosive. Some labels actually have precautions regarding certain tank materials, like poly or galvanized steel. Make sure the tank can be accessed from the top and bottom for filling and cleaning.All tanks need some type of agitation unit. As mentioned in the formulation module, most formulations require constant agitation to keep the spray solution well-mixed and to prevent settling.Tank AgitatorProvides continuous mixing of pesticide and carrier
16Sprayer Components Pump Provide pressure and volume to nozzles Corrosion and abrasion resistantRead manufacturer instructionsThere are several different types of pumps. Make sure your sprayer has a pump that provides ample pressure and volume to the nozzles. Some of the new low-drift nozzle technology requires higher pressures. The material in the pump must be resistant to corrosion and abrasion. Prior to purchasing a pump, read the manufacturer instructions and follow their maintenance guidelines.Roller pump
17Sprayer Components Nozzle Amount of material applied Orifice size => droplet sizeDistribution and droplet patternCoarse droplets-minimize off-target driftFine droplets-maximum surface coverageThe nozzle largely determines the amount of product that’s applied and the droplet size classification produced. In addition, the nozzle determines the pattern. Different patterns, like flat fan, hollow cone, or solid cone, are used to target different pests. Back to drift again. If you want to use a low drift application, select a coarse or medium spray. Nozzles and pressure determine droplet size.
18Sprayer Components: Nozzles Material selectionBrass – don’t use with abrasive materialPlasticHardened Stainless SteelCeramicBest if used with wettable powders and dry flowablesNozzles come in different types and prices. As you would expect, the cheaper the nozzle, the faster the wear.If you use formulations that are abrasive, like wettable powders, dry flowables, and water dispersible granules, they cause brass and aluminum nozzles to wear very quickly. So buying cheap can become an expensive investment, since you have to keep replacing nozzles.Plastic or nylon nozzles wear rapidly with emulisfiable concentrates.The best all-around nozzles that last fairly long are hardened stainless steel. However, if you can get over the sticker shock of ceramics, they may be the best nozzle since they last for quite a long time.Regardless of the nozzle type you use, make sure each nozzle is delivering an appropriate volume and spray pattern. Get a copy of the manufacturer nozzle guide booklet and refer to it each time you calibrate your sprayer.If a nozzle is not performing to the standards in the nozzle booklet, replace the nozzle. If more than a single nozzle is worn, replace all the nozzles on the spray boom.Avoid application problems and replace all worn nozzles
19Application Equipment Granular ApplicatorsBand or broadcastApplication rate affected byGround speedGate openingGranule size, shape, and densityTerrain and weather conditionsGranular applicators are used for band and broadcast applications. Their function is fairly basic and the output and coverage is regulated by the application speed, the size of the gate opening, the granule size, shape, and density, as well as the terrain and weather conditions.
20Granular Applicators Rotary Spreader Drop Spreader Spinning disk or fanHeaviest granules thrown fartherGranular applicators rely on one of two methods for delivery. One delivery method is the rotary spreader that uses a spinning disk or fan. With this type of delivery system, the heaviest granules are thrown the farthest. A drop spreader uses gravity to drop the material from the hopper to the ground. Drop spreaders deliver a much more precise application.Drop SpreaderGravityMore precise application
21Other Application Equipment Rubs, dipping vatsBait dispensersFoggersDustersChemigationWith the wide variety of pesticides and the diversity of places where they are applied, there are many other unique types of application equipment. Rubs and dipping vats are used for livestock pest control.Bait dispensers are used in and around buildings for cockroaches, rodents, flies, and the list goes on and on.Foggers are used for mosquito and biting fly control. There are several different types of dusters, but most are used in structures.Chemigation is a system that injects the pesticide directly into an irrigation system and is used primarily in agriculture and turf.Maryland Dept. of Ag.
