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The Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP) PIs: Paul Green & Belinda Wilkes X-ray: Dong-Woo Kim Imaging: Rob Cameron,

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Presentation on theme: "The Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP) PIs: Paul Green & Belinda Wilkes X-ray: Dong-Woo Kim Imaging: Rob Cameron,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP) PIs: Paul Green & Belinda Wilkes X-ray: Dong-Woo Kim Imaging: Rob Cameron, Wayne Barkhouse Spectroscopy: John Silverman and the ChaMP Collaboration Serendipitous X-ray Survey using Chandra Archival Data

2 Principal Motivations Sample X-ray selected AGN across L,z plane Sample X-ray selected AGN across L,z plane Study populations contributing to the CXRB Study populations contributing to the CXRB Find high-z clusters to constrain Cosmology Find high-z clusters to constrain Cosmology Study cosmic variance and clustering Study cosmic variance and clustering Sample DLyα absorbers to XSQSOs Sample DLyα absorbers to XSQSOs Detect mass limits of stellar coronal emission Detect mass limits of stellar coronal emission

3 Quasar and AGN Evolution: What do we know? Optical surveys:Unobscured population (view the BLR and/or NLR) Technically feasible for wide and deep sky coverage to sample to z~6 03 SMBH growth and highly efficient accretion? (Wyithe & Loeb 2002 etc.) 2dF (Boyle et al. 2000) SDSS (Fan et al. 2001)

4 Quasar and AGN Evolution Past X-ray surveys Cosmic X-Ray Background (CXRB): Significant obscured population (Gilli et al. 2001, Comastri et al. 1995) Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (Maccacaro et al. 1991; EMSS) 420 AGNs, z erg s -1 cm -2 resolved ~40% CXRB at 2 keV ROSAT (Miyaji et al. 2000) Compilation of various depth surveys 690 AGNs with 8 at z>3 resolved ~90% keV CXRB Luminosity evolution similar to optical surveys ROSAT Luminosity function

5 Space Density of Luminous Quasars Optical and radio LFs peak at z~2 Optical and radio LFs peak at z~2 X-ray space density MAY flatten at z>3 X-ray space density MAY flatten at z>3 Need more high- z, X-ray selected AGN Need more high- z, X-ray selected AGN (Miyaji et al 2000)

6 Chandra Advances ~1” positions, small PSF & low background × fainter flux limits unambiguous source IDs Source extent and morphology XMM is Complementary 4 Effective Area + larger Field-of-View 4 × Effective Area + larger Field-of-View Harder energy band: keV

7 Do High and Low L AGN Evolve Differently? Redshift distribution of deep Chandra sources Obscured AGN population resides at z<1.5 Barger et al., Cowie et al ● < Lx(2-8 keV)< erg/s ○ < Lx < erg/s

8 Quasar and AGN Evolution Current Chandra and XMM deep surveys Resolved ~80-90% of the 2-8 keV CXRB CDF-N (Brandt et al. 02), CDF-S (Giacconi et al 01), Lockman Hole (Hasinger et al. 01) CXRB is not a fully solved issue Chandra bandpass Comastri et al. 1995

9 CXRB Spectral Synthesis Comastri et al. 1995

10 Hard CXRB Dominated by “Bright” Sources Cowie et al. (2002)

11 Outline of the ChaMP 135 selected ACIS fields from Cycles 1&2 X-ray source detection & photometry Source IDs via optical imaging: g’ r’ i’ Classification in X-ray/optical multicolor plane Optical spectroscopy of bright subsample Radio: NVSS+FIRST; VLA 2MASS; near-IR Imaging (TBD)

12 ChaMP Field Distribution 137 Cycle 1&2 ACIS Fields: ~14 sq. deg 137 Cycle 1&2 ACIS Fields: ~14 sq. deg Exposure times ksec Exposure times ksec ~6000 X-ray sources ~6000 X-ray sources

13 X-ray Analysis Chandra Level 2 Data Products Chandra Level 2 Data Products Correct: gain, bad or flaring pixels, high bkg Correct: gain, bad or flaring pixels, high bkg Generate exposure map Generate exposure map Wavdetect: 7 kernel sizes, 3 bands; B: keV; S: keV; H: keV Wavdetect: 7 kernel sizes, 3 bands; B: keV; S: keV; H: keV Determine source properties: flux, hardness, extent, spectrum, variability Determine source properties: flux, hardness, extent, spectrum, variability 62 fields processed to date: ~4000 sources: 62 fields processed to date: ~4000 sources: Kim et al Dong-Woo Kim, H. Ghosh, V. Kashyap, T. Aldcroft, A. Vikhlinin

