Presentation on theme: "36th Annual Frontiers in Education Conference"— Presentation transcript:
1 36th Annual Frontiers in Education Conference San Diego, CA, Oct , 2006THIS IS ROCKET SCIENCE: DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A HYBRID ROCKET MOTOR IN A ROCKET PROPULSION COURSEAnthony J. MarcheseMechanical EngineeringRowan University201 Mullica Hill Rd.Glassboro, NJ 08028
2 Motivation for the Hybrid Rocket Motor Project Private Sector Opportunities in Space ExplorationOn October 4, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first private manned spacecraft to exceed an altitude of 328,000 feet twice within a 2 week period, thereby claiming the $10 million Ansari X-Prize.SpaceShipOne was powered by a hybrid rocket motor (liquid N2O, solid polymer fuel)N2Osolid fuel
3 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Objectives, Design Parameters and ConstraintsObjectives of the semester design project:Design, build and test a hybrid rocket motor.Develop a theoretical model that predicts the performance of the hybrid rocket motor as a function of time.Compare measured performance with theoretical model.Constraints:Oxidizer must be gaseous oxygen (GOX)Maximum Chamber Pressure: 115 psia, Ambient Pressure: 14.7 psiaMaximum GOX flow rate: 500 SLPMMinimum initial thrust: 5 lbfFuel grain outer diameter = inMaximum Fuel Grain Length = 12 inFuel: HTPB, HTPB/AL, PMMA, PE, UHMW or paraffin
4 Characteristic Exhaust Velocity Hybrid Rocket Motor Design ProjectTheoretical Model: This is Rocket ScienceAbsolid fuelApLiquid oxidizerAtAePcTc, Xi, gFuel Regression RateThrust CoefficientSpecific Heat RatioFuel Mass Flow RateCharacteristic Exhaust VelocityThrustChamber PressureSpecific Impulse
5 Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Theoretical Model ResultsThe detailed analytical model was used to predict the variation in fuel flow rate, O/F ratio, chamber pressure, thrust and specific impulse (Isp) with time.
6 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Concept Design and Parametric DesignThe theoretical hybrid rocket motor model was also used iteratively optimize their final design to choose the following parameters:fuel grain lengthport diameterthroat diameternozzle area rationozzle exit diameterLdpdtdeFinal design drawings were generated for the combustion chamber and the supersonic nozzle using Solid Works.
7 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project FabricationCombustion chambers were fabricated from aluminum round stock using manual lathesSupersonic nozzles were fabricated from graphite using a CNC turning center
8 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Fuel FormulationHydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) was formulated, mixed with aluminum particles and cured.Other fuels such as PMMA, HDPE and UHMW were machined from solid round stock
9 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Development of the Hybrid Rocket Motor Test StandMass flow rate was measured and controlled using a Teledyne Hastings HFC203 Mass Flow Controller.Thrust was measured using an Omega LC load cell.Chamber pressure was measured using an Omega Pressure Transducer.The Objective: Deliver a hybrid rocket motor test stand capable of measuring thrust (0-10 lb), chamber pressure (0-250 psig), oxygen mass flow rate (0-500 SLPM)The Team: Two senior mechanical engineering students, one junior mechanical engineering student and one senior electrical engineering student.The ignition system consists of dual automotive spark plugs which are energized using an ETP 300ST solid state induction coil
10 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Development of the Hybrid Rocket Motor Test StandFlow ControllerSolenoid ValveIgnitersPressure TransducerCheck Valve
11 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Development of the Hybrid Rocket Motor Test StandLoad CellLinear Bearing
12 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Data AcquisitionData acquired included:instantaneous chamber pressure,thrust,oxygen mass flow rate andhigh speed dynamic chamber pressureThe data were acquired using an Agilent 34970A Data Acquisition Unit with GPIB interface and an HP 54645D digital storage oscilloscopeWith these data, each team was able to measure specific impulse (Isp), characteristic exhaust velocity (C*) and thrust coefficient (CF) and compare these measurements to their analytical models.
13 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Is this valve open?…first test firing of the Hybrid Rocket Motor Test stand.
14 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Test Firing (HTPB/AL/GOX)
15 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project Experimental ResultsThe analytical models reproduced the experimental data reasonably well.When the variation in actual oxygen mass flow rate was taken into account, analytical results matched the experiments very well!
16 The Hybrid Rocket Motor Design Project ConclusionsAt the beginning of the semester, students showed very little awareness of the space program and its significance (both historic and contemporary).This condition is surprising to the generation who grew up wanting to be astronauts.The hybrid rocket design project was successful in introducing a new generation of students to rocket science.The hybrid rocket motors were inexpensive, relatively easy to build and safe.The hybrid rocket motor test stand was an effective junior/senior level design project. Total project cost was approximately $2000.The test stand is now being used for scholarly pursuits.