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Week 10 Chemistry Atomic Theory, Electromagnetics, Physics Basics

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Warm Up: 4 Minutes Which model of the atom do you identify with? Explain. Be Ready to Share Aloud Write the Learning Target You should be working SILENTLY Stay in your own seat A B C

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Agenda Warm Up: 6 Min Gallery Walk Expectations: 3 mins Gallery Walk: 20 mins Guided Practice: 11 mins Independent Practice: 12 mins Closing: 1 Min

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Announcements Assignments, syllabus, and class calendar posted on Sharpstown Website (under my page) Go to “Faculty & Staff” Click on Ghosh, Niloy Assignment names have links to worksheet/activity. If you lose the assignment from class, it is your responsibility to print it out and bring it completed.

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Gallery Walk Expectations Students will remain with their group Students will not move stations until instructed to do so by teacher Students will stay on task and remain focused for duration of activity

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Gallery Walk You will have 4 minutes at each station Fill out the information on your guided notes handout Do not move stations UNTIL instructed to do so

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Guided Practice Mr. Ghosh: Project a multiple question Student will: 1. SILENTLY read the question to your self and pick an answer [21 seconds] 2. Take 39 seconds to speak with your shoulder partner to chose the correct answer and discuss why it is the correct answer. [39 seconds] 3. When Mr. Ghosh says “SWAG” all students should be SILENT

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Consider the following selected postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory: I. Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. II. Atoms are indivisible. III. Atoms of a given element are identical. IV. Atoms of different elements are different and have different properties. Which of the above statements is (are) no longer considered to be true? A. III and IV B. II only C. I and II D. II and III

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Consider the following selected postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory: I. Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. II. Atoms are indivisible. III. Atoms of a given element are identical. IV. Atoms of different elements are different and have different properties. Which of the above statements is (are) no longer considered to be true? A. III and IV B. II only C. I and II D. II and III

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As a result of Rutherford’s gold foil experiment, it was determined that the atom: A. was indivisible. B. was composed of a small, dense negative center but was mostly empty space. C. was composed of a small, dense positive center but was mostly empty space. D. was composed of negatively charged particles spread throughout a positively charged substance

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As a result of Rutherford’s gold foil experiment, it was determined that the atom: A. was indivisible. B. was composed of a small, dense negative center but was mostly empty space. C. was composed of a small, dense positive center but was mostly empty space. D. was composed of negatively charged particles spread throughout a positively charged substance

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Based on his observations, the English chemist John Dalton formulated an atomic theory A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 In 1897, J.J. Thomson showed that negative charges could be made to move from one end of a cathode ray to another, causing the tube to glow. Because of this, Thomson is credited with the discovery of the electron. Based on this information, which part of Dalton’s atomic theory conflicted with Thomson’s new data?

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Based on his observations, the English chemist John Dalton formulated an atomic theory A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 In 1897, J.J. Thomson showed that negative charges could be made to move from one end of a cathode ray to another, causing the tube to glow. Because of this, Thomson is credited with the discovery of the electron. Based on this information, which part of Dalton’s atomic theory conflicted with Thomson’s new data?

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The planetary model of the atom was proposed by _____. A. Bohr B. Thomson C. Dalton D. Democritus

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The planetary model of the atom was proposed by _____. A. Bohr B. Thomson C. Dalton D. Democritus

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Independent practice Complete the writing assignment on the scientists. You must include all of the REQUIRED information to receive FULL CREDIT

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Closing How has the atomic model changed over time?

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Warm Up: 4 Minutes How would you define light? Write a Minimum of Three Sentences Write the Learning Target You should be working SILENTLY Stay in your own seat

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Agenda Warm Up: 7 Minutes Cornell Style notes: 18 Minutes Guided Practice: 10 Minutes Independent Practice: 15 Minutes Closing: 3 Minutes

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Take out paper for notes BLUERED

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The final model of the atom stemmed from the study of light. By 1900, most scientists accepted the idea that light was a wave phenomenon Light

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According to the wave phenomenon, light consisted of ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS

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λλ Distance between the crests Wavelength

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CHECK POINT How many wavelengths are in this wave cycle? 2

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f f Number of wave cycles to pass a given point per unit of given time. Frequency

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Relationship between frequency and wavelength λ and f are opposites (inversely related) λ decreases (↓), f increases (↑)

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What about energy and frequency?