14 Predicted Number Counts 4000 AGN (800 abs’bd) 2000 galaxies, M stars, 40 clusters 4000 AGN (800 abs’bd) 2000 galaxies, M stars, 40 clusters Chandra Deep Surveys: 1&2 Msec (ACIS-I) Chandra Deep Surveys: 1&2 Msec (ACIS-I) ROSAT compilation (Miyaji et al. 2000) ROSAT compilation (Miyaji et al. 2000) Grimes, Green, Kim

15 ChaMP logN-logS Soft BandHard Band Bridges flux gaps between ROSAT, ASCA & Chandra Deep Fields Kim et al. 2003

16 ChaMP logN-logS: Results Soft band differential logN-logS requires a broken powerlaw Soft band differential logN-logS requires a broken powerlaw β bright =2.3±0.2, β faint =1.7±0.1, S break =6× β bright =2.3±0.2, β faint =1.7±0.1, S break =6× Hard band: β=1.3±0.1 single PL acceptable Hard band: β=1.3±0.1 single PL acceptable Both consistent with XMM (Baldi et al. 2001), CDF-N (Brandt et al. 2001) Kim et al. 2003

17 Cosmic Variance ? Cosmic Variance ? 62 fields 62 fields counts>20; θ 20; θ<400” typical errors shown typical errors shown No significant Cosmic Variance! No significant Cosmic Variance! 3C295 cluster field exposures marked 3C295 cluster field exposures marked 100ksec exposure belies earlier claim of overdensity 100ksec exposure belies earlier claim of overdensity Kim et al. 2003

18 ChaMP logN-logS: Clusters Kim et al cluster target fields33 non-cluster fields

19 X-ray Simulations SAOSAC raytrace simulations Grid of off-axis angles 10 – 1000 count sources Std XPIPE detection & Photometry Compare input/output - detection rates - positions - fluxes

20 Wavdetect Positional Uncertainties  Typically <1‘’  Strong increase with θ due to PSF  Greatly improved after detection by a 2d wavdet pass using small kernel  Centroid uncertainty decreases for strong sources.

21 Optical Identification With reduced, stacked NOAO MOSAIC images  Detect sources with SExtractor  Astrometric solution: GSC II, <0.3” rms  Cross-correlate X-ray and optical  Fine tune X-ray astrometry  Prioritize counterparts by X-O distance  Visual check of all optical IDs P. Green, W. Barkhouse. R. Cameron, J. Silverman, A. Mossman

22 X-ray/Optical Matching NOAO 4m/MOSAIC NOAO 4m/MOSAIC Sloan g’ r’ i’ Sloan g’ r’ i’ Automated OAA dependent matching Automated OAA dependent matching Visual inspection Visual inspection Cameron, Silverman, Green

23 Optical Counterparts Green et al. 2003: 6 fields>30ksec 483 sources > 3e optical IDs (68%) 125 spectra (25%) 194 sources > 3e optical IDs (78%) 78 spectra (40%) spectra for 64% of r<22 IDs 55 sources > 1e optical IDs (95%) 34 spectra (62%) spectra for 72% of r<22 IDs

24 Optical Spectroscopic Program J. Silverman, P. Green, P. Smith (Steward), S. Ellison (PUC), C. Foltz (NSF), C. Smith, M. Smith (CTIO), E. Colmenero-Romero (SAAO) Spectroscopic identification r’<23 FLWO/1.5m FAST, SAAO -longslit (Queue observing) KPNO/WIYN, CTIO/4m 19 -HYDRA multi-fiber (FOV 1 deg) KPNO/4m 3 -MARS(Multi-aperture red spectrograph) Telescope/Instrument # of nights Magellan/6.5m 9 -LDSS-2 multi-slit spectrograph (FOV ~5’) MMT/6.5m 9 -long slit 30/40 clear nights (~400 spectra) Additional spectra from J. Huchra, G. Torres, W. Brown, K. Adelberger, K. Krisciunas(CTIO), B. Kirshner

25 Quasars at z > 3 Chandra Image 30 ksec exposure ACIS-S ACIS-I 8.5’ 2’ x 2’ FOV r’=21.5r’=20.6 r’=22.0 r’=21.5

26 Covering the L x -z Plane ChaMP complements the CDFs by finding numerous: high-z, high-L QSOs high-z, high-L QSOs low-z, moderate-L AGN low-z, moderate-L AGN

