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Prepared By: Shakil Raiman.  Waves are a means of transferring energy and information from one place to another.  These transfer takes place with no.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared By: Shakil Raiman.  Waves are a means of transferring energy and information from one place to another.  These transfer takes place with no."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepared By: Shakil Raiman

2  Waves are a means of transferring energy and information from one place to another.  These transfer takes place with no matter being transferred.  For example, energy can be carried by a water wave generated by a boat out at sea to the shore, or by a sound wave from the loudspeaker to an audience’s ears.  The most common waves found in daily life are water waves, sound and electromagnetic waves.

3  Two types of waves:  Transverse wave  Longitudinal Wave

4  A transverse wave is a wave in which the vibrations of the particles are at right angles to the direction of propagation of the wave.  EXAMPLES OF TRANSVERSE WAVES:  Microwaves, radio waves, infra-red, visible light, ultra- violet, X-rays and  -rays are called electromagnetic waves. All these waves are transverse waves. Another example is water wave.

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6  A longitudinal wave is a wave in which the vibrations of the particles are parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave.  EXAMPLES OF LONGITUDINAL WAVES:  Sound wave

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9  Amplitude: The amplitude of a wave is the maximum displacement of a particle from its resting position. SI unit is metre (m).  Wavelength: The wavelength of a wave is the minimum distance at which the wave repeats itself. It can also be taken as the distance between two successive crests ( or troughs). It is denoted by (lambda). SI unit is metre (m).  In case of longitudinal wave, wavelength is the distance between two successive centres of compression (or rarefaction)

10  Period or Time Period: The period of a wave is the time taken for one complete vibration of a particle. It is also the time taken to produce one complete wave. It is denoted by T. SI unit is second (s).  Frequency: The frequency of a wave is the number of complete waves produced per second. It is denoted by f. SI unit is hertz (Hz).  The relationship between period and frequency is:

11  The speed, v, of a wave is the distance traveled by the wave in one second.  The wave moves by a distance of one wavelength ( ) is one period (T), so the wave speed (v) is:  As, so, v = f

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13  A ripple tank is a shallow glass tank of water used in schools and colleges to demonstrate the basic properties of waves.  When the motor is turned on the wooden bar vibrates and produce waves.

14  A ripple tank can be used to produce waves to investigate the wavelength, amplitude and frequency of a wave.

15  Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media.  Laws of reflection:  The incident ray, normal and the reflected ray all lie on same plane.  The incident angle (i) = the reflected angle (r)  Normal is a line drawn at right angles to the surface (at the point of incident ray).

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18  Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its transmission medium.  Laws of refraction:  The incident ray, normal and the refracted ray all lie on same plane. 

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20  Diffraction is the spreading of waves while passing through narrow gap.  If the gap is close to the wavelength of the wave diffraction is most.  Examples of diffraction include sound waves that diffract as they pass through doorways.  Diffraction also happens when waves pass a single edge. Radio waves are diffracted as they pass over hills.

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23  Wish you all very good luck and excellent result.


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