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Relationship between energy and frequency Energy and frequency are directly Related E increases (↑), f increases (↑)

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What about energy and wavelength?

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Relationship between energy and wavelength Energy and wavelength are opposites (inversely Related) E increases (↑), λ decreases (↓)

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Check Point Diego burns Sodium metal and watches it turn yellow at a frequency of 4.2 x 10 7 H z. However, Dalvin burns an unknown metal and it emits a red light with a frequency of 2.3 x 10 7 H z. Which student had the metal that emitted photons of light with a shorter wavelength? Diego

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That’s great…But what about numbers? To compare very large or very small numbers (with scientific notation, such as 10 5 ), we need to look at the exponent Exponent Power to which a number is raised Example: is the exponent

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The Exponent Number Line Smaller Value Larger Value Exponent

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Check point Which value is larger, 3.2 x 10 6 or 1.8 x 10 9 ? 1.8 x 10 9 (Because 9 is bigger than 6)

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Check point Which value is smaller, 6.1 x or 8.9 x ? 8.9 x (Because -7 is smaller than -5)

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Electromagnetic Spectrum This model shows the types of electromagnetic energy (separated by their different wavelengths).

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Electromagnetic Spectrum (shortest wavelength, Highest frequency) Gamma rays X-rays Ultraviolet Visible light Infrared Microwaves Radio waves (longest wavelength, lowest frequency)

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Electromagnetic Spectrum (shortest wavelength) Gamma rays X-rays Ultraviolet Visible light Infrared Microwaves Radio waves (longest wavelength) VioletIndigoBlueGreenYellowOrangeRed Shortest Wavelength, Highest Frequency) (Longest Wavelength, Lowest Frequency)

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Check Point Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has the lowest frequency? a. Blue Light b. X- Rays c. Radio Waves d. Infrared Waves

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Guided Practice Mr. Ghosh: Project a multiple question Student will: 1. Silently read the question to your self and think about an an answer [19 seconds] 2. Take 41 seconds to speak with your shoulder partner to chose the correct answer and discuss the best answer choices and explain your opinion. [41 seconds] 3. When Mr. Ghosh says “SWAG” all students should be SILENT

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A wave with low energy has the following properties: a. High frequency, long wavelength b. High frequency, short wavelength c. Low frequency, long wavelength d. Low frequency, short wavelength

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A wave with low energy has the following properties: a. High frequency, long wavelength b. High frequency, short wavelength c. Low frequency, long wavelength d. Low frequency, short wavelength

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Electromagnetic waves with high frequencies have been used for medical imaging. These waves most likely belong to which of the following parts of the electromagnetic spectrum? a. Microwaves b. Infrared waves c. Radio waves d. X-rays

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Electromagnetic waves with high frequencies have been used for medical imaging. These waves most likely belong to which of the following parts of the electromagnetic spectrum? a. Microwaves b. Infrared waves c. Radio waves d. X-rays

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Which of the following graphs best represents the relationship of the frequency of an electromagnetic wave to its wavelength? A B C D

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A B C D

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As a distant star moves toward Earth, the light given off by the star has a measurably higher frequency. What happens to the wavelength and energy of the photons of light when the frequency becomes higher? a. The wavelength becomes longer, and the energy decreases b. The wavelength becomes shorter, and the energy decreases c. The wavelength becomes longer, and the energy increases d. The wavelength becomes shorter, and the energy increases

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As a distant star moves toward Earth, the light given off by the star has a measurably higher frequency. What happens to the wavelength and energy of the photons of light when the frequency becomes higher? a. The wavelength becomes longer, and the energy decreases b. The wavelength becomes shorter, and the energy decreases c. The wavelength becomes longer, and the energy increases d. The wavelength becomes shorter, and the energy increases

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Independent Practice Practice Makes 85%

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Closing Which direction is frequency increasing? Wavelength?

