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Things You should Know Gravity Light Thermodynamics Atoms Particles.

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Presentation on theme: "Things You should Know Gravity Light Thermodynamics Atoms Particles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Things You should Know Gravity Light Thermodynamics Atoms Particles

2 Gravity With Relativity Gravity is not action at a distance, but objects responding to the curvature of Space and Time in their immediate neighborhood Kepler’s Laws are valid for almost all gravitationally bound systems. The centre around which things orbit is the centre of mass of the system.

3 Rubber Sheet Gravity

4 Gravitational Light Bending

5 Space-time Diagram

6 World lines

7 Acceleration as Space time curve

8 Paths in Space-time

9 Orbits around Centre of Mass

10 Atoms Electrons orbit nucleus ( Protons and Neutrons) Held together by attraction of opposite electrical charge Possible energies described by spectrum Electrons can change energies by either absorbing or emitting light

11 Atomic Dimensions

12 States of an Atom

13 Atomic Energy Levels (Spectra)

14 Atomic Number and Isotopes

15 Isotopes

16 Light Wave-Particle Duality Frequency, Energy and Wavelength are all related Different types of light described by electromagnetic spectrum Stars have an absorption spectrum : Light from hot surface (continuous) Minus light absorbed by gas in atmospheres (the star’s and Earth’s)

17 Light as an Electro-Magnetic Wave

18 E&M Spectrum

19 Electromagnetic Spectrum

20 Atmospheric absorption

21 Inverse Square Law for light intensity

22 The Photo-electric effect

23 The Light Spectrum of an Atom

24 The Light Spectrum of a Celestial Object

25 The Spectrum of Mars

26 Kirchoff’s Laws

27 Shifting Spectral Lines

28 Broadening of Spectral Lines

29 Thermodynamics Heat is a form of energy manifested in random (thermal) motion of molecules Temperature determines the average heat energy per molecule Pressure is force per unit area which equals the average thermal energy per unit volume Density is the average number of molecules per unit volume Hot opaque objects emit light in a continuous spectrum called a Planck curve which depends only on temperature At low temperature matter clumps together, as you add heat it flies apart

30 Temperature Scales

31 Temperature as Molecule Energy

32 Ideal Gas Law

33 Blackbody Radiation – Planck Curves

34 Thermodynamic Behaviour of Matter

35 Phase Diagram for Water

36 Heat Transfer Conduction – Heat energy passed from molecule to molecule via contact (mostly in solids) Convection – Heated material rises, taking its heat with it (requires gravity and large temperature difference) Radiation – Heat transferred by emission and absorption of light

37 Conduction


39 Convect-1

40 Convect-2

41 Convect-3

42 Convection Thermal

43 Flotation

44 Particle Physics Four Forces (interactions): Gravity, Electromagnetism, Weak, Strong Gravity – Stars, Solar System, Galaxy, Universe E&M – Atoms, Molecules, Bricks Weak – can transform one type of fermion into another Strong – Protons, Neutrons, Nucleus Each force carried by a gauge boson, matter particles are called fermions (Quarks and Leptons) each fermion has rules for how it interacts with the Gauge Bosons

45 Particle Cookbook

46 The Four Interactions

47 Gauge Bosons

48 Properties of Gauge Bosons

49 Properties of the Interactions

50 Annihilation

51 Annihilation and Creation

52 Formation of Molecules

53 Fermions

54 Fermion Generations

55 Leptons

56 Quark Flavours

57 Hadrons – objects composed of Quarks

58 Binding of Nucleus

59 Quark Colours

60 Quark Confinement

61 Nucleons composed of Quarks

62 Schematic of the atom

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