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 2007 by David A. Prentice Contents: Overheads to be used with Chapter 7 of “Truth in the Balance,” copyright 2003 by David Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T.

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1  2007 by David A. Prentice Contents: Overheads to be used with Chapter 7 of “Truth in the Balance,” copyright 2003 by David Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. REVISION DATE 11/10/2014 This material is made available by the author at no charge. It may be reproduced for use in a Christian environment such as Sunday schools or Bible classes, but it may not be used for any commercial purposes. To be certain that you have the most up-to-date version of this material, go to the Origins Resource Association website, Follow the links to “Bible College Materials” and check that the revision date shown online is the same as shown above. If not, download the latest version.

2  2007 by David A. Prentice Any model of origins must deal with Four Major Areas: 1. How did matter and energy come into existence? 2. How did they get from there to their present state? 3. How did life begin? 4. How did it get from there to its present state? 1. How did matter and energy come into existence? 2. How did they get from there to their present state? 3. How did life begin? 4. How did it get from there to its present state? 

3  2007 by David A. Prentice THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. Define the problem. What do you want to know? (E.g. “Does music affect how plants grow?”) 2. Gather information about the subject. (AUTHORITY) 3. Formulate a hypothesis. 4. Devise a way to test the hypothesis. 5. Observe the results of the test. (EXPERIENCE) 6. Draw a conclusion (INDUCTIVE LOGIC) and report your results so others can repeat the test. 

4  2007 by David A. Prentice PREDICTIONS: Order or Disorder? CREATION: Since everything started at its most organized, there should be be a built-in tendency toward deterioration and disorder throughout nature. EVOLUTION: Since the universe has become more and more organ- ized, there should be a built-in tendency toward in- creasing organization and order throughout nature. OBSERVATION: Disorder. The Second Law of Thermodynamics says that energy expended in a closed or isolated system moves inexorably toward increasing entropy. The universe is deteriorating. OBSERVATION: Disorder. The Second Law of Thermodynamics says that energy expended in a closed or isolated system moves inexorably toward increasing entropy. The universe is deteriorating. 7-3

5  2007 by David A. Prentice ENTROPY AND: Because matter is held together by stored chemical energy, it too tends to move toward random distri- bution and equilibrium with its surroundings. As structure breaks down and energy is lost in the form of random heat, the system’s information content decreases. Energy tends to flow from greater to lesser concen- tration, i.e., it moves toward equilibrium with its surroundings. As it is used, more and more of it becomes randomly distributed as useless heat. STRUCTURE. INFORMATION ENERGY.

6  2007 by David A. Prentice INFORMATION The more instructions it takes to reproduce a system, the more information it contains and the lower its entropy. As structure breaks down and energy is lost as random heat, entropy increases and information content decreases. Information content has never been seen to increase by itself in either open, closed, or isolated systems. 7-5

7  2007 by David A. Prentice WHAT MAKES CHEMICAL PROCESSES WORK? The lower the energy of activation, the more likely it is that a process will occur. The more energy released, the more likely it is to be self-sustaining. The lower the energy of activation, the more likely it is that a process will occur. The more energy released, the more likely it is to be self-sustaining. 2. Energy of activation to start process 3. Energy level at which process occurs 1. Amount of stored energy before process occurs 4. Energy released by process 5. Stored energy after process occurs T I M E ENERGYENERGY 7-6

8  2007 by David A. Prentice THERMODYNAMICALLY FAVORABLE REACTIONS: Exothermic: release more heat energy than they take in. Can occur spontaneously in a closed/isolated system. Examples: breakdown of complex molecules such as DNA and proteins, burning of gasoline, joining of hydrogen and oxygen to form water. THERMODYNAMICALLY UNFAVORABLE REACTIONS: Endothermic: Require more energy than they release. Can occur in open systems, but never seen spon- taneously occurring in an isolated system. (The universe has to furnish the energy.) Examples: formation of DNA and proteins, manufacture of gasoline, separation of water into hydrogen and oxygen. 7-7

9  2007 by David A. Prentice ENTROPY AND THE FATE OF THE UNIVERSE 7-8 GIVEN ENOUGH TIME, ALL THE STARS WILL BURN OUT. GIVEN ENOUGH TIME, ALL THE STARS WILL BURN OUT. Throughout the universe, energy is steadily and inex- orably flowing from greater to lesser concentration. For example, the potential energy in stars is converted to light, heat, and other forms of radiation which spread through space. The universe will be lifeless and cold, just a few degrees above absolute zero. It’s a one-way process, with no way to stop it. (That is, unless the One who made the universe fixes it!) IF YOU ARE AN ATHEIST, YOU HAVE NO HOPE.

