2Wave Motion4.4.2 State that progressive (travelling) waves transfer energy. Students should understand that there is no net motion of the medium through which the wave travels.A wave is a disturbance travelling through a medium. In a wave, ther is a transmission of ENERGY, but no transmission of MATTER.
3This illustrates that there is no net transfer of the medium through which the wave travels, only energy moves from place to place.In many examples, the wave carrying medium will oscillate with simple harmonic motion (i.e. a -x).
4Wave Motion4.4.2 State that progressive (travelling) waves transfer energy. Students should understand that there is no net motion of the medium through which the wave travels.A wave is a means by which energy is transferred between two points in a medium without any net transfer of the medium itself.Medium - The substance or object in which the wave is travelling.When a wave travels in a medium parts of the medium do not end up at different placesThe energy of the source of the wave is carried to different parts of the medium by the wave.
5Wave MotionA wave travels along its medium, but the individual particles just move up and down.
6Wave Motion A pulse is a short burst of wave energy. 4.4.1 Describe a wave pulse and a continuous progressive (travelling) wave. Students should be able to distinguish between oscillations and wave motion, and appreciate that, in many examples, the oscillations of the particles are simple harmonic.A pulse is a short burst of wave energy.In a continuous wave, energy is being continuously transmitted by the wave, and the wave profile travels onward with characteristic wave velocity v.
7Wave Motion All types of traveling waves transport energy. 4.4.1 Describe a wave pulse and a continuous progressive (travelling) wave. Students should be able to distinguish between oscillations and wave motion, and appreciate that, in many examples, the oscillations of the particles are simple harmonic.All types of traveling waves transport energy.Study of a single wave pulse shows that it is begun with a vibration and transmitted through internal forces in the medium.Continuous waves start with vibrations too. If the vibration is SHM, then the wave will be sinusoidal.
8Types of WavesWaves can be described as transverse or longitudinal.In a transverse wave the vibration (oscillation) of particles is at right angles to the direction of energy transfer. Transverse waves cannot move through a gas.ExamplesIn a longitudinal wave the vibration of particles is in the same plane as the direction of energy transfer.Examples:
9(Label a crest (peak), trough, rarefaction, compression) Transverse:Longitudinal:Energy TransferOscillation Energy transfer(Label a crest (peak), trough, rarefaction, compression)
11Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal The motion of particles in a wave can either be perpendicular to the wave direction (transverse) or parallel to it (longitudinal). Sound waves are longitudinal waves. Light waves are transverse waves.
12Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal Sound waves are longitudinal waves:
134.4.4 Describe waves in two dimensions, including the concepts of wavefronts and of rays. Think about the wave that are constantly hitting a beach. Each wave has a crest and trough. Imagine you are in a helicopter. If you look down you will see wavefronts.Lines perpendicular to the wave fronts are called rays; they point in the direction of propagation of the wave.
144.4.4 Describe waves in two dimensions, including the concepts of wavefronts and of rays. Two- or three-dimensional waves can be represented by wave fronts, which are curves of surfaces where all the waves have the same phase.Lines perpendicular to the wave fronts are called rays; they point in the direction of propagation of the wave and the direction energy is traveling.
15Energy Transported by Waves If a wave is able to spread out three-dimensionally from its source, and the medium is uniform, the wave is spherical.
16Wave Motion Wave characteristics: Amplitude, A Wavelength, λ 4.4.5 Describe the terms crest, trough, compression and rarefaction.Wave characteristics:Amplitude, AWavelength, λFrequency f and period TWave velocity
17Describing WavesCrest and trough: Points on the wave where particles are oscillating at maximum positive and negative displacement.Rarefaction and compression: Areas in a longitudinal wave where particles are far apart (lower than normal density) and close together (higher than normal density).
18Wave MotionrarefactionswavelengthMany times longitudinal wave are graphed to better analyze them. Notice that the high pressure corresponds to a compression and low pressure corresponds to a rarefaction.
19Wave Motion4.4.6 Define the terms displacement, amplitude, frequency, period, wavelength, wave speed and intensity. Students should know that intensity ∝ amplitude2.Displacement (s) is the distance that any particle is away from its equilibrium position at an instance. Measured in meters.Amplitude (A, a) This is the maximum displacement of a particle from its equilibrium position. Measured in meters.Period (T) This is the time that it takes a particle to make one complete oscillation. Measured in seconds.