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Warm Up: 5 Minutes You took your second assessment on Thursday. Answer the following questions about the assessment in COMPLETE SENTENCES: How do you think you performed on Assessment 2? What did you do to prepare for Assessment 2? What could you have done to better prepare for Assessment 2? Write the Learning Target You should be working SILENTLY Stay in your own seat

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Just Something to Think About? “ Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off your goal.” - Henry Ford

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Agenda Warm Up [7 minutes] Review: Purpose of tracking [5 minutes] Answer Key [ 8 minutes] Modeling Tracking [10 minutes] You Track [ 10 minutes] Rationalize Questions /Corrections[10 minutes ] Closing : [3 Minutes]

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Answer Key As Mr. Ghosh goes through the answers, highlight the ones you got wrong 1. B 2. D 3. C 4. C 5. D 6. B 7. A 8. D 9. B 10. C 11. A 12. D 13. D 14. B 15. A 16. D 17. B 18. A 19. B 20. C 21. A 22. A 23. A 24. B 25. C 26. C 27. D 28. C

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Tracking Method to measure your performance on specific skills or objectives.

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Purpose of Tracking For students to know which skills you have mastered and which skills need some work

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When Will You Track?? You will track after every Unit Assessment.

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What does Tracking Look Like? Objectives Questions on the Exam Your Points Total PointsPercent Mastery Bar GraphMastery 85% or Chem.4A Physical and Chemical

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What does Tracking Look Like? Objectives Questions on the Exam Your Points Total PointsPercent Mastery Bar GraphMastery 85% or Chem.4A Physical and Chemical 1-5

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What does Tracking Look Like? Objectives Questions on the Exam Your Points Total PointsPercent Mastery Bar GraphMastery 85% or Chem.4A Physical and Chemical 1-5??? [3 if you got 3 out of 5 correct]

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What does Tracking Look Like? Objectives Questions on the Exam Your Points Total PointsPercent Mastery Bar GraphMastery 85% or Chem.4A Physical and Chemical 1-5??? [3 if you got 3 out of 5 correct] 5

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What does Tracking Look Like? Objectives Questions on the Exam Your Points Total PointsPercent Mastery Bar GraphMastery 85% or Chem.4A Physical and Chemical 1-5??? [3 if you got 3 out of 5 correct] 5 Your points x100 Total points

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Percent Mastery Cathy received 1 point out of 4 possible points. What is her percent mastery? Your points x100 Total points 25%

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What does Tracking Look Like? Objectives Questions on the Exam Your Points Total PointsPercent Mastery Bar GraphMastery 85% or Chem.4A Physical and Chemical 1-5??? [3 if you got 3 out of 5 correct] 5 Your points x100 Total points Shade in your % mastery

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You Do It Use your assessment to determine what you’re good at and what you need help with ….

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On a piece of paper, write Mr. Ghosh a letter addressing all the following questions in complete sentences for full credit. [5 Minutes] 1. What will you do to ensure that you master the objectives that you didn’t perform well on? 2. Does your grade reflect how hard you worked? 3. Are you proud of your grade? 4. Is your grade reflective of your best work ?

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Corrections For each number you got incorrect: 1. Write the number of the question. 2. Write the letter you chose. 3. Re-evaluate the question and chose a different answer and explain why you chose a different answer.

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Closing Reflect on the effort you have put into this class thus far, what are your next steps that need to be implemented so that we can reach our big goal?

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Warm Up: 4 Minutes As a distant star moves away from earth, the light given off by the star has a measurably lower frequency. What happens to the wavelength and energy of the photons of light when the frequency becomes lower? A. The wavelength becomes longer, and the energy decreases B. The wavelength becomes shorter, and the energy decreases C. The wavelength becomes longer, and the energy increases D. The wavelength becomes shorter, and the energy increases. Write the Learning Target You should be working SILENTLY Stay in your own seat

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Agenda Warm Up: 7 Minutes Examples: 15 Minutes Guided Practice: 13 Minutes Independent Practice: 15 Minutes Closing: 3 Minutes

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Take out paper for notes BLUERED

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ConceptSymbolUnit Wavelength

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ConceptSymbolUnit Wavelength λ

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ConceptSymbolUnit Wavelength λ Meters, m

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ConceptSymbolUnit Wavelength λ Meters, m Frequency

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ConceptSymbolUnit Wavelength λ Meters, m Frequencyf

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ConceptSymbolUnit Wavelength λ Meters, m FrequencyfHz or 1/s

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Speed of Light (C) 3.00 x 10 8 m/s

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Speed of Light Formula

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DO NOT FORGET YOUR UNITS!!! If you are finding frequency, your units should be in Hz If you are finding wavelength, your units should be in meters (m)

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How do we use this formula? If you have frequency, and need to find wavelength?