10  2007 by David A. Prentice ENTROPY IN OPEN SYSTEMS Conditions for entropy decrease. 1. Supply of usable energy from outside the system. A bomb contains a great deal of energy, but it’s the wrong kind for a baby. 7-9

11  2007 by David A. Prentice ENTROPY IN OPEN SYSTEMS Conditions for entropy decrease. 1. Supply of usable energy from outside the system. 2. Conversion mechanism to put the energy into a useful form. For example, a baby’s digestive system. 7-10

12  2007 by David A. Prentice ENTROPY IN OPEN SYSTEMS Conditions for entropy decrease. 1. Supply of usable energy from outside the system. 2. Conversion mechanism to put the energy into a useful form. 3. Pre-existing information to use the energy properly. (e.g. DNA) No matter how much energy is available, no DNA = no growth. 7-11

13  2007 by David A. Prentice INFORMATION VS. ORDER Crystals form because of an increase in order, not information. For instance, water molecules always have a bent shape with negative and positive ends. However, as long as water is in the liquid or gas form, the molecules move too fast to link together and no visible structure is evident. Only when enough heat is removed do they slow down, link together, and form ice crystals. There is no more information in a molecule after it becomes part of a crystal than before it did. The only reason crystals are able to form is that the entropy of the universe increases due to the heat released. This is in accord with the chemical equation  G =  H - T  S where the Gibbs free energy is negative. H O H H O - ++ H H O - ++ H H O - ++ H H O - ++ H H O - ++ H 7-12

14  2007 by David A. Prentice RANDOMNESS: VTERABUTSHEOLH GFOEHNWYTEHTS VDHEAONTIEVHLS TEHIDVOAVLDEHT UOIORSPEGELORSB OHILEDOERTONAT BOELIMSOEAFRLIN STHENGNIHTVEGW VTERABUTSHEOLH GFOEHNWYTEHTS VDHEAONTIEVHLS TEHIDVOAVLDEHT UOIORSPEGELORSB OHILEDOERTONAT BOELIMSOEAFRLIN STHENGNIHTVEGW 7-13

15  2007 by David A. Prentice ORDER: AAAAA BBB DDDD EEEEEEEEEEEEEE EE FF GGGG HHHH HHHHHHH IIIIIII LLLLLLL M NNNNNN OOOOOOOOOOOO P RRRRR SSSSSSS TTTTTTTTTTT UU VVVVVV WW Y AAAAA BBB DDDD EEEEEEEEEEEEEE EE FF GGGG HHHH HHHHHHH IIIIIII LLLLLLL M NNNNNN OOOOOOOOOOOO P RRRRR SSSSSSS TTTTTTTTTTT UU VVVVVV WW Y 7-14

16  2007 by David A. Prentice INFORMATION: FOR GOD SO LOVED THE WORLD THAT HE GAVE HIS ONLY BEGOTTEN SON THAT WHOSOEVER BELIEVETH IN HIM SHOULD NOT PERISH BUT HAVE EVERLASTING LIFE 7-15

17  2007 by David A. Prentice ENTROPY IN OPEN SYSTEMS Conditions for entropy decrease. 1. Supply of usable energy from outside the system. 2. Conversion mechanism to put the energy into a useful form. 3. Pre-existing information to use the energy properly. (e.g. DNA) 4. As entropy decreases in the open system, it increases by a greater amount at the source of the energy. There’s always a cost. 7-16

18  2007 by David A. Prentice Prigogine’s Work in Chaos Theory: 1. Only a mathematical model. Not observed in nature. 2. Deals with chaos only on a microscopic scale. 3. Irrelevant to evolution because local areas of organization are transient. Evolution requires areas of stability building upon one another for billions of years. 7-17