22Equipment Calibration What is meant by calibrating equipment?Determine volume applied per area18 gallons appliedper 1 acreCalibration is the basis for accurate delivery of the appropriate product rate to the application site. Calibration is the process used to determine the amount of product that is applied per area. Again, volume of product per area.So to calibrate, you must be able to measure area and the amount of spray delivered. This first box is 1,000 square feet and if we applied 13 ounces to that area, the sprayer or granular applicator is calibrated at 13 ounces per 1,000 square feet.In turf and ornamentals, and pest control in and around buildings, labels are usually based on a 100 square foot or 1,000 square foot basis, so we calibrate using units that are similar to the label. So to calibrate a piece of equipment, measure and mark an area that is 1,000 square feet. Apply to that 1,000 square foot area and measure the amount applied. That is all there is to calibration.This second example illustrates applying to a full acre and measuring the volume applied, 18 gallons per acre. Or you can take a smaller area, say 1/100th of an acre, find the amount applied to it, then simply multiply by 100 to convert to an acre. Because it is easier and more convenient to apply to a smaller area, many people use a smaller area and then convert their numbers to an acre basis.13 ounces appliedper 1,000 sq. ftequivalent to:0.18 gals appliedper sq. ft
23Equipment Calibration Determine Application Rate (volume/area)Output = nozzles and pressureSprayer speedUniv. of Missouri - LincolnUniv. of Missouri - LincolnSo the basis of calibration is determining application rate. Application rate is a function of sprayer output and sprayer speed. Sprayer output is simply the amount delivered over time. It is controlled by nozzle size and pressure. Sprayer speed determines area covered over time.So if we measure an area and time how long it takes to cover that area, we know one factor.Then if we collect spray for the same amount of time it took to cover the area, we know output. You have determined output per area, that’s calibration.
24Equipment Calibration 1.6 feet x 100 feetNozzle spacing and calibration course lengthCalibration =Volume applied per area4 ounces per 160 ft2It may be easier to do calibration with a pencil and paper. Note the area covered for a single nozzle, for example 100 feet by 1.6 feet.Time how long it takes to cover 100 feet and collect nozzle output for that period of time. So, you have the output and area. The equipment calibration is done. There are many methods that can be used for calibration and there are different math formulas depending on the type of equipment you use.
25Equipment Calibration Tools needsMeasuring tape, markersStopwatchScale or container with graduated volumeTarp (granular)To calibrate you need some gadgets. You need a measuring tape and markers for measuring the area of your calibration trial. If you’re using granular application equipment, you need a scale to measure what you collect and you may need a tarp to collect the material. If you’re using a sprayer, you need a graduated measuring container to collect the nozzle output.
26Equipment Calibration Measure/mark a calibration areaApply using same technique when you will apply, time how long it takesCollect spray from one nozzleMultiply by number of nozzlesDetermine amount applied per area45 seconds= 17 ozLet’s look at the basic steps to calibrate a sprayer.First measure and mark your calibration area.Next fill the sprayer at least half full. Time how long it takes you to cover the calibration area using the same technique as when you would spray the product.For that same length of time that it took to cover the application area, collect the spray from a nozzle. Multiply by the number of nozzles on the boom. Measure the spray width of your boom and multiply by the calibration course. You’re done. You have determined the amount of spray delivered to a known area.15 feet x 200 feet45 seconds17 oz/nozzle x 10 = 170 oz per 3,000 square feet
27Calibration Formula 5940 x nozzle output in GPM GPA = MPH x nozzle spacing in INCHESGPA – gallons per acreMPH – miles per hourGPM – gallons per minuteHere’s an example of a math formula that might be used to calibrate a boom sprayer on an acre basis. You don’t need to memorize this formula, but let’s look at it.GPA is gallons per acre, that is the calibrated delivery rate this formula determines.GPM is the gallon per minute output of the nozzles, so we measure the output of the nozzle over time.Miles per hour tells us how far the sprayer moves over time.Nozzle spacing in inches tells us the width of the application. Width times miles gives us the area.5940 is a mathematical constant that coverts the many units like minutes, hours, inches, and miles into a single number.This formula simply measures output and area and is one method of calibration.It is critical when you use a formula to make certain you measure using the appropriate units. If the formula is in gallons per minute, make sure the number you measure is Gallons per minute. Because if you used ounces per minute in the formula, your calibration would be off by a factor of 128.If using formulas, make sure you measure appropriate units
28Equipment Calibration Calibrate based on label ratesAcre1000 sq.ft.100 sq.ft.For accuracy, use the area statedCan use smaller unit area and covert, but you loose some accuracyCalibrate your sprayer using the area basis unit found on the label. Some labels have product rates per acre, others 100 or 1,000 square feet.For best accuracy, measure out that full area noted on the label. If you use a smaller area and then covert the numbers, you lose some accuracy.
