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Types of Waves Harmonic Waves Sound and Light Waves Superposition and Interference The Doppler Effect Resonance

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**Waves can be transverse **

For example: Light waves, water waves and waves on a string... Waves can be longitudinal For example: Some seismic waves and sound waves… Please, be patient. It takes awhile for the animations to start.

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Waves in Time Waves are like many springs oscillating in time. They have a period (T), a frequency (f) and an amplitude (A). T t f = 1/T

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Waves in Space Waves also oscillate in space. They have a wavelength and a speed.

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**Sound is a longitudinal wave**

It travels through any gas, solid or liquid as a variation in pressure. It has a speed that depends on the material (medium) that it travels through. It has a wavelength and a frequency that determine the pitch. It has an amplitude that determines the volume.

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**Light is a transverse wave**

It travels through vacuum as a variation in electric and magnetic fields. It has a speed that never changes. c = 3 x 108 meters/second It has a wavelength and a frequency that determine the color. It has an amplitude that determines the intensity.

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**This is necessary to get the proper timing!**

Transverse waves oscillate perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Properties: wavelength amplitude speed propagation direction polarization This is necessary to get the proper timing!

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**Each point on a transverse wave oscillates perpendicular to the direction of propagation.**

Properties: period frequency amplitude polarization t T f = 1/T

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**Longitudinal waves oscillate parallel to the direction of propagation.**

Properties: wavelength speed propagation direction λ y x v

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**Each point on a longitudinal wave oscillates parallel to the direction of propagation.**

Properties: period frequency amplitude t T f = 1/T x A

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**y x v λ Sound is a longitudinal wave**

It travels through any gas, solid or liquid as a variation in pressure. It has a speed that depends on the material (medium) that it travels through. Properties: wavelength speed propagation direction period frequency amplitude Pitch Density (of medium) Location Volume λ y x v

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**y x Definition of interference**

Constructive interference occurs when both waves have the same phase. Destructive interference occurs when both waves have opposite phase. x y phase

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The frequency of sound changes depending on whether you move toward or away from the object emitting the sound v is the velocity of the observer with respect to the source. vs is the velocity of the sound. v is positive if the observer is moving toward the source and negative if the observer is moving away from the source.

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**Other waves can only be made by force.**

For pipes the wavelength of a wave must fit within the length of the pipe. Other waves can only be made by force. Note Frequency Middle C 261.7 D 293.7 E 329.7 F 349.2 G 392 A 440 B 493.9 C 523.3 Speed of sound in air is 343 meters/second = f x λ

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