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Optical Switches Alfred Poon Amy Ng Derric Lam Ritter Chak Members : CSIT 560 Project Presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "Optical Switches Alfred Poon Amy Ng Derric Lam Ritter Chak Members : CSIT 560 Project Presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Optical Switches Alfred Poon Amy Ng Derric Lam Ritter Chak Members : CSIT 560 Project Presentation

2 Agenda Optical Switch Background Optical Switch Background Optical Switching Fabric & Requirement Optical Switching Fabric & Requirement Product Example Product Example Market Trend Market Trend Conclusion Conclusion

3 Optical Switch Background Optical Switch Background | Optical Switching Fabric & Requirement | Product Example | Market Trend | Conclusion

4 From Digital to Analog TDM system multiplexes the input streams, and generates fast speed streams ~ around 10Gbs (still the fastest?) TDM system multiplexes the input streams, and generates fast speed streams ~ around 10Gbs (still the fastest?) WDM system converts each high speed TDM stream into the laser beam with different wavelengths WDM system converts each high speed TDM stream into the laser beam with different wavelengths WDM system multiplexes the laser beams to utilize the capacity of a single fiber ~ around 1.6 Tbps at 160 wavelength WDM system multiplexes the laser beams to utilize the capacity of a single fiber ~ around 1.6 Tbps at 160 wavelength

5 Generic Optical Network Optical network usually consists of various kinds of optical switch: Optical network usually consists of various kinds of optical switch:  Optical Protection Switch  OADM (Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer)  OXC (Optical Cross Connect) Wavelength Switch Wavelength Switch Optical Burst Switch Optical Burst Switch Optical Packet Switch Optical Packet Switch

6 Basic of Optical Switch Switching wavelength (laser beam) from input port to output port Switching wavelength (laser beam) from input port to output port Using the value of wavelength to make the switching decision Using the value of wavelength to make the switching decision Detector 1 Detector 2 Detector 3 Detector 4 Demux

7 Classification of Optical Switch Network Traffic Type Network Traffic Type  Optical Circuit Switch by wavelength, by waveband and by fiber by wavelength, by waveband and by fiber  Optical Packet Switch by optical data packet by optical data packet Nature of Switching Fabric Technique Nature of Switching Fabric Technique  Optical-Electrical-Optical (OEO) Switch  All-optical (OOO) Switch  OEOEO Switch (very Complex) Functionalities Functionalities  Brand-width Management Switch capable of bandwidth grooming and local add-drop mux capable of bandwidth grooming and local add-drop mux  Optical Transport Switch rerouting optical circuits or wavelength from one path to another on the transport network rerouting optical circuits or wavelength from one path to another on the transport network

8 Optical Challenge Difficult to read and processing bits at extremely high speeds Difficult to read and processing bits at extremely high speeds  especially on Optical Packet Switch and OEO circuit switch Difficult to buffer optical packets Difficult to buffer optical packets  Delay Line Technique Length Crucial Technique Length Crucial Technique if line is too long, switching fabric needs to wait for the packets to come out (Sequential Access) if line is too long, switching fabric needs to wait for the packets to come out (Sequential Access)  Hierarchical Trees Design to direct packet through a given incremental set of delays (reduce the Sequential Access Effect) to direct packet through a given incremental set of delays (reduce the Sequential Access Effect) complex and expensive complex and expensive

9 Optical Circuit Switching To set up a Wavelength path, a signal enters and exits the optical layers at the same wavelength To set up a Wavelength path, a signal enters and exits the optical layers at the same wavelength  limitation on available wavelength Virtual Wavelength path overcomes the limitation by allowing a signal to travel on different wavelength throughout the wavelength path Virtual Wavelength path overcomes the limitation by allowing a signal to travel on different wavelength throughout the wavelength path

10 Optical Packet Switching Routing Tags Header 180ns 14 bytes Guard time > 26 ns Payload 1.35  s 105  1680 bytes Synchronization pattern Payload synchronization patterns Time slot T :  s = 128 bytes 622 Mb/s) KEOPS Packet Format