19  2007 by David A. Prentice The Origin of Fried Eggs WAS THERE A COOK, or... did a supernova release a burst of energy hitting a chicken chicken that exploded that bounced off a satellite... and sent a superheated egg sailing onto a plate? 7-18

20  2007 by David A. Prentice OCCAM’S RAZOR: “Entities Should Not Be Multiplied Beyond Necessity.” A principle of logic that can be paraphrased as, “The simplest explanation that fits all the facts is usually the best.” Not a hard and fast rule, but a good guideline. The fewer stories you have to make up, the better. 7-19

21  2007 by David A. Prentice What if evolutionists find something that can’t be explained by known natural causes? NO PROBLEM! They explain it anyway, by making up stories about unknown natural causes. And the story is... What if evolutionists find something that can’t be explained by known natural causes? NO PROBLEM! They explain it anyway, by making up stories about unknown natural causes. And the story is

22  2007 by David A. Prentice BIG BANG - or big bust? 7-21

23  2007 by David A. Prentice Classical Physics - Euclidean Geometry According to classical physics, if the universe expanded it did so through three-dimensional space. Points A and B move apart through space. According to classical physics, if the universe expanded it did so through three-dimensional space. Points A and B move apart through space. Relativity - Non- Euclidean Geometry The universe does not expand through 3-dimensional space because the universe is space. There is no “outside” because “outside” indicates a place in space, which does not exist past the edge of the expanding universe. Space expands, but points A and B keep their same relative positions. A A A A B B B B 7-22

24  2007 by David A. Prentice FOUR DIMENSIONAL SPACE Imagine a 2-dimensional ant trapped inside the surface of a piece of paper. He has no concept of “up” or “down.” Even if the paper is curved into a sphere, he has no way to know it because he can only see his immediate area. Relativity says that we are the ants, but we don’t know it because we are trapped inside the 3-dimensional surface of a 4-dimensional “hypersphere.” Space is curved, but we can’t detect it. 7-23

25  2007 by David A. Prentice UNBOUNDED SPACE A 2-dimensional ant confined to the surface of a sphere could never reach the center or the edge because from his perspective the surface has no center or edge. To him, it is unbounded. If space is a 4-dimensional hypersphere, we are confined to its 3-D surface. We can never find the center or the edge because neither exists. 4-D space would have to be unbounded. A 2-dimensional ant confined to the surface of a sphere could never reach the center or the edge because from his perspective the surface has no center or edge. To him, it is unbounded. If space is a 4-dimensional hypersphere, we are confined to its 3-D surface. We can never find the center or the edge because neither exists. 4-D space would have to be unbounded. 7-24

26  2007 by David A. Prentice THE COSMOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE No matter where the ant goes, things look pretty much the same in any direc- tion. There is no preferred frame of reference. Likewise, Big Bang theory assumes that no matter where in space we go, things on a large enough scale will look pretty much the same in any direction. This is philosophy, not science. If there is a preferred frame of reference, the big bang and some parts of the theory of relativity are wrong. No matter where the ant goes, things look pretty much the same in any direc- tion. There is no preferred frame of reference. Likewise, Big Bang theory assumes that no matter where in space we go, things on a large enough scale will look pretty much the same in any direction. This is philosophy, not science. If there is a preferred frame of reference, the big bang and some parts of the theory of relativity are wrong. 7-25

27  2007 by David A. Prentice 2 Reasons People Believe in the BIG BANG: 1. of Starlight 2. Cosmic Microwave Back- ground Radiation (CMB) Red Shift 7-26

28  2007 by David A. Prentice FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH If “A” to “B” represents one second, the upper wave has a frequency of 4 hertz (cycles per second) and the lower has a frequency of 8 hz. If A to B represents one centimeter, the upper has a wavelength of 1/4 cm and the lower has wavelength 1/8 cm. For very short wavelengths we use nanometers. One nm = m. Visible light ranges from about 390 nm (extreme blue, frequency about hz) to 760 nm (extreme red, frequency about hz). For all electromagnetic radiation such as light, frequency times wavelength = c, the speed of light. 7-27

