2Figure 9. 1 (a) Red berries in green foliage Figure 9.1 (a) Red berries in green foliage. (b) These berries become more difficult to detect without color vision.Figure 9-1 p200
3Color and Wavelength - continued Colors of objects are determined by the wavelengths that are reflectedReflectance curves - plots of percentage of light reflected for specific wavelengthsChromatic colors or hues - objects that preferentially reflect some wavelengthsCalled selective reflectanceAchromatic colors - contain no huesWhite, black, and gray tones
4Figure 9.6 Reflectance curves for surfaces that appear white, gray, and black, and for blue, green, and yellow pigments and a red tomato.Figure 9-6 p202
6Color and Wavelength - continued Selective transmission:Transparent objects, such as liquids, selectively allow wavelengths to pass throughSimultaneous color contrast - background of object can affect color perception
7Color and Wavelength - continued Additive color mixture:Mixing lights of different wavelengthsAll wavelengths are available for the observer to seeSuperimposing blue and yellow lights leads to whiteSubtractive color mixture:Mixing paints with different pigmentsAdditional pigments reflect fewer wavelengthsMixing blue and yellow leads to green
8Figure 9. 7 Color mixing with light Figure 9.7 Color mixing with light. Superimposing a blue light and a yellow light creates the perception of white in the area of overlap. This is additive color mixing.Figure 9-7 p202
9Figure 9. 8 Color mixing with paint Figure 9.8 Color mixing with paint. Mixing blue paint and yellow paint creates a paint that appears green. This is subtractive color mixture.Figure 9-8 p203
10Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision Proposed by Young and Helmholtz (1800s)Three different receptor mechanisms are responsible for color vision.Behavioral evidence:Color-matching experimentsObservers adjusted amounts of three wavelengths in a comparison field to match a test field of one wavelength.
11Behavior Evidence of the Theory Results showed that:It is possible to perform the matching taskObservers with normal color vision need at least three wavelengths to make the matches.Observers with color deficiencies can match colors by using only two wavelengths.
12Figure 9.9 In a color-matching experiment, the observer adjusts the amount of three wavelengths in one field (right) so that it matches the color of the single wavelength in the other field (left).Figure 9-9 p204
13Physiological Evidence for the Theory Researchers measured absorption spectra of visual pigments in receptors (1960s).They found pigments that responded maximally to:Short wavelengths (419nm)Medium wavelengths (531nm)Long wavelengths (558nm)Later researchers found genetic differences for coding proteins for the three pigments (1980s).
14Figure 9.10 Absorption spectra of the three cone pigments. Figure 9-10 p205
15Cone Responding and Color Perception Color perception is based on the response of the three different types of cones.Responses vary depending on the wavelengths available.Combinations of the responses across all three cone types lead to perception of all colors.Color matching experiments show that colors that are perceptually similar (metamers) can be caused by different physical wavelengths.
16Figure 9. 12 Principle behind metamerism Figure 9.12 Principle behind metamerism. The proportions of 530- and 620-nm lights in the field on the left have been adjusted so that the mixture appears identical to the 580-nm light in the field on the right. The numbers indicate the responses of the short-, medium-, and long-wavelength receptors. There is no difference in the responses of the two sets of receptors, so the two fields are perceptually indistinguishable.Figure 9-12 p206
17Figure 9. 16 Ishihara plate for testing color deficiency Figure 9.16 Ishihara plate for testing color deficiency. (a) A person with normal color vision sees a “74” when the plate is viewed under standardized illumination. (b) Ishihara plate as perceived by a person with a form of red–green color deficiency.Figure 9-16 p208
18Opponent-Process Theory of Color Vision Proposed by Hering (1800s)Color vision is caused by opposing responses generated by blue and yellow, and by green and red.Behavioral evidence:Color afterimages and simultaneous color contrast show the opposing pairingsTypes of color blindness are red/green and blue/yellow.
19Opponent-Process Theory of Color Vision - continued Opponent-process mechanism proposed by HeringThree mechanisms - red/green, blue/yellow, and white/blackThe pairs respond in an opposing fashion, such as positively to red and negatively to greenThese responses were believed to be the result of chemical reactions in the retina.
20Physiology Evidence for the Theory Researchers performing single-cell recordings found opponent neurons (1950s)Opponent neurons:Are located in the retina and LGNRespond in an excitatory manner to one end of the spectrum and an inhibitory manner to the other
21Trichromatic and Opponent-Process Theories Combined Each theory describes physiological mechanisms in the visual systemTrichromatic theory explains the responses of the cones in the retinaOpponent-process theory explains neural response for cells connected to the cones farther in the brain
22Color Is a Construction of the Nervous System Physical energy in the environment does not have perceptual qualities.Light waves are not “colored.”Different nervous systems experience different perceptions.Honeybees perceive color which is outside human perception.We cannot tell what color the bee actually “sees.”