11 Optical Switching Fabric & Requirement Optical Switch Background | Optical Switching Fabric & Requirement | Product Example | Market Trend | Conclusion

12 OEO vs OOO ProsCons OEO - Known and mature technology - 3R regeneration for free - capable of bandwidth grooming bit error rate monitoring and statistical multiplexing - Optical Scalability limit - Not bit-rate transparency - Not protocol transparency - Expensive OOO - Optical Scalability - Bit-rate transparency - service/protocol transparency - Emerging Technology - not capable of bandwidth grooming, bit error rate monitoring and statistical multiplexing

13 Optical Switch Requirements MEMSFrustrated Refractions Gratings and Circulators Holographic Switches Waveguide Switches Space Switches Port CountHighLowLowLowLowLow Switching SpeedSlowFastFastFastSlowFast Signal Loss (dB)Low??High?? Cross TalkNoNoNoYesYes? Reconfiguration SpeedSlowFastSlowFastFastFast Wavelength IndependenceYesYesNoYesNoYes Bit-rate IndependenceYesYesYesYesYesYes Additional Requirements: Power Consumption and Cost per Port

14 OXC Packet Switch Burst Switch OADM Protection Switch Requirements of Optical Switch 10,000 1, Port Count 10ns 1  s 1ms 1s Reconfiguration Speed Fast Electro-optic Tuneable Laser Liquid Crystal Grating 3D Fast MEMS 3D Slow MEMS 2D Slow MEMS Bulk Mechanical

15 Reality Protection (1x2) OADMOXCOPS Bulk mechanical 2D slow MEMS 3D slow MEMS Beam steering – moving fiber Beam steering – moving image 2.5D slow MEMS 1D fast MEMS 3D fast MEMS Electro-optic (bulk) Electro-optic (waveguide) Thermo-optic (waveguide) Gratings Bubble FTIR Broadcast & select Wavelength routing Shutter gating Amplifier gating Acousto-optic Polarization switching Application vs Technologies

16 Product Example Optical Switch Background | Optical Switching Fabric & Requirement | Product Example | Market Trend | Conclusion

17 3D MEMS-Based Optical Switch Handles 80-by-80 Fibers (Glimmerglass) 80 X 80 port with 3D MEMS mirror arrays 80 X 80 port with 3D MEMS mirror arrays switch signals within 10 ms with an insertion loss of 2 dB switch signals within 10 ms with an insertion loss of 2 dB the cost per port is five to 10 times less than other all-optical switching techniques the cost per port is five to 10 times less than other all-optical switching techniques compatible with any network topology, every protocol and any data rate compatible with any network topology, every protocol and any data rate contains optical-channel power monitors, a fiber patch panel and an Ethernet control interface and packed into a 4.5 by 9.5 by 7.0-inches rack-mountable case that consumes just 20W contains optical-channel power monitors, a fiber patch panel and an Ethernet control interface and packed into a 4.5 by 9.5 by 7.0-inches rack-mountable case that consumes just 20W $200 to $700 us per port $200 to $700 us per port

18 3D MEMS-Based Optical Switch Handles 80-by-80 Fibers (Glimmerglass)

19 Market Trend Optical Switch Background | Optical Switching Fabric & Requirement | Product Example | Market Trend | Conclusion

20 Optical Network Growing Source: MSDW and RHK

21 Optical Networking Market Forecast Shipments (USD – Billions) Source: MSDW and RHK Growth Rate

22 Worldwide market for optional switching systems USD (Billion) Source: ARC Group

23 Optical Switches Cost OOO vs OEO Cost per Port Source: ARC Group

24 Conclusion Optical Switch Background | Optical Switching Fabric & Requirement | Product Example | Market Trend | Conclusion

25 Conclusions In the near future : In the near future :  All optical networks may not be possible due to constraint of OOO technologies  OOO still cannot replace OEO

26 Established Photonic Companies.. Some Recent Acquisitions Companies Some New Players.

27 References

28 Thank You


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