27 Covering the L o -z Plane ChaMP garners high-L galaxies and QSOs. But ~no galaxies beyond z~0.8 ! Galaxy z limit set by r’<22

28 Optical vs. X-ray Fluxes BLAGN and stars well-separated BLAGN and stars well-separated Different sample than optical surveys Different sample than optical surveys Some ALGs have QSO-like f x /f opt Some ALGs have QSO-like f x /f opt Many bright X-ray sources unmatched to r =25 Many bright X-ray sources unmatched to r =25

29 Hidden AGN Hard sources appear at f X < Hard sources appear at f X < May compose CXRB May compose CXRB Many have no broad lines: Optical Type2 AGN? Many have no broad lines: Optical Type2 AGN? Yes! L X >10 43 Yes! L X >10 43 X-ray, optical absorption not 1:1 X-ray, optical absorption not 1:1

30 X-ray absorption properties As expected, BLAGN are predominately unobscured Hard X-ray Sources are obscured AGN (Lx >10^42 erg/s) NELG and ALG have a wide range of X-ray spectral properties No type II QSOs detected -selection effect -5 detected in the CDF-S -1 “ “ “ CDF-N Normal galaxy (optical) z=0.228 r’=19.6 Soft=2 countsHard=89 counts Soft: keV Hard : keV

31 Absorbed Objects X-ray faint objects tend to be redderX-ray hard objects tend to be redder

32 ChaMP X-ray Spectral Fits CHaMP’s XFit pipeline uses Slang scripting running Sherpa fitting in CIAOCts>#Params Fits span 28 models (35 for known z)

33 Serendipitous Clusters z=0.3? cluster with extended X-ray emission

34 Serendipitous Clusters z=0.72 QSO with extended X-ray emission offset from QSO by r core

35 Spin-Off Projects Spin-Off Projects Clusters from optical and X-ray images Clusters from optical and X-ray images Lenses, pairs, jets Lenses, pairs, jets Variability pipeline (Bayesian block analysis) Variability pipeline (Bayesian block analysis) Damped Lyα survey Damped Lyα survey AGN-AGN and AGN-galaxy clustering AGN-AGN and AGN-galaxy clustering

36 X-ray Properties of Optically Selected Clusters  Select clusters from both optical and X-ray images.  Use VTP on photometric catalog for optical cluster detection (Ramella et al. 2001).  Use color slices to raise sensitivity to red sequence.

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38 Damped Lyα Survey Ω DLA increases with optical magnitude (Ellison et al. 2001) Radio-selected quasar results show higher n(z) at 1σ Are optical QSO DLA surveys are dust-biased? ChaMP z>2 QSOs with r>20 will provide a stringent test

39 Clustering & QSO Lifetimes Current Limits Current Limits Proximity Effect  T QSO >10 5 yr Proximity Effect  T QSO >10 5 yr Overall Population  T QSO <10 9 yr Overall Population  T QSO <10 9 yr QSO Lifetime Space Density Halo Mass Clustering shortcommontypicalweak longraremassivestrong (Martini & Weinberg 2001; Haiman & Lam 2001)

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41 ChaMP & the Community ChaMP fields: ~20% of archived Cycle 1&2 targets ChaMP fields: ~20% of archived Cycle 1&2 targets Public database: X-ray sources, optical IDs, matched optical images, photometry and colors Public database: X-ray sources, optical IDs, matched optical images, photometry and colors Will enhance Chandra science return! Will enhance Chandra science return! Graduate student thesis projects available. Graduate student thesis projects available. Thanks to NASA for CXC Archival Research funding, to NOAO for telescope time awarded, and thanks to the whole ChaMP Collaboration!

42 ChaMP Results to Date ‘Cosmic Variance’ consistent with Poisson ‘Cosmic Variance’ consistent with Poisson No significant source overabundance associated with clusters No significant source overabundance associated with clusters α ox or f x /f r dependence on L or z consistent with expectations from LF simulations + limits α ox or f x /f r dependence on L or z consistent with expectations from LF simulations + limits Half the objects with Lx>10 43 are hard; presumably obscured AGN Half the objects with Lx>10 43 are hard; presumably obscured AGN Wide area suitable for samples of rare objects. Wide area suitable for samples of rare objects.


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