29Equipment Calibration Why is calibration important?Adjust equipment to get desired rateAchieve label rate for product deliveryMeet application volume requirementsEffective pest controlDoes not waste moneyPersonal and environmental safetyCalibration allows you to determine the delivery rate per area and if necessary you can adjust your application equipment to meet label requirements. If you calibrated your sprayer and it delivered 18 gallons per acre, but the label required a minimum of 20 gallons per acre, you need to adjust the equipment. After adjusting the equipment, it is important to recalibrate to make sure you meet the minimum label requirement. Equipment that is properly calibrated delivers the proper rate to the target pest. If equipment is not calibrated correctly you may apply too much or too little. Either way, you waste money by using too much, or not achieving control with the money invested. Remember our discussion about product registration, to achieve pest management with no unreasonable effects on humans and the environment, you must apply the appropriate amount. If you apply more, harm may occur, as well as illegal residues.
30Equipment Calibration How often should you calibrate?PeriodicallyAny change in equipment set upWhenever change productsCalibrate the equipment any time you change equipment set-up, such as changing nozzles, pump pressure, or boom height. If you change products, calibrate your equipment. At least once a season, probably more often, check equipment for wear. A worn nozzle delivers more output.If you’re concerned about application costs or efficacy, accurate calibration is critical. Can you imagine the amount of money wasted if you misapplied along a railroad for 200 miles?Any error in calibration hits the pocketbook. And when you don’t apply a sufficient rate to control the pest, you’ve wasted money and time.Calibration is importantTake the time to do it right and often
31Oh no, Math!Equipment calibration and application requires basic math skillsRemember, you can always refer to manuals for formulas but you need to know how to use the formulasYep, you guessed it. You need to have some basic math skills to be a certified pesticide applicator. You must be able to multiply and divide. You also need to know how to multiply fractions and do ratio calculations, so you can calculate the correct amount of product and spray mix.Some spray guides and reference materials have formulas to assist with equipment calibration and application. Make sure your units and calculations are accurate when using formulas.
32Area of Square/Rectangle 125 feetArea = Length x Width125 x 40 = 5,000 sq.ft.40 feetArea of Circler = 35 feetIt’s necessary to be able to calculate areas of basic shapes, like rectangles, circles, and triangles.Most people know how to calculate the area of a rectangle. Multiply the length times the width. For this example, multiply 125 feet by 40 feet and you get 5,000 square feet. The area of a circle relies on two math factors – the radius of the circle, which is half the diameter, and pi which is the math constant The area of a circle formula is the radius squared times pi, So 35 times 35 times 3.14 equals 3,846.5 square feet. Remember, don’t confuse diameter with radius which is half the diameter.Area = 3.14 x r23.14 x 35 x 35 = 3,846.5 sq.ft.r = radius
33Triangular Areas Area= base x height 2 Area= 20 x 30 = 300 sq.ft. 2 Now, to calculate the area of a triangle, multiply the base times the height divided by 2. In this example, the base is 20 feet and the height is 30 feet, multiplied that equals 600. Divide 600 by 2 and the area equals 300 square feet.20 ftbase
34Irregularly Shaped Sites (from Univ. of Missouri – Lincoln) W2=33B - baseL - lengthW - widthW1=30H=25B=25L2=31L1=42Use a combination of shapes and add their areas:Area = (B x H ÷ 2) + (L1 x W1) + (L2 x W2)(25 x 25 ÷ 2) + (42 x 30) + (31 x 33) = 2,595 sq.ft.Unfortunately, the real world is not all boxes, circles and triangles. You’ll need to calculate irregularly shaped areas.The area can be calculated by overlaying basic shapes onto your application site. This gives you a fairly close estimation of its area. Calculate each subunit area and add them all together to reach a total area for the application site. This illustration has one triangle and two rectangles.The triangle is base times height divided by 2, or 25 times 25 divided by 2. The first rectangle is 42 by 30, so multiply those two numbers together. The last rectangle is 31 times 33, so the total area is 2,595 square feet.
35Irregularly Shaped Sites (from Univ. of Missouri – Lincoln) 2,595 sq. ft.How much of an acre is this area?2,595 sq.ft. ÷ 43,560 sq.ft. = AcresNow, if you’re working in turf and the labels directions are per 1,000 square feet, you can determine how much spray is needed based on the 2,595 square feet total. However, if the label directions are based on acres, you must covert the square feet to a per acre basis. Divide the 2, 595 square feet by the area of an acre, 43,560 square feet. The 2,595 foot application area is 0.06 acres.REMEMBER:43,560 square feet in 1 acre
36Determining Application Rate Calibrated delivery rate of the sprayer is used to determine amount of pesticide concentrate you need and the amount of total spray mix neededREAD THE LABEL!!!Don’t be proud, ask for help and have someone double check your calculationsThe calibrated delivery rate must be determined before you can do the calculations to determine the amount of product you need for a job and the amount of spray mix needed. Read the label for any spray mix volume requirements and for the product rate.If you are uncertain with the calibration or any calculations, ask for someone to double check your math. Errors are dollars.
