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LED – Light Emitting Diodes Anne Lynn Gillian-Daniel Ben Taylor Interdisciplinary Education Group University of Wisconsin-Madison.

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Presentation on theme: "LED – Light Emitting Diodes Anne Lynn Gillian-Daniel Ben Taylor Interdisciplinary Education Group University of Wisconsin-Madison."— Presentation transcript:

1 LED – Light Emitting Diodes Anne Lynn Gillian-Daniel Ben Taylor Interdisciplinary Education Group University of Wisconsin-Madison

2 Why LEDs? In 2011, lighting made up 12% of the total U.S. electricity consumption 1 Incandescent lights last for ~1,000 hours and lose 95% of energy as heat 2. LEDs use ~25% as much energy as incandescent and last ~100,000 hours (eia.gov/tools/faqs) 2. Chemical and Engineering News, Dec. 3, 2007) Bay Bridge Light Display, CBS SF Bay Area education.mrsec.wisc.edu

3 Why LEDs? Incandescent bulbs light in 0.2 seconds – LEDs light instantly (10 nanoseconds, seconds) LED color strip manual LED brake lights, 300cforums.com education.mrsec.wisc.edu

4 Si Semiconductors electron hole

5 Si Semiconductors The energy required to mobilize an electron is determined by the type of atom and is called the band gap energy.

6 Band Gap Energy Si

7 Semiconductors Si P P N-type (negatively charged) – semicondutor doped with an atom containing one extra electron. To manipulate the number of mobile electrons and holes in a semiconductor, impurities called dopants are added. Si Al Si P-type (positively charged) – semicondutor doped with an atom containing one less electron.

8 Semiconductors and LEDs LEDs are made with nanotechnology. Semiconductors are deposited one atomic layer at a time to create an abrupt n- and p-type junction. p-type n-type e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- battery _ Light Emission

9 Atom size determines bond length Larger atoms longer bonds less energy longer wavelength emitted Smaller atoms shorter bonds more energy shorter wavelength emitted

10 Light and color Image from : hydro-techn.com/index_files/wavelength.jpg Shorter wavelengths =greater energy

11 chemistry.about.com/od/periodictables/ig/Printable- Periodic-Tables/Periodic-Table-Wallpaper.htm

12 G. Lisensky - Beloit College Atom size determines LED color Scientists and engineers use the periodic table to make a range of semiconductors to produce a variety of colored LEDs. 400 nm700 nm

13 LED Color Strip Data CompositionColor Emitted Energy (voltage) Wavelength (λ) In 0.06 Ga 0.94 NBLUE450 nm (shortest) GaP 1.00 As 0.00 GREEN nm GaP 0.85 As 0.15 or In 0.50 Ga 0.35 Al 0.15 P YELLOW nm GaP 0.65 As 0.35 or In 0.50 Ga 0.43 Al 0.07 P ORANGE nm GaP 0.40 As 0.60 or Al 0.25 Ga 0.75 As RED nm GaP 0.00 As 1.00 Infrared nm (longest)

14 Acknowledgments MRSEC Personnel and Collaborators NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center on Nanostructured Interfaces (DMR and DMR ) NSF Internships in Public Science Education (DMR ) NSF Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network (ESI ) National Science Foundation This presentation is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under the following DMR grants: # (IPSE), # and # (MRSEC); and ESI grant # Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessary reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. UW College of Engineering

15 Thank You Anne Lynn Gillian-Daniel, Ben Taylor, Our Website:


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