The most powerful microscopesResolution Wave Particle Duality λ=h/p
Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum CERN Accelerator Complex Cosmic Accelerator Terrestrial & Cosmic Accelerators
A brief history of unexpected achievements TelescopeUserdateIntended UseActual Use OpticalGalileo1608NavigationMoons of Jupiter OpticalHubble1929NebulaeExpanding Universe RadioJansky1932NoiseRadio Galaxies Micro-WavePenzias, Wilson 1965Radio-Galaxies Noise 3K Cosmic Background X-rayGiacconi...1965Sun, moonNeutron stars, accreting binaries RadioHewish, Bell1967IonospherePulsars γ-raysmilitary1960sThermonuclear explosions γ-ray bursts Water - Cherenkov IMB, Kamioka 1987Nucleon decaySolar ν’s and SN1987A Water - Cherenkov SuperK1998Nucleon decay ν μ ν τ oscillations Solar neutrino Homestake, SuperK, SNO 2001Solar Burningν e oscillations
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002 Information for the Public October 8, 2002 This year's Nobel Prize in Physics is concerned with the discoveries and detection of cosmic particles and radiation, from which two new fields of research have emerged, neutrino astronomy and X-ray astronomy. The Prize is awarded with one half jointly to: Raymond Davis Jr, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, and Masatoshi Koshiba, International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, Japan, “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”, and the second half to Riccardo Giacconi, Associated Universities, Inc., Washington, DC, USA, “for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources”. Here is a description of the scientists' award-winning achievements. The Sun by Neutrinograph
Skyplot of Reconstructed Neutrino Induced Events SuperKamiokande (A. L. Stachyra, 2002) MACRO (M. Ambrosio et al, 2001)
Observation Techniques nebula γ ray bursts Cosmic Ray Showers
Neutrinos do not have electromagnetic interactions Galactic Magnetic Field vs Gravitational Lensing 1pc=3.086 10 16 m
Possible Origin of the Ultra Energetic Cosmic Rays Decays of particles produced by topological defects or relic particles Z decays due to UHE neutrino interactions on relic ν’s UHECR photopion production on CMB
KANGAROO multi-wavelength spectrum TeV γ-rays of hadronic origin ?
H. Voelk- TAUP2003 TeV γ-rays of hadronic origin ? Crab Nebula: Another indication ?
Neutrinos would verify the hadronic acceleration scenario
Dark Matter and Neutrinos WIMPS accumulated inside celestial bodies decaying in neutrinos
Neutrino Sources Active Galactic Nuclei Cataclysmic Phenomena Dark Matter of the Universe Relics of the Grand Unification Era THE UNEXPECTED Diffused fluxes Point sources Background Environmental noise atmospheric muons atmospheric neutrinos
The Neutrino Telescope world map First Generation: E μ >1Gev A eff. ~100-1000 m 2 km3Net Second Generation: E μ > 5-100Gev A eff. ~0.1-1km 2