20Wave MotionFrequency (f) This is the number of oscillations made per second by a particle. The SI unit of frequency is the hertz -Hz. (1 Hz is 1 oscillation per second). Clearly then, f = 1/T Wavelength () This is the distance along the medium between two successive particles that have the same displacement and the same phase of motion. Measured in meters. Wave Speed (v, c) This is the speed with which energy is carried in the medium by the wave. Measured in ms-1
21Example Problem 1If the waves in the ocean are timed so that they come to shore every 1.74 seconds, what is the frequency of these wave?Answer: 0.575Hz
22Example Problem 2A radio wave has a frequency of 2 MHz. Calculate the time period between successive waves.Answer: 5x10-7s
23Wave Characteristics Amplitude. Height of a wave from origin to a peak/crest.Affects brightness and intensity.Wavelength.Distance from crest to crest. Distance for one full cycle.Visible light: nm.
24Wave Characteristics Period time that it takes to complete a full cycle.Measured in secondsFrequency.number of cycles per second.Measured in hertz(Hz)High frequency = high energy
25Wave Characteristics Speed of light Speed of light a constant: 3.00 X 108 m/s.Frequency and Wavelength related by the equation: = c /
26Draw one wave with wavelength 2 cm 4.4.7 Draw and explain displacement – time graphs and displacement-position graphs for transvers and for longitudinal waves.Split up into groups of 2.Draw one wave with wavelength 2 cmDraw second wave with wavelength 4 cm.Draw a third wave with wavelength 8cme.Draw 3 more waves with the same wavelengths as the first set but with an amplitude of 6 cm.
27The Wave Equation4.4.8 Derive and apply the relationship between wave speed, wavelength and frequency.There is a very simple relationship that links wave speed, wavelength, and frequency. It applies to all waves. The time taken for one complete oscillation is the period of the wave, T.In this time, the wave pattern will have moved on by one wavelength, λ.This means that the speed of the wave must be given byV=d =λ since T= 1t T fThen we get
28Example 3A radio station broadcasts with a wavelength of 160m. If the velocity of the radio signal is 3 x 108m/s, calculate the frequency of the wave.Answer: 1.88MHz
29Example 4A water wave reaches the beach every 2.5 seconds. If it’s wavelength is 5m, calculate the speed of the wave.Answer: 2m/s
30Example 5A stone is thrown into a still water surface and creates a wave. A small floating cork 2m away from the impact point has the following displacement-time graph (time is measured from the instant the stone hits the water).
31Example 5 Determine: The amplitude The velocity The period of the wave The frequency of the waveThe wavelength of the waveThe time when the reaches its maximum vertical height
32Example 5 Answers a) 4cm b) .77m/s c) 2.9 – 2.6 = .3s d) 3.33Hz e) 0.231Mf) 2.675s
33The Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic waves are waves have a magnetic field oscillating in one dimension and an electric field oscillating in another direction.They are transverse waves, however they are waves of fields and not matter. Because of this they can propagate (travel) in a vacuum.
34EM properties All EM waves share similar properties. They all propagate by means of changing electric and magnetic fields.They are all transverse in nature.They all travel at the same speed in a vacuum. (3x108m/s = c)
35Electromagnetic waves Light is a form of Electromagnetic Radiation.EM Radiation has waves in the electric and magnetic fieldsElectromagnetic waves have two basic parts.electric fieldmagnetic fieldThe fields areperpendicular to eachother.
36Electromagnetic Spectrum Many parts including:Gamma Rays (10-11 m)X-Rays (10-9 m)Ultra-violet (10-8 m)Visible (10-7 m)Infared (10-6 m)Microwave (10-2 m)TV/Radio (10-1 m)
37Electromagnetic Spectrum Visible Spectrum:ROY G BIVRedOrangeYellowGreenBlueIndigoVioletThe frequency of an electromagnetic wave is related to its wavelength:
38Notice that the speed of the light is a constant for any point of the spectrum. Ex Radio
39The Electromagnetic Spectrum 4.4.9 State that all electromagnetic waves travel with the same speed in free space, and recall the orders of magnitude of the wavelengths of the principal radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum.Long Short Low fHigh fRadioWavesMicroWavesInfraredVISIBLEUltraVioletXraysGammarays
40The Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic waves can have any wavelength; we have given different names to different parts of the wavelength spectrum.Wave TypeOrder of Magnitude of the wavelength (m)RadioMicrowaveInfraredVisible7x10-7-3x10-7Ultraviolet3xX-rayGamma
41EM BackgroundJames Maxwell helped to develop our understanding of EM waves.Used four equations to describe EM wavesShowed EM waves travel at 2.998x108 m/sShowed that speed of EM waves is dependent on two constants, the permittivity of free space, ε0 and the permeability of free space, µ0.
42The permittivity of free space, ε0 describes the electric characteristic of the wave. The permeability of free space, µ0 describes the magnetic characteristic of the wave.ε0 = 8.85 x C2/Nm2µ0 = 4π x 10-7 m/ASo….c = 1/(√ε0µ0)c = 1/(√8.85 x x 4π x 10-7= x 108 m/s= 3 x 108 m/s