2What is ‘Color’Color is a fundamental attribute of human visual perception.By fundamental we mean that it is so unique that its meaning cannot be fully appreciated without direct experience.How would you describe color to a person who was blind since birth?
33 Properties of Color Perception Hue Qualitative, easily identified category of visual experience (Colloquially known as ‘color’; e.g. ‘red’, ‘green’, ‘blue’). Differs from black-gray-white. Quickly now: Name 10 ‘colors’…Brightness Intensity of the visual experience (e.g., ‘dim’, ‘bright’, ‘light’, ‘dark’)Saturation Purity of the hue experience (i.e., relative absence of ‘white’ or ‘gray’) (reciprocal of ‘added white’ required for a color-match-to-sample)
4Color Stimulus Triad Illuminant Spectrum Surface Reflectance Spectrum Spectral Sensitivity of the Visual System
19Newton’s Color Experiments Found that light was not “pure” but could be analyzed into separate component that appeared different in color [ROY G BIV]Combinations of “spectral colors” gave rise to perceived colors not observed in the spectrum“Non-spectral colors” were an emergent property of the human nervous system“Color wheel” is one of the first psychological theories in the classic scientific literatureSir Isaac Newton( )Photo 11.2Sir Isaac Newton (1643–1727)Color Circle
20Trichromatic Theory of Color Color perception emerges from the idiosyncratic discrimination of light wavelength in the retinaEvidence strongly suggests that the retina must “encode” color based upon more than one type of wavelength-tuned photoreceptor [Univariance Principle]Additive color matching experiments suggest that three wavelength sensors are required [aka Trichromatic Theory]Thomas Young( )Hermann von Helmholtz( )
21Simulated Microspectrophotometry Analysis of Human Retina
343 Cones Revealed by MSP Figure 11.17 Absorption profiles (spectra) of the three types of cone photoreceptors in humans show that each has a different range of wavelength preference.S, M, and L cones maximally absorb light at 440 nm, 530 nm, and 560 nm, respectively.
37Color Specification Systems (Hue,Saturation,Brightness) CIE (1931) Chromaticity (x,y) captures hue x saturationMunsell Color System (18 Hues, 18 Chroma; 10 Values)Pantone (Proprietary Color Matching Standards)
38CIE Color Matching Paradigm (Specifying Tristimulus Values)
39CIE (1931) Chromaticity Diagram TRISTIMULUS VALUE = X,Y,ZNormalization of XYZ into(x,y) Chromaticity Coordinates:x = X / (X+Y+Z)y = Y / (X+Y+Z)z = Z / (X+Y+Z)Since z = 1 – x – y then XYZ canbe fully specified in the (x,y) plane
40Munsell = (Hue,Value,Chroma) Figure 11.13Three-dimensional colour space can be generated by incorporating the three perceptual parameters of colour—hue (H), saturation (S), and value (V).HSV colour space can take the form of a cylinder where hue is represented in a circular manner, saturation in a radial manner, and value along the vertical dimension.Rectangular slice through this colour space provides the full range of saturation and value for any given hue.A more accurate colour space is conical in shape because decreasing the value of the stimulus produces a reduced range of perceived hue and saturation.Munsell Hues
41Munsell Book of Colors Hue 5RP (Red-Purple) (Most saturated: 5RP 5/26) Figure 11.13Three-dimensional colour space can be generated by incorporating the three perceptual parameters of colour—hue (H), saturation (S), and value (V).HSV colour space can take the form of a cylinder where hue is represented in a circular manner, saturation in a radial manner, and value along the vertical dimension.Rectangular slice through this colour space provides the full range of saturation and value for any given hue.A more accurate colour space is conical in shape because decreasing the value of the stimulus produces a reduced range of perceived hue and saturation.Hue 5RP (Red-Purple)(Most saturated: 5RP 5/26)Hue 10YR (Yellow-Red)HueValueChroma
42Classic Color Demonstrations Explained by Trichromatic Mechanism Tristimulus Color Mixing Findings (see above)Fast Color Adaptation (Basis for Color Constancy)
43Problems with Trichromatic Theory Complementary Color AfterimagesHue Cancellation Effects (Hurvich & Jameson) Red+Green Yellow (not reddish-green) Yellow+Blue White (not yellow-blue)Complex Color Contrast Effects (Land)“Blue” light discounted in Brightness Perception
44Opponent Process Theory Information from Red, Green and Blue Cones is organized intothree discrete channels before ascending to the visual cortex:Two pairs of OPPONENT COLOR channels code for HUERed vs. Green channel L M conesBlue vs. Yellow channel S L+M conesOne ACHROMATIC channel codes for BRIGHTNESSBlack vs. White L+M in center-surroundantagonism
45DeValois & DeValois (1975) Color-Opponent Cells in the LGN
46Red-Green Ganglion Cell Figure 11.26Colour opponency in retina is generated by selective input of cone signals upon a ganglion cell.R/G colour-opponent cell receives excitatory input (E) from a central group of L cones and inhibitory input (I) from a peripheral group of M cones.Opposite arrangement of cone inputs will produce a G/R colour-opponent neuron.
48Achromatic Ganglion Cell (Notice that Blue Light is “Discounted”)
49Psychophysical vs. Physiological Results DeValois & DeValois (1975)Monkey LGN dataBoynton & Gordon’s (1965)Color Naming ResultsPresent brief-flash of mono-chromatic light; Identifyappearance using four colorcategories: RED, YELLOW, GREENor BLUEFigure 11.25Visible spectrum can be parsed into discrete wavelength regions that optimally stimulate each colour-opponent subtype (upper panel).Colour naming experiments show that perceptual impressions of hue are also parsed into discrete wavelength regions (lower panel).Correspondence between these two sets of data suggest that output of LGN colour-opponent neurons plays prominent role in generating colour perception.