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Photosynthesis Energy, from light to sugar. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which the energy of a photon is captured and stored in the.

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Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis Energy, from light to sugar. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which the energy of a photon is captured and stored in the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Photosynthesis Energy, from light to sugar

2 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which the energy of a photon is captured and stored in the chemical bonds of a carbohydrate.

3 Light ‘All around us, moving through us, are countless photons, little packets of pure energy, each moving as fast as possible, and each riding a wave…’

4 Light Light, or visible light, is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength that is visible to the human eye (about 400–700 nm) In a scientific context, the word light is sometimes used to refer to the entire electromagnetic spectrum Light is composed of an elementary particle called a photon

5 Photons Photons are packets of energy, moving at 3x10 8 m/s. As they travel they move in a waveform The distance between two peaks is a called the wavelength The number of wavelengths that pass in a given time period is the frequency

6 Electromagnetic Radiation Higher frequency = short wavelength = higher energy photon

7

8 Pigment A pigment is a material that changes the color of light it reflects as the result of selective color absorption (it absorbs specific photons of certain wavelengths and reflects other photons) Living organisms use pigment molecules transfer light energy to electrons chlorophyll The main photosynthetic pigment found in plants is chlorophyll

9 Plant Pigments Plants use a variety of pigments to capture a larger range of the light spectrum

10 Plant pigments

11 Absorption spectrum The wavelengths of light absorbed by the molecular pigment chlorophyll

12 Action spectrum The wavelengths of light absorbed by a plant

13 Absorption vs action spectrum

14 Engelmann’s experiment

15 Photosynthesis Overview

16 The Chloroplast

17 The chloroplast

18 Thylakoid The protein complexes involved in the light dependent reaction are located in the thylakoid membrane

19 The Light Dependent Reaction

20 Light Dependent Reaction 1.Water is split, O 2 is released electrons pass to chlorophyll at reaction center protons are released into thylakoid lumen 2.Photons strike photosystem II resonance energy excites electrons 3.Excited electrons are passed through electron transport chain to photosystem I protons pumped into thylakoid lumen ATP synthesized through chemiosmosis 4.Photons strike photosystem I 5.Excited electrons are passed to NADP+

21 Photosystem

22 Redox and Resonance redox Electrons can be donated – redox resonance Electrons can transfer energy to nearby electrons - resonance

23 Light dependent reaction Photolysis –water molecule is lysed by enzyme Photoactivation –e - are excited by photon energy Photophosphorylation –e - are passed through electron transport chain –ATP generated by chemiosmosis Photoreduction –e - are accepted by NADP+, it is reduced to NADPH

24 The Light Dependent Reaction

25 Non-cyclic Photophosphorylation Electrons move linearly through reaction from lysis of water to reduction of NADP+

26 Cyclic Photophosphorylation Electrons reach photosystem II and are returned to electron transport chain, producing additional ATP through chemiosmosis

27 Light dependent reaction Reactants 1.Water 2.Photon 3.ADP + Pi 4.NADP+ Products 1.Molecular oxygen ATP (from chemiosmosis) 3.NADPH

28 The Light independent reaction

29 Also known as the Calvin cycle Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast Combines CO 2 with electrons from NADPH and energy supplied by ATP Ribulose biphospate (RuBp) is the initial reactant and the final product Rubisco adds CO 2 to RuBp (carbon fixation) Each turn creates 1 G3P (3 carbons) that exits the cycle 2 G3Ps are then combined to make 1 glucose

30 The Light Independent Reaction : The Calvin Cycle

31 The Calvin Cycle

32 The light independent Reaction Reactants 1.RuBp 2.NADPH 3.ATP 4.CO 2 Products 1. RuBp 2. NADP+ 3. ADP + Pi 4. G3P

33 Factors affecting rate of photosynthesis The rate of photosynthesis can be measured directly by oxygen production, or indirectly by increase in biomass Several variables will influence the rate of photosynthesis 1.Light intensity – amount of sunlight 2.Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration 3.Temperature

34 Limiting Factor The variable which determines the rate of photosynthesis is called the limiting factor The limiting factor will vary between environments

35 Rates of photosyntesis

36 Factors affecting rate of photosynthesis Can you give a reasoned explanation for the shape of these curves?

37 Review Write a description of the light dependent reaction, include… –Photolysis, photoactivation, photophosphorylation, and photoreduction Explain how the light independent reaction (calvin cycle) uses the products of the light dependent reaction. From memory draw the graphs showing the effects of the three factors that limit the rate of photosynthesis.


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