29  2007 by David A. Prentice SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS Each element’s unique arrangement of electrons produces a pattern (spectrum) of colored lines as its electrons jump between higher and lower energy levels. Lines are bright as the electrons emit energy or dark as they absorb it. Above: Black and white graph of the spectrum of hydrogen. Below: Emission spectra of three common elements showing colors. Each element’s unique arrangement of electrons produces a pattern (spectrum) of colored lines as its electrons jump between higher and lower energy levels. Lines are bright as the electrons emit energy or dark as they absorb it. Above: Black and white graph of the spectrum of hydrogen. Below: Emission spectra of three common elements showing colors. Emission spectrum of Hydrogen Emission spectrum of Fluorine Emission spectrum of Oxygen 7-28

30  2007 by David A. Prentice HOW DO WE KNOW WHAT’S IN A STAR? In a laboratory, we see an emission spectrum of bright lines against a dark background. However, the interior of a star is so hot that the electrons are knocked completely away from the atoms. (This is called a plasma.) The star’s light is NOT from electrons jumping between specific energy levels, so it is a continuous white light. Light from the interior must pass through the star’s outer regions (its photosphere) on its way to us. This part of the star is not as hot, so some of the atoms do have electrons. These electrons absorb specific colors as they move to higher energy levels. What we see on earth is like a pho- tographic negative. Instead of an emission spectrum of bright lines against a dark background, we see an absorption spectrum of dark lines against a bright background. This enables us to identify elements present in the star’s outer layers. 7-29

31  2007 by David A. Prentice SO WHAT’S A “RED SHIFT”? Reports of the universe expanding are based on colors (wavelength) of light from stars shifted toward the red end of the spectrum. Evolutionists interpret this as a Doppler shift due to the stars moving away from us. Actual wavelength of star’s light Normal absorption spectrum Seemingly stretched-out wavelength due to motion away from us - exaggerated for purpose of illustration “Red-Shifted” absorption spectrum Seemingly compressed wavelength due to motion toward us - exaggerated for purpose of illustration “Blue-Shifted” absorption spectrum 7-30

32  2007 by David A. Prentice 1. Transverse red shifts can result if two objects are moving sideways relative to each other rather than directly apart. It would take hundreds of years of observation to be sure that none of the red shift of starlight is a transverse effect. 2. Gravity bends light. Light passing through the gravitational field of a massive star (such as the one the light came from!) would start its journey with a gravitational red shift. 3. Interstellar dust can absorb light and re-radiate it toward the red end of the spectrum. 4. Relativistic red shifts. OTHER POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS FOR RED SHIFTS 7-31

33  2007 by David A. Prentice Classical Physics - Euclidean Geometry Light traveling from A to B receives a red shift strictly because of the Doppler effect. We use this shift to determine the distance and relative speed between A and B. Relativity - Non- Euclidean Geometry Light traveling from A to B receives a red shift as space stretches out. The red shift only tells us the factor by which the universe expanded while the light was in transit. We cannot use it to determine speed of expansion or age of the universe. A A A A B B B B 7-32

34  2007 by David A. Prentice UNCERTAINTIES IN DISTANCE CALCULATIONS The “Hubble relation” says that the velocity of a distant object is directly proportional to its red shift. PROBLEMS: 1. This requires Euclidean geometry, which is incompatible with the idea of a Big Bang. 2. Hubble’s Constant is not very constant - anywhere from 50 to 100 km/sec/megaparsec. This is an uncertainty of 100%! (May be due to gravitational red shifts.) 3. Some astronomers contend that red shifts are proportional to the square of the velocity. This would mean the stars are much closer and moving much more slowly than previously thought. 7-33

35  2007 by David A. Prentice PARALLAX The apparent change in angle between a nearby star and the background stars (treated as infinitely distant) enables us to calculate the approximate distance of stars no more than a few dozen light-years away. (A light year is about 6 trillion miles.) The apparent change in angle between a nearby star and the background stars (treated as infinitely distant) enables us to calculate the approximate distance of stars no more than a few dozen light-years away. (A light year is about 6 trillion miles.) 7-34

