PHYS FINAL 5:30-7:30PM FRI 08 MAY COATES 143 1/2 ON NEW MATERIAL 1/2 ON OLD MATERIAL Old Formula Sheet: spring2007/phys2102/ formulasheet.pdf
X-band: =10cm K-band: =2cm Ka-band: =1cm Laser: =1 m Radar: The Smaller The Wavelength the Better The Targeting Resolution
Angles of the Secondary Maxima The diffraction minima are precisely at the angles where sin = p /a and = p (so that sin =0). However, the diffraction maxima are not quite at the angles where sin = (p+½) /a and = (p+½) (so that |sin |=1). p (p+½) /a Max = 633 nm a = 0.2 mm To find the maxima, one must look near sin = (p+½) /a, for places where the slope of the diffraction pattern goes to zero, i.e., where d[(sin ) 2 ]/d = 0. This is a transcendental equation that must be solved numerically. The table gives the Max solutions. Note that Max (p+½) /a. (radians)
Example: Diffraction of a laser through a slit Light from a helium-neon laser ( = 633 nm) passes through a narrow slit and is seen on a screen 2.0 m behind the slit. The first minimum of the diffraction pattern is observed to be located 1.2 cm from the central maximum. How wide is the slit? 1.2 cm
Width of a Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern w -y 1 y1y1 y2y2 y3y3 0
X-band: =10cm You are doing 137 mph on I-10 and you pass a little old lady doing 55mph when a cop, Located 1km away fires his radar gun, which has a 10 cm opening. Can he tell you from the L.O.L. if the gun Is X-band? What about Laser? 1m 10 m 1000m No! Beam is much wider than car separation — too wide to tell who is who. No! Beam is much wider than car separation — too wide to tell who is who. Laser-band: =1 m Yes! Beam width is much less than car separation. Yes! Beam width is much less than car separation.
Exercise Two single slit diffraction patterns are shown. The distance from the slit to the screen is the same in both cases. Which of the following could be true? (a) The slit width a is the same for both; . (b) The slit width a is the same for both; . (c) The wavelength is the same for both; width a 1 p 2.
(degrees) Combined Diffraction and Interference So far, we have treated diffraction and interference independently. However, in a two-slit system both phenomena should be present together. d a a Notice that when d/a is an integer, diffraction minima will fall on top of “missing” interference maxima. Interference Only Diffraction Only Both
A device with N slits (rulings) can be used to manipulate light, such as separate different wavelengths of light that are contained in a single beam. How does a diffraction grating affect monochromatic light? Diffraction Gratings Fig Fig (36-11)
Circular Apertures When light passes through a circular aperture instead of a vertical slit, the diffraction pattern is modified by the 2D geometry. The minima occur at about 1.22 /D instead of /a. Otherwise the behavior is the same, including the spread of the diffraction pattern with decreasing aperture. Single slit of aperture a Hole of diameter D
The Rayleigh Criterion The Rayleigh Resolution Criterion says that the minimum separation to separate two objects is to have the diffraction peak of one at the diffraction minimum of the other, i.e., D. Example: The Hubble Space Telescope has a mirror diameter of 4 m, leading to excellent resolution of close-lying objects. For light with wavelength of 500 nm, the angular resolution of the Hubble is = 1.53 x radians.
Example A spy satellite in a 200km low-Earth orbit is imaging the Earth in the visible wavelength of 500nm. How big a diameter telescope does it need to read a newspaper over your shoulder from Outer Space?
D (The smaller the wavelength or the bigger the telescope opening — the better the angular resolution.) Letters on a newspaper are about x = 10mm apart. Orbit altitude R = 200km & D is telescope diameter. Formula: x = R = R(1.22 /D) D = R(1.22 / x) = (200x10 3 m)(1.22x500x10 –9 m)/(10X10 –3 m) = 12.2m Example Solution R xx
Los Angeles from Space! Corona Declassified Spy Photo: Circa 1960’s
Some Professor’s House: Google Maps 2009
Review of Interference from Thin Films Fig Soap Bubble Oil Slick
Reflection Phase Shifts n1n1 n2n2 n 1 > n 2 n1n1 n2n2 n 1 < n 2 Reflection Reflection Phase Shift Off lower index---> 0 Off higher index ---> (35-15) High-To-Low: Phase Shift — NO! Low-To-High: Phase Shift — Pi! High-To-Low: Phase Shift — NO! Low-To-High: Phase Shift — Pi!
Equations for Thin-Film Interference Fig Three effects can contribute to the phase difference between r 1 and r 2. 1.Differences in reflection conditions. 2.Difference in path length traveled. 3.Differences in the media in which the waves travel. One must use the wavelength in each medium ( / n ) to calculate the phase. ½ wavelength phase difference to difference in reflection of r 1 and r 2 (35-16)
Film Thickness Much Less Than If L is much less than l, for example L < 0.1, then phase difference due to the path difference 2 L can be neglected. Phase difference between r 1 and r 2 will always be ½ wavelength destructive interference film will appear dark when viewed from illuminated side. r2r2 r1r1 (35-17) Top of Soap Bubble Film is So Thin It Looks Dark At All Wavelengths: Anti-Reflective Coating! As You Go Down Thickness Increases Steadily (Gravity) And Different Wavelengths hit Reflection Condition 2L=(m+1/2) /n 2 Reflective Coating
Color Shifting by Morpho Butterflies and Paper Currencies Fig For the same path difference, different wavelengths (colors) of light will interfere differently. For example, 2 L could be an integer number of wavelengths for red light but half-integer wavelengths for blue. Furthermore, the path difference 2 L will change when light strikes the surface at different angles, again changing the interference condition for the different wavelengths of light. (35-18)
Problem Solving Tactic 1: Thin-Film Equations Equations and are for the special case of a higher index film flanked by air on both sides. For multilayer systems, this is not always the case and so these equations are not appropriate. What happens to these equations for the following system? n 1 =1n 2 =1.5n 3 =1.7 r1r1 r2r2 L (35-19)