37Determining Application Rate Follow your units1000 square feet, acresGallons, quarts, pints, ouncesOunces, poundsPounds of active ingredientAs mentioned earlier, it’s easiest to do all your pesticide math if you calibrate your sprayer using the same units as listed in the use directions for the product you’re handling. Some labels state applications per acre, others per 1,000 square feet or even smaller units.Liquid product rates are listed in gallons, quarts, pints, ounces. Dry products are listed in ounces or pounds. If you’re following a recommendation, such as from an Extension bulletin, the rate is usually listed in the form of pounds of active ingredient, not product. You have to convert active ingredient rates to product rates once you have selected the product.Make sure you understand the units you’re using. If you need to change units, make sure you use the correct conversion factor.Read the LabelandWatch Math Units!
38Pesticide MathYou have a weed problem in a 40 ft. x 300 ft. turf area. The herbicide label says to apply 4 ounces of product per 1000 square feet. How many ounces of product do you need to comply with the label directions?Area = 40 ft x 300 ft = 12,000 sq.ft.Okay, let’s do a basic pesticide math problem.We are going to treat a turf area that is 40 feet by 300 feet for a weed infestation. The label application rate is 4 ounces of product per 1,000 square feet. How many ounces of product do we need to treat the area? First, determine the area to be treated.40 times 300 equals 12,000 square feet. Most of you can do the rest in you head, but let’s look at how the math is actually done.Next, determine how many 1,000 square foot units there are in 12,000, so we take 12,000 and divide by 1,000 and get 12 units.If the label calls for 4 ounces per 1 unit of 1,000 square feet and we have 12 units, multiply 4 times 12. We need 48 ounces of product to treat the area.12,000 sq.ft. ÷ 1,000 sq.ft. = 12 units4 ounces x 12 units = 48 ounces needed
39Pesticide MathYou have a sprayer calibrated to deliver 20 gallons per acre. Your sprayer has a 300 gallon tank. The label states to apply 2 quarts per acre. How many gallons of product do you need to fill the tank?300 gallon tank ÷ 20 GPA = 15 acres coveredMany times you need more than a tank load of spray and you have to calculate how much product you need per tank load. In order to do this you first have to determine how much area one tank load covers. Let’s look at this example.Our sprayer is calibrated at 20 gallons per acre. The tank holds 300 gallons. The label rate is 2 quarts per acre.How much product goes into a full tank? To determine area treated, take the tank size in gallons, 300, and divide by the sprayer delivery rate of 20 gallons per acre. So the tank covers 15 acres.Now determine the amount of product needed. 15 acres times 2 quarts per acre equals 30 quarts. We’d usually convert this to gallons since it’s a larger volume. To convert quarts to gallons, divide 30 quarts by 4 quarts per gallon. So, it takes 7.5 gallons of product to make up 300 gallons of spray.This is a very common pesticide math problem.15 acres x 2 quarts/acre = 30 quarts30 quarts ÷ 4 qts/gal = 7.5 gallons
40Pesticide Math: Cross multiplication The label directs you to mix 1.5 quarts surfactant per 100 gallons of spray. How much surfactant do you need to make up 45 gallons of spray?1.5 quarts100 gallons? quarts45 gallons=Cross multiplication is another basic math skill for determining amount of surfactant or other spray additives, or for small volume applications by calculating equivalent ratios. If the label states a basic ratio, such as “use 1.5 quarts surfactant per 100 gallons of spray”, you can use cross multiplication to find the equivalent ratio for a larger or smaller volume.To set up the math problem, state the ratio you know on the left side of the equal sign.On the right side of the equal sign put the known value on the bottom and the unknown value on the top with an “x” or question mark. It is critical that the units on the right and left must be in the same position in the ratio.So if gallons is on the bottom on the right of the equal sign, it must be in the bottom position on the left. Otherwise, switch the figures on the left to match the right. In this example, gallons are on the bottom on both sides, and quarts are on the top on both sides. Once you have equivalent units on both sides, you can do cross-multiplication. Take the number on the lower right and multiply it by the number on the upper left, in this case, 45 times 1.5. Then divide the result by the number on the lower left, in this case That’s it. Make certain that your answer looks appropriate. 45 gallons is nearly half of 100 gallons so the number of quarts should be about half of 1.5 and quarts is just under half of 1.5 quarts. Always make sure the answer makes sense.1.5 quarts100 gallons? quarts45 gallons=1.5 x 45 qts100 gallons?=(1.5 x 45) ÷ 100 = quarts