36  2007 by David A. Prentice Familiar Stars Plotted on the Hertzsprung- Russell Diagram THE PROBLEM: We must know a star’s absolute magnitude to de- termine its dis- tance, but we must know its distance to determine its absolute magni- tude. Our conclu- sions from the H-R diagram are based on circular reasoning. All other cosmic distance calculations depend on this one. 7-35

37  2007 by David A. Prentice Cepheid Variable Stars Some Cepheids on the Main Sequence are used as “stan- dard candles” for more distant ob- jects. Astronomers assume the relation between period and absolute brightness is the same for all Cepheids through- out the universe. There is no way to be sure this is true. We don’t even know why they vary. Cepheids cycle between bright and dim at regular intervals. NASA photos - Hubble Space Telescope 7-36

38  2007 by David A. Prentice BRIGHTEST STARS AND SUPERNOVAE There are too many variables to be sure about the size of the universe. However, to make their calculations work, evolutionists invent the concept that the brightest stars in each galaxy must all be the same absolute brightness. There is no way to be sure this is true. It contradicts the Bible: “... for one star differeth from another star in glory” (1 Cor. 15:41). They don’t stop there, but assume that the brightest supernovae in each galaxy all have the same absolute brightness. There is no reason why they should, except to make the math work! This assumption causes a serious problem: up to 20 supernovae around the universe are dimmer than the theory predicted. The most obvious explanation is that the theory might be wrong. But NO! 7-37

39  2007 by David A. Prentice What if evolutionists find something that can’t be explained by known natural causes? NO PROBLEM! They explain it anyway, by making up stories about unknown natural causes. And the story is... What if evolutionists find something that can’t be explained by known natural causes? NO PROBLEM! They explain it anyway, by making up stories about unknown natural causes. And the story is

40  2007 by David A. Prentice “DARK ENERGY” About 20 supernovae are dimmer than they were expected to be according to present Big Bang theory. Evolutionists are unwilling to admit the theory could be wrong. Instead, they say the supernovae are dim because the universe is expanding at an increasing rate. They claim that over 80% of the universe is made of undetectable “dark energy.” Rather than discard the theory because it doesn’t agree with the data, they discard the data because it doesn’t agree with the theory. 7-39

41  2007 by David A. Prentice RUNGS ON THE COSMIC DISTANCE LADDER 1. Determine the earth’s average distance from the sun by triangula- tion. 2. Determine the distance of a few nearby Main Sequence stars by parallax. 3. Assume that nothing is distorting our view, then use the spectral class of these closer stars to calculate their absolute brightness. 4. Assume our calculations about absolute brightness are correct and apply these values to calibrate the distance of thousands of other stars on the Main Sequence. 5. Find Cepheid variable stars that seem to be near some of the Main Sequence stars from Step 3. Assume that the relationship between period and brightness is the same for all Cepheids throughout the universe. 6. Use these Cepheids to determine the distance to relatively close galaxies, then assume the brightest stars in each galaxy have the same absolute brightness. Use these to calculate farther distances. 7. For the most distant galaxies, use the red shift of the whole galaxy in the Hubble Relation to determine the distances. 7-40

42  2007 by David A. Prentice QUASARS: A BIG LITTLE PROBLEM! Quasars are extremely bright, but their rapid pulsation indicates that they are relatively small. Because of their high red shifts, they are believed to be among the most distant objects in the universe. The Stefan-Boltzmann law says energy output is proportional to an object’s surface area and the fourth power of the temperature. There is no known way an object as small as a quasar could get hot enough to be so bright if it is really billions of light years away. NASA photos of a quasar supposed to be 1.5 billion light years away Either we are wrong about the Stefan-Boltzmann law, derived from observation, or else we are wrong about the meaning of red shifts. 7-41

43  2007 by David A. Prentice QUANTIZED RED SHIFTS If the universe is the result of a Big Bang, then stars and galaxies near us should have very low red shifts, while those far away should have high shifts. For objects in between, there should be a continuous distribution of red shifts. THERE IS NOT. Red shifts occur in discrete intervals calculated at about 72 km/sec. Evolutionary astronomy has no explanation for this phenomenon. Some point out that the quantized red shifts would make sense if the earth were near the center of a 3- dimensional (non-Big Bang) universe. 7-42