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How do we use this formula? If you have wavelength, and need to find frequency?

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You Will Need a Calculator…

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Example 1 Calculate the wavelength of the yellow light emitted by a sodium lamp if the frequency of the radio is 5.10 x Hz. G U E S S

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How to put this in the calculator? C = 3.00 x 10 8 On calculator: 3.00 [2 nd ] X -1 8 f = 5.10 x On calculator: 5.10 [2 nd ] X On the Calculator, pressing “[2 nd ] X -1 ” is the same as “x 10 n ” in the problem /

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Answer: m

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Example 2 The yellow light given off by a sodium vapor lamp used for public lighting has a wavelength of 5.89x m. What is the frequency of this radiation? G U E S S

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How to put this in the calculator? C = 3.00 x 10 8 On calculator: 3.00 [2 nd ] X -1 8 λ = 5.89 x On calculator: 5.89 [2 nd ] X -1 (-) 7 On the Calculator, pressing “[2 nd ] X -1 ” is the same as “x 10 n ” in the problem /

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Answer: 5.09 x Hz

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We DO (3) The FM radio station KJAZ broadcasts at 2.95 x 10 5 Hz. What is the wavelength of the Radio Waves broadcast by this station? G U E S S

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How to put this in the calculator?

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Answer: m

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We do (4) The wavelength of an argon laser’s output is 4.61 x m. Calculate the frequency of this wavelength of electromagnetic radiation. G U E S S

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Answer: 6.51 x Hz

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Keep Practicing

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Closing Which equation establishes the relationship between wavelength and frequency ?

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Warm Up: 4 Minutes A certain electromagnetic wave has a frequency of 24 x 10 9 Hz. What is its wavelength? A. 80 meters B meters C. 8 meters D meters Write the Learning Target You should be working SILENTLY Stay in your own seat

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Agenda Warm Up: 6 Minutes Examples: 12 Minutes Guided Practice: 9 Minutes Independent Practice: 10 Minutes Closing: 3 Minutes

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Let’s See this in Real Life!!

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Take out paper for notes BLUERED

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Energy (E) The ability to do work Units are Joules (J)

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Planck’s constant (h) 6.63 x J ·sec

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Energy Formulas Energy

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Check Point What is c? Speed of Light What is its value? 3.00 x 10 8 m/s

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Check Point What is h? Planck’s constant What is its value? 6.63 x J·sec

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Check Point What is f? Frequency What are its units? Hz or 1/s

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Check Point What is λ? Wavelength What are its units? Meters (m)

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DO NOT FORGET YOUR UNITS!!! Energy is in Joules!

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You Will Need a Calculator…

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Example 1 The human eye can see light with a frequency about as high as 7.9 x Hz, which appears violet. Calculate the energy that one photon of violet light carries. G U E S S

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How to put this in the calculator? h = 6.63 x On calculator: 6.63 [2 nd ] X -1 (-) 34 f = 7.9 x On calculator: 7.9 [2 nd ] X On the Calculator, pressing “[2 nd ] X -1 ” is the same as “x 10” in the problem x

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Answer: 5.24 x J

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Example 2 Calculate the smallest increment of energy that is the quantum of energy, which an object can absorb from a red light whose wavelength is 772 m. G U E S S

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How to put this in the calculator? λ = 772 On calculator: 772 On the Calculator, pressing “[2 nd ] X -1 ” is the same as “x 10” in the problem / h = 6.63 x On calculator: 6.63 [2 nd ] X -1 (-) 34 X C = 3.00 x 10 8 On calculator: 3.00 [2 nd ] X -1 8

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Answer: 2.58 x J

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We DO (3) What is the energy of a photon of light that has a frequency of 9.35 x Hz? G U E S S

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How to put this in the calculator?

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Answer: 6.20 x J

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We do (4) An argon laser emits light at a wavelength of 4.89 x m. What is the energy of this light? G U E S S

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Answer: 4.07 x J

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Keep Practicing

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Closing Which equation establishes the relationship between wavelength and Energy? Between Frequency and Energy?

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