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The Invisible Universe Sources & Detectors of Invisible Light NEIU NASA Endeavour Program.

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Presentation on theme: "The Invisible Universe Sources & Detectors of Invisible Light NEIU NASA Endeavour Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Invisible Universe Sources & Detectors of Invisible Light NEIU NASA Endeavour Program

2 Electromagnetic Spectrum The full range of frequencies, from radio waves to gamma rays, that characterizes lightfrequencies The electromagnetic spectrum can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency. Each way of thinking about the EM spectrum is related to the others in a precise mathematical way.electromagnetic spectrum The wavelength equals the speed of light divided by the frequency.wavelengthspeed of lightfrequency

3 Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of photons, each traveling in a wave-like pattern, moving at the speed of light and carrying some amount of energy.lectromagnetic radiationphotonsspeed of light The only difference between radio waves, visible light, and gamma-rays is the energy of the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwaves have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared has still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays.RadiomicrowavesinfraredvisibleultravioletX-rays gamma-rays

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6 Wavelength and Frequency For any kind of wave there exists a simple relationship between wavelength and frequency. The wavelength is measured as the distance between two successive crests in a wave. The frequency is the number of wave crests that pass a a given point in space each second.

7 Radio (Low Frequency & Very High Frequency) Emitted by –Astronomical Objects –Radio Station transmitters Detected by –Ground based radio telescopes –Radios

8 Microwave Emitted by: –Gas clouds collapsing into stars –Microwave Ovens –Radar Stations –Cell Phones Detected by –Microwave Telescopes –Food (heated) –Cell phones –Radar systems)

9 Infrared (Near and Thermal) Emitted by –Sun and stars (Near) –TV Remote Controls –Food Warming Lights (Thermal) –Everything at room temp or above Detected by –Infrared Cameras –TVs, VCRs, –Your skin

10 Visible Emitted by –The sun and other astronomical objects –Laser pointers –Light bulbs Detected by –Cameras (film or digital) –Human eyes –Plants (red light) –Telescopes

11 Ultraviolet Emitted by –Tanning booths (A) –The sun (A) –Black light bulbs (B) –UV lamps Detected by –Space based UV detectors –UV Cameras –Flying insects (flies)

12 X-ray Emitted by –Astronomical objects –X-ray machines –CAT scan machines –Older televisions –Radioactive minerals –Airport luggage scanners Detected by –Space based X-ray detectors –X-ray film –CCD detectors

13 Gamma Ray Emitted by –Radioactive materials –Exploding nuclear weapons –Gamma-ray bursts –Solar flares Detected by –Gamma detectors and astronomical satellites –Medical imaging detectors

14 Sources of Gamma-ray Emission Black holes Active Galaxies Pulsars Diffuse emission Supernovae Gamma-ray bursts Unidentified

15 Source/Detector Activity Identify sources (emitters) and detectors of the various wavelengths of the EMS. Experiment with: –shields –types of materials that prevent the transmission of wavelengths –Transmitters – materials that do not prevent the transmission of wavelengths

16 Our Exploration Stations Visible Light –Neon –Flashlights Radio –Walkie Talkies –Remote Control Vehicle Infrared –Remote Controls –Heat Lamp Ultraviolet –UV Light

17 What did we learn? Question: What property of the materials we tested caused radio waves to be blocked? Question: Are all the plastics we tested translucent/transparent to infrared light? Question: If someone had no sunscreen while at the beach what could they cover their face with to keep from getting sun burned by UV light?

18 Exploring the EMS with NASA Missions ASTRO-E2 Chandra CHIPSCon-X GALEX GLAST HETE-2 INTEGRAL MAP RXTE SWAS XMM-Newton Swift Energy (eV) RadioInfraredVisibleUVX-rayGamma ray

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20 And the universe for that matter!

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22 Windows through Atmosphere

23 NASA’s Views Studying the Universe: tml tml

24 The GEMS Guide A workbook and teachers guide inspired by the Swift mission and developed in collaboration with the GEMS Program. Activities in this book: Activity 1: Comparing Wave Makers Activity 2: Invisible Light Sources and Detectors Activity 3: Putting the Electromagnetic Spectrum Together Activity 4: Tour of the Invisible Universe Activity 5: The Most Powerful Explosions in the Universe

25 Source of Activities GEMS Guide: The Invisible Universe. – multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum /sun.htmlhttp://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/ multiwavelength_astronomy/multiwavelength_museum /sun.html Studying the Universe:

26 More Information Swift - GLAST – XMM Newton - NASA SSU – Space Mysteries –


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