44  2007 by David A. Prentice QUANTIZED RED SHIFTS Distance in M Light Years Number of Galaxies Distance in M Light Years Number of Galaxies However, an observer near the center would see red shifts in dis- crete intervals. The distribution would look some- thing like this: However, an observer near the center would see red shifts in dis- crete intervals. The distribution would look some- thing like this: This is exactly what we see. It looks like the earth could be near the center of the universe! This is exactly what we see. It looks like the earth could be near the center of the universe! Source: If the universe expanded uniformly through 3-dimensional space, an observer not near the center would see a continuous range of red shifts determined by the distance of each galaxy emitting light. About 2 million light years from the center, the distribution of red shifts should look something like this: If the universe expanded uniformly through 3-dimensional space, an observer not near the center would see a continuous range of red shifts determined by the distance of each galaxy emitting light. About 2 million light years from the center, the distribution of red shifts should look something like this:

45  2007 by David A. Prentice The Origin of Fried Eggs WAS THERE A COOK, or... did a supernova release a burst of energy did a supernova release a burst of energy hitting a chicken that exploded that bounced off a satellite... that bounced off a satellite... and sent a superheated egg sailing onto a plate? 7-44

46  2007 by David A. Prentice 2 Reasons People Believe in the BIG BANG: 1. of Starlight 2. Cosmic Microwave Back- ground Radiation (CMB) Red Shift 7-45

47  2007 by David A. Prentice Energy Level of the CMB At the time of the Big Bang, theory says that the temperature would have been billions of degrees. Matter and energy would have been freely changing back and forth. As the fireball expanded, the matter and energy would have cooled like the gases in a refrigerator. After 300,000 years matter and energy would have “decoupled” so that the energy went right through matter without affecting it. The energy level of the radiation would have been about 3000K at the time. In order to explain the change from 3000º to 2.73º, evolutionists have to say that the energy was absorbed by the fabric of space as it expanded. The present energy level of the CMB is about 2.73 degrees above absolute zero. The present energy level of the CMB is about 2.73 degrees above absolute zero. This, too, requires expanding 4-dimensional space. It is not possible in 3 dimensions. This, too, requires expanding 4-dimensional space. It is not possible in 3 dimensions. 7-46

48  2007 by David A. Prentice Distribution of the CMB Computer generated image of cosmic microwave background radiation released by NASA in 1992 based on COBE data. The image is deceptive. The “hot spots” are greatly exaggerated due to computer manipulation. The CMB is almost perfectly uniform, to within 30 parts per million. 7-47

49  2007 by David A. Prentice What if evolutionists find something that can’t be explained by known natural causes? NO PROBLEM! They explain it anyway, by making up stories about unknown natural causes. And the story is... What if evolutionists find something that can’t be explained by known natural causes? NO PROBLEM! They explain it anyway, by making up stories about unknown natural causes. And the story is

50  2007 by David A. Prentice INFLATIONARY MODEL To account for the discrepancy between the smooth background radiation and the “lumpy” distribution of matter, some believe that there was an inflationary period between and seconds after the Big Bang during which space expanded at times the speed of light and lumps formed. This model violates the Law of Conservation of Momentum and Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion. There is no known reason for the expansion to speed up and then slow down again -- only a desire for the Big Bang to be true. It is also insufficient to account for the amount of clustering observed. It would take 60 billion years to reach the present level. This model violates the Law of Conservation of Momentum and Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion. There is no known reason for the expansion to speed up and then slow down again -- only a desire for the Big Bang to be true. It is also insufficient to account for the amount of clustering observed. It would take 60 billion years to reach the present level. 7-49

51  2007 by David A. Prentice THE INVALID LOGIC OF EVOLUTION If I am at Victoria Falls, then I am at one of the largest waterfalls in the world. TRUE. THE CONVERSE: If I am at one of the largest waterfalls in the world, then I am at Victoria Falls. FALSE. (not reliable) All teaching of “evolution only” in schools rests on the invalid use of a logical converse. If evolution is true, then the universe and life would exist. TRUE. THE CONVERSE: If the universe and life exist, then evolution is true. FALSE. (not reliable) 7-50