41Minimizing Drift Read the Label Volatility Equipment restrictions Droplet size restrictionsNew technologyBuffersWind direction/speedTemperature InversionsH.E. OzkanOhio State Univ.Human exposures, plant damage, and impacts on the environment occur too frequently from poorly planned applications that result in drift. Let’s finish up this module by revisiting drift, since it’s an important issue for application planning.Labels provide warnings about products that have concern for volatility – read the label.Some labels list specific restrictions on application equipment. Orchard sprayers require that nozzles be directed at the target and that only one side of the sprayer can operate on the outer two tree rows. Other labels require specific volumes of spray be applied, so calibration is critical. Many newer labels state a specific droplet size classification that must be used and some recommend use of new low drift technologies. Today, there are labels that specify that there is a buffer or no-spray zone adjacent to an application.Labels may have requirements for downwind considerations and may limit applications during certain high or low wind speeds. Many labels prohibit the application of pesticides during a temperature inversion.In your application planning, it is your responsibility to minimize drift.
42Minimizing Drift Drift variables Application equipment Type of nozzleNozzle size and pressureSprayer speed – unstable boomDistance from sprayer to target siteDrift adjuvantsWeather assessmentWSDAWhen planning, your equipment set up and tank mix solution play an important role. The type of nozzle is key. Some nozzles provide for low drift applications. Nozzle size and pressure determine droplet size and the concern for spray drift. Sprayer speed controls how stable the boom is during an application. Bouncing booms make for driftable droplets. Boom height in relation to the crop plays an important role. Know how to plan your application to compensate for these concerns or to change your set up. Some drift adjuvants on the market work well, others not so well.Before and during the application, monitor weather conditions, wind direction, speed, temperature inversions, temperature, and humidity.A. Felsot, WSU
43Minimizing Drift: Type of Nozzle Drift reduction nozzlesLarger droplets are less likely to drift = larger orificeRead the labelIf you’re concerned with drift and need to minimize drift, use low drift nozzle technology. Make sure you understand the technical requirements for low drift technology because some of the new nozzles only provide effective pest control and low drift at higher pressures. When using regular nozzles, use nozzles with a larger nozzle orifice to get larger droplets. Again, read the label since itmay have specific nozzle restrictions.
44Minimizing Drift: Spray Pressure Increase pressure 4 times to double the nozzle output – consider drift when changing pressure1040Sprayer pressureat 40 psiSprayer output = 2 buckets10Sprayer pressureat 10 psiSprayer output = 1 bucketWhen discussing drift, it is important to consider the effect of pressure. Since both pressure and nozzle orifice determine sprayer output and droplet size, one might consider making changes with pressure to change output.However, to double your sprayer output, you actually have to increase the pressure 4 times.When you make large changes in pressure, you affect droplet size and can increase drift potential. However, when you change nozzles you get a one to one correlation; as you double the nozzle size, you double the output.So remember, pressure takes a 4-fold increase to double output while to double output by nozzles, double the size of the nozzle size. That’s why it’s recommended to manage drift with changes in nozzles, not pressure.
45Minimizing Drift Distance from target site Dr. Reinhard FriesslebenBayer CropScience - MonheimReducing the distance a droplet must fall before hitting the target site, reduces drift potentialApplication height affects drift because of the time it takes the droplets to fall. If you’re near sensitive sites and applying higher in the air, don’t apply right up to the edge of the field. Or when near the edge of the field, use another application method that applies closer to the target.
46Minimizing Drift Spray Adjuvants Several drift reduction adjuvants on the marketEvaluate to ensure you get drift reductionA. HewittA. HewittThere are several drift reduction products on the market. They change the viscosity of the spray mix so it breaks into larger droplets. Some products work and some don’t. So, evaluate these products before you rely on them for drift management.
