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Particles, Quantum Phenomena and Electricity. 4 Fundamental Forces Gravity Electromagnetic Weak nuclear Strong nuclear  gravitons  photons  W bosons.

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Presentation on theme: "Particles, Quantum Phenomena and Electricity. 4 Fundamental Forces Gravity Electromagnetic Weak nuclear Strong nuclear  gravitons  photons  W bosons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Particles, Quantum Phenomena and Electricity

2 4 Fundamental Forces Gravity Electromagnetic Weak nuclear Strong nuclear  gravitons  photons  W bosons (and Z boson)  Pi mesons (pions) Any particle with mass Any charged particle All leptons, baryons and mesons Hadrons

3 Alpha Particle Scattering Nucleus is tiny Nucleus is massive Nucleus is very dense Atom is mostly free space

4 Quantum Phenomena Annihilation - The conversion of mass to energy - 2 gamma ray photons released

5 Quantum Phenomena Pair Production - The conversion of energy to mass - A gamma ray photon of sufficient energy may decay into an electron and a positron

6 Particle Families Leptons – Fundamental particles Leptons = Lepton No. of +1Anti-leptons = Lepton No. of -1 Not a Lepton = Lepton No. of 0

7 Particle Families Hadrons – Composed of quarks Baryons = Baryon No. of +1Anti-baryon = Baryon No. of -1 Not a Baryon = Baryon No. of 0 (Including mesons)

8 Particle Families

9 Some particles:

10 Feynmann Diagrams EM Interaction

11 Feynmann Diagrams Weak Interaction (Beta minus)

12 Feynmann Diagrams Weak Interaction (Beta plus)

13 Feynmann Diagrams Weak Interaction (Electron capture)

14 Feynmann Diagrams Weak Interaction (Electron-proton collision)

15 β - (neutron) Decay The quark structure of the neutron is udd In β - decay a down quark changes to an up quark. uud = +2/3 +2/3 -1/3 = 1 The neutron (Q = 0) has changed into a proton (Q = 1). neutron (udd) → proton (uud)

16 β + (proton) Decay In β + decay an up quark in a proton changes to a down quark. This only happens in proton-rich nuclei. proton (uud) → neutron (udd)

17 Particle Interactions The 4 quantities (Q, B, S and L) have to be the same after a reaction as they were before it occurred. Important: Strangeness is only conserved in the strong and electromagnetic interactions.

18 The electronvolt is an amount of energy equal to the above value. It is arrived at by applying the equation E= QV to an electron accelerated by a p.d. of 1Volt.

19 Photoelectric Effect hf = φ + Ek(SI Units)

20 Energy Levels and electron excitation E = hf

21 Fluorescent Tube

22 Wave-particle Duality The Photoelectric Effect suggests the particle nature of light. Electron diffraction suggests the wave nature of particles. deBroglie Wavelength,

23

24 24 Series circuits: Current same at all points – it is a continuous flow. Voltage shared between components.

25 25 Parallel Circuits Voltage same across branches as that of power source. Current splits between branches (splits and rejoins at junctions).

26 Cells in Series and Parallel

27 Using Ammeters Ammeters measure the current flowing through themselves. Ammeters are placed in series. The ideal ammeter ought to have zero resistance.

28 Using Voltmeters Voltmeters measure the voltage between two places. This is also called potential difference. (The difference in the “push” between two places) Voltmeters are placed in parallel.

29 I-V Characteristics Thermistors – Resistance decreases as temperature increases LDR – Resistance decreases as light intensity increases

30 Resistors in Series Easy!

31 Resistors in Parallel

32 Resistor Combinations

33 Potential Dividers What is the p.d. across each of the two resistors? 12V across each as they are equal resistance

34 Potential Dividers What is the p.d. across each branch? 3.0V

35 Potential Dividers What is the p.d. across the whole of the upper branch? 6.0V What is the p.d. across the lower branch? 6.0V What is the p.d. across each of the resistors in the upper branch? 3.0V

36 Potential Dividers What is the potential at X when the thermistor has a resistance of 1000 Ω? This is the p.d. across the thermistor, the potential at X is =0.3V

37 Potential Dividers What is the potential at X when the LDR has a resistance of 5000 Ω? This is the p.d. across the LDR, in this case it is also the potential at X due to where the LDR is in the circuit.

38 Superconductivity Certain materials have zero resistivity at and below a critical temperature which depends on the material. There is a persistent current in the superconductor that causes a magnetic field to be set up that repels the magnetic field of the permanent magnet.

39 EMF and internal resistance The quantity of energy transferred to unit charge as it passes through the cell The p.d. across the cell when no current flows Energy is transferred in the cell due to the internal resistance

40 RMS Values

41 Oscilloscope x-axis is called the timebase y-axis is the y-gain or input sensitivity (which represents p.d.) Calculate the frequency and the amplitude of the signal shown if the timebase is set to 10ms / division and the y-gain is set at 100mV / division T=40x10 -3 s f=1/T=25Hz Peak Voltage = 1.5x100mV = 150mV


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