52  2007 by David A. Prentice What if evolutionists find something that can’t be explained by known natural causes? NO PROBLEM! They explain it anyway, by making up stories about unknown natural causes. And the story is... What if evolutionists find something that can’t be explained by known natural causes? NO PROBLEM! They explain it anyway, by making up stories about unknown natural causes. And the story is

53  2007 by David A. Prentice COLD DARK MATTER There is nowhere near the amount of matter needed to pull together galaxies, galaxy clusters, and so on. In order to salvage the Big Bang theory, evolutionists have to believe that 90 to 99% of the matter in the universe is invisible. As alternatives, some have proposed String and Texture theories. These depend on the existence of “Higgs Fields,” hypothetical force fields that appear and disappear as necessary to make the mathematics of a Big Bang work. Isn’t the Scientific Method supposed to be based on OBSERVATION? 7-52

54  2007 by David A. Prentice The Origin of Fried Eggs WAS THERE A COOK, or... did a supernova release a burst of energy did a supernova release a burst of energy hitting a chicken that exploded that bounced off a satellite... that bounced off a satellite... and sent a superheated egg sailing onto a plate? 7-53

55  2007 by David A. Prentice BLACKBODY RADIATION Wavelength distribution of the CMB, degrees above absolute zero. (Based on COBE data.) Such a distribution usually indicates “blackbody radiation” caused by objects (e.g. dust particles) emitting energy at the same rate they absorb it. Wavelength distribution of the CMB, degrees above absolute zero. (Based on COBE data.) Such a distribution usually indicates “blackbody radiation” caused by objects (e.g. dust particles) emitting energy at the same rate they absorb it. 7-54

56  2007 by David A. Prentice The Big Bang versus The Laws of Physics Conservation of Momentum Since there would have been nothing outside the Big Bang for the expanding parts to hit, they should have produced an eternally expanding cloud. Gravity would not have been strong enough to cause clustering. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics A Big Bang would have started from a tremendous concentration of matter and energy, which exploded in the most disorderly event of all time. The energy would have immediately begun to spread out throughout space. If it later became concentrated in bodies that were to evolve into stars and galaxies, this would be a great decrease in entropy. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics says NO. 7-55

57  2007 by David A. Prentice Conservation of Angular Momentum Any rotating object possesses a property known as angular momentum. As the object’s diameter increases, its speed of rotation decreases in order to conserve angu- lar momentum. As the diameter decreases, the speed increases. Suppose a galaxy were only a billion miles in diameter, and rotating at only one mile per hour. If we move back through time toward the Big Bang, it must have been smaller and smaller. Since it had all its angular momentum from the beginning, it had to be rotating faster and faster. At some point shortly after the Big Bang, it would have had to be rotating far faster than the speed of light. According to the observations of physics, this is a physical impossibility. 7-56

58  2007 by David A. Prentice What if evolutionists find something that can’t be explained by known natural causes? NO PROBLEM! They explain it anyway, by making up stories about unknown natural causes. And the story is... What if evolutionists find something that can’t be explained by known natural causes? NO PROBLEM! They explain it anyway, by making up stories about unknown natural causes. And the story is

59  2007 by David A. Prentice PROBLEMS WITH “LITTLE BIG BANGS” 1. Each singularity would be the result of a quantum fluctua- tion. The results of such fluctuations should be random and unpredictable. Yet we see the same types of matter and energy everywhere we look throughout the universe. 2. The Big Bang says that there was nothing outside the explo- sion, not even space. Space is 4-dimensional. However, “Little Big Bangs” would have occurred at many different locations, meaning that space already existed before they exploded. Space would have to be 3-dimensional. 3. We must discard the First Law of Thermodynamics over and over, each time one of the smaller singularities appeared. If there were several “little big bangs” that interacted with each other, this could overcome the problems of conserva- tion of linear momentum and angular momentum. However, 7-58

60  2007 by David A. Prentice THE “EVOLUTION” OF STARS Stars are supposed to evolve over billions of years - much too long for human history to record. In the few cases of rapid change we have observed, the changes have been toward deterioration, not increasing organization. We are told that there are 100 billion galaxies of 100 billion stars each, and that the Big Bang occurred 15 billion years ago. If so, then there would have had to be an average of over 21,000 stars forming per second since the beginning of the universe. WHY DON’T WE SEE THEM? Several thousand stars plotted on the H-R diagram 7-59