47Lots of Decisions Mistakes are Costly Target site and pestPesticide choices and formulationsPPE, closed systemsEquipment selection set up, calibrationEnvironment where application is to take placeWhen planning an application, there are numerous considerations. Make sure the product is labeled for use on the target site. Be confident that it controls the pest. Select the best product and formulation based on safety, equipment, concerns, and costs. Use precautions to reduce your exposure. Consider appropriate PPE and closed systems for mixing and loading. Select equipment that is suitable for the job and that can handle the formulated product. Make certain it’s set up and functioning properly. Make sure it’s calibrated for the product. Assess environmental considerations and put in place appropriate precautions.
48Take the time to calibrate! Every sprayer needs to be calibratedMake sure applying correct amount of productBe a responsible pesticide applicatorOOPS!Calibration is essential to effective pest control. Whether it is a large or small application, spray, mist, dust, or granule, calibrate for the product you plan to use.Make sure you are delivering the correct dose to the target site. Keep an eye open at all times and be a responsible applicator.
49Q1. Which of the following would contribute to minimizing drift potential? Small nozzle orifice4 mph wind speedHigh spray pressure1 ½ foot boom heightQuestion 1. Which of the following would contribute to minimizing drift potential? 1. Small nozzle orifice, 2. 5 mph wind speed, 3. High spray pressure, ½ foot boom height. Select the correct answer. A. 1 and 3 only. B. 2 and 4 only. C. 1 and 4 only. D. 3 and 2 only.Correct Answer – B – A 4 mph wind allows the applicator to assess wind direction which is critical to managing drift. A 4 mph wind also remains relatively constant and blows in one major direction, now you just have to manage the number of droplets moving and by applying as close to the target as possible, like one and a half feet assists in managing drift. Small nozzles make small droplets as does high pressure. Typically to manage drift you select nozzles with a larger orifice and use lower pressures.A. 1 and 3 onlyB. 2 and 4 onlyC. 1 and 4 onlyD. 3 and 2 only
50Broadcast application Dip Basal application Q2. Which type of application would you perform to treat a basement where there is evidence of a cockroach infestation?Broadcast applicationDipBasal applicationCrack and crevice applicationQuestion 2. Which type of application would you perform to treat a basement where there is evidence of a cockroach infestation? A. Broadcast application. B. Dip. C. Basal application. D. Crack and crevice application.Correct answer – D -
51Q3. You need to treat a round golf green. The diameter of the golf green is 100 ft. The label rate is 3 oz. of product to 1,000 sq. ft. How much product do you need to treat the green? (area circle = 3.14 x r2)3.14 x 50 x 50= 7,8503 oz x 7.85= 23.5Question 3. You need to treat a round golf green. The diameter of the golf green is 100 ft. The label rate is 3 oz. of product to 1,000 sq. ft. How much product do you need to treat the green? A ounces. B. 47 ounces. C ounces. D ounces. Remember, the area of a circle is 3.14 times radius squared.Take a minute and try this calculation. If the diameter is 100, then the radius is 50. Fifty times 50 times 3.14 equals 7,850 square feet. Divide 7,850 by 1,000 to find out how many units you have. There are 7.85 units of 1,000 square feet each in the circle. So, 7.85 times 3 ounces equals 23.5 ounces needed to treat that circle. Correct answer is A.A ouncesB. 47 ouncesC ouncesD ounces
52AcknowledgementsWashington State University Urban IPM and Pesticide Safety Education Program authored this presentationIllustrations were provided by Kansas State University, University of Missouri-Lincoln, Virginia Tech., Washington State Dept. of Agriculture, Washington State UniversityThis presentation was authored by Carrie Foss, Becky Hines, Carol Ramsay, and Brett Johnson of Washington State University Urban IPM and Pesticide Safety Education Program.In addition to sources noted on the image, graphics were provided by the following sources : Kansas State University, University of Missouri-Lincoln, Virginia Tech., Washington Dept. of Agriculture, and Washington State University
53AcknowledgementsPresentation was reviewed by Beth Long, University of Tennessee; Ed Crow, Maryland Dept. of Agriculture; Jeanne Kasai, US EPA; and Susan Whitney King, University of DelawareNarration was provided by Carol Ramsay, Washington State University Urban IPM & Pesticide Safety EducationThe presentation material was reviewed by Beth Long, University of Tennessee; Ed Crow, Maryland Dept. of Agriculture; Jeanne Kasai, US EPA; and Susan Whitney King, University of Delaware.Narration was provided by Carol Ramsay, Washington State University Urban IPM & Pesticide Safety Education Program.
54Support for this project was made possible through EPA Office of Pesticide Program cooperative agreements with the Council for Agricultural, Science and Technology, and the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture Research Foundation. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views and policies of the EPA.