61  2007 by David A. Prentice DIFFERING LIFE SPANS OF STARS All stars are believed to be performing nuclear fusion. 2. Since the rate of fusion depend on a star’s mass, the most massive stars should burn out in novae and supernovae first. 3. “Young” stars are supposed to be made from recycled super-nova remnants. They should contain the heavier elements supposedly produced in supernovae. 4. S maller stars should be able to last billions of years without going through the nova or supernova stage. 5. The farthest visible stars are supposed to be billions of years old, dating to shortly after the Big Bang. 6. The smaller of these extremely distant stars should not have gone through supernovae. Billions of them should contain only hydrogen and helium. 7. However, spectral analysis has not located a single metal-free star. Within a percent or so, stars of all “ages” contain the same elements. Maybe they are not different ages after all.

62  2007 by David A. Prentice IS EVOLUTION FALSIFIABLE? Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. But what if something can’t be explained by natural processes? YES IT CAN! We make up a story then use faulty logic to say, “Because we can make up a story, therefore our story must be true.” Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. But what if something can’t be explained by natural processes? YES IT CAN! We make up a story then use faulty logic to say, “Because we can make up a story, therefore our story must be true.” The Story of the Supernovae and the Elements Once upon a time there was a big supernova. It produced many atoms of heavy elements, but they were spreading throughout space. Then a second supernova took place light-years away. The shock wave from the second supernova traveled trillions of miles and pushed the expanding cloud from the first supernova back together into a ball. It became a new star that now had heavier elements. The process repeated over and over, spreading heavy elements to every single star we’ve ever seen. The End. Do you believe that a shock wave from trillions of miles away can make an expanding cloud collapse into a ball? Do you believe every observable star in the universe would be affected? Do you believe that a shock wave from trillions of miles away can make an expanding cloud collapse into a ball? Do you believe every observable star in the universe would be affected? 7-61

63  2007 by David A. Prentice COMPOSITION OF THE PLANETS NASA space flights tell us that each planet is made of a mix of elements different from all the rest and from the sun. The sun possesses 99% of the mass in the solar system, yet the planets possess 98% of the angular momentum. NASA space flights tell us that each planet is made of a mix of elements different from all the rest and from the sun. The sun possesses 99% of the mass in the solar system, yet the planets possess 98% of the angular momentum. Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Neptune Uranus 7-62

64  2007 by David A. Prentice ORBITS OF THE PLANETS Each of the planets orbits the sun in a different plane. Pluto, Mercury, and earth’s “twin,” Venus, are the most inclined with respect to our own orbit. Venus rotates backward from the rest; Uranus rotates almost perpendicular to its orbit. At least 11 moons orbit opposite their mother planet’s rotation. The moons of Uranus orbit almost perpendicular to the rest of the solar system. 7-63

65  2007 by David A. Prentice COULD THE PLANETS HAVE BEEN CAPTURED BY THE SUN’S GRAVITY? Got one in orbit? Now do it 8 more times, one for each pla- net, net, without dis- turbing the first ball. Got your 9 planets in place? Now do it about 5 dozen more times, one for each moon. BUT WAIT! You have to do it in 3 dimensions, not two! Even with all our technology, there is no way we could put together an arrangement as complex as the solar system. Yet it is supposed to be the product of Random Chance Suppose you had a turn- table with a magnet at the center and nine individual- ly adjustable rotating rings. Could you roll a steel ball bearing onto the turntable and get it to or- bit by by exactly balancing the mag- netic force with the outward momentum?

66  2007 by David A. Prentice EVOLUTION: Natural Processes Only! "Even if all the data point to an intelligent designer, such a hypothesis is excluded from science because it is not naturalistic." Immunologist Scott C. Todd in a letter to Nature magazine, Sept Immunologist Scott C. Todd in a letter to Nature magazine, Sept “... the theory of evolution itself [is] a theory universally accepted not because it can be proved by logically coherent evidence to be true but because the only alternative, special creation, is clearly incredible.” D.M.S. Watson, “Adaptation,” Nature, Vol. 123 (1929), p


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