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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Diffraction and Polarization
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Light is a wave, so it will diffract around a single slit or obstacle. Section 35-1: Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The resulting pattern of light and dark stripes is called a Diffraction Pattern.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. This occurs because (by Huygens’ Principle) different points along a slit create wavelets that interfere with each other just as a double slit would. Also, for certain angles θ the diffracted rays from a slit of width D destructively interfere in pairs. Angles for destructive interference are: Dsinθ = mλ (m = 1, 2, 3, 4..)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The minima of the single-slit diffraction pattern occur when
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example 35-1 Single-slit diffraction maximum. Light of wavelength 750 nm passes through a slit 1.0 x mm wide. If a screen is 20 cm away, calculate the width of the central maximum (a) In degrees (b) In centimeters
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Conceptual Example Diffraction spreads. Light shines through a rectangular hole that is narrower in the vertical direction than the horizontal. (a) Would you expect the diffraction pattern to be more spread out in the vertical direction or in the horizontal direction? (b) Should a rectangular loudspeaker horn at a stadium be high and narrow, or wide and flat?
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Resolution The distance at which a lens can barely distinguish two separate objects. Resolution is limited by aberrations & by diffraction. Aberrations can be minimized, but diffraction is unavoidable; it is due to the size of the lens compared to the wavelength of the light. Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. For a circular aperture (say a lens) of diameter D, it can be shown that the central maximum has an angular width: (assumes small angles θ & a perfectly circular aperture)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Rayleigh Criterion (for the resolution of two objects) Two images are just resolvable when the center of the diffraction pattern of one image is directly over the first minimum in the diffraction pattern of the other.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example The Hubble Space Telescope This is a reflecting telescope that was placed in orbit above the Earth’s atmosphere, so its resolution would not be limited by turbulence in the atmosphere. Its objective diameter is D = 2.4 m. For visible light, say λ = 550 nm, estimate the improvement in resolution the Hubble offers over Earth-bound telescopes, which are limited in resolution by movement of the Earth’s atmosphere to about half an arc second. (Each degree is divided into 60 minutes each containing 60 seconds, so 1° = 3600 arc seconds.)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example Eye resolution. You are in an airplane at an altitude of ℓ = 10,000 m. If you look down at the ground, a) Estimate the minimum separation s between objects that you could distinguish. b) Could you count cars in a parking lot? Consider only diffraction, assume your pupil is about D = 3.0 mm in diameter & λ = 550 nm.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. For telescopes, the resolution limit is as we have defined it: Section Resolution of Telescopes & Microscopes; the λ Limit For microscopes, assuming that the object is at the focal point, the resolving power is given by s the distance between 2 points that are just barely resolvable. f the focal length of the lens.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example Telescope Resolution (radio wave vs. visible light). Calculate the theoretical minimum angular separation of 2 stars that can just be resolved by (a) The 200-inch telescope on Palomar Mountain; and (b) the Arecibo radio telescope, with diameter D = 300 m & radius of curvature also 300 m. Assume that λ = 550 nm for the visible- light telescope in (a), and λ = 4 cm (the shortest wavelength at which the radio telescope has been operated) in (b).
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Typically, the focal length of a microscope lens is half its diameter, which shows that for a microscope, It is not possible to resolve details smaller than the wavelength being used:
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Diffraction Grating
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. A Diffraction Grating consists of a large number of equally spaced narrow slits or lines. A transmission grating has slits, while a reflection grating has lines that reflect light. The more lines or slits there are, the narrower the peaks will be. Diffraction Grating
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The Maxima of the diffraction pattern are defined by
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example : Diffraction grating lines. Calculate the angular positions of the first- and second- order maxima for light of wavelengths 400 nm & 700 nm incident on a grating containing 10,000 lines/cm. Example : Spectra overlap. White light containing wavelengths from 400 nm to 750 nm strikes a grating containing 4000 lines/cm. Show that the blue at λ = 450 nm of the third-order spectrum overlaps the red at 700 nm of the second order.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Conceptual Example Compact disk. When you look at the surface of a music CD, you see the colors of a rainbow. (a) Estimate the distance between the curved lines (to be read by the laser). (b) Estimate the distance between lines, noting that a CD contains at most 80 min of music, that it rotates at speeds from 200 to 500 rev/min, and that 2/3 of its 6-cm radius contains the lines.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Spectrometer A Spectrometer is an instrument that makes accurate measurements of wavelengths using a diffraction grating or prism. The wavelength can be determined to high accuracy by measuring the angle at which the light is diffracted: The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Atoms and molecules can be identified when they are in a thin gas through their characteristic emission lines. The figure shows the line spectra of the gases indicated & the spectrum from the Sun.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example Hydrogen spectrum. Light emitted by hot hydrogen gas is observed with a spectroscope using a diffraction grating having 1.00 10 4 lines/cm. The spectral lines nearest to the center (0°) are a violet line at 24.2°, a blue line at 25.7°, a blue-green line at 29.1°, and a red line at 41.0° from the center. Calculate the wavelengths of these spectral lines of hydrogen.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. X-rays have very short wavelengths, λ ≈ 0.1 nm or smaller. So, X-ray diffraction experiments are impossible to do with conventional diffraction gratings. However, crystalline solids have spacing between their layers that is ideal for diffracting X-rays. This is how the crystalline structure of solids is studied. X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. X-ray diffraction is used to study the internal structure of crystals. It is also how the helical structure of the DNA molecule was determined. (Rosalyn Yalow *, Nobel Prize in Medicine, 1977). * Note: Her PhD was in Physics!
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Interference – Young’s Double-Slit Experiment
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. If light is a wave, interference effects will be seen, where one part of a wave front can interact with another part. One way to study this is to do a Double-Slit experiment:
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. If light is a wave, there should be an interference pattern.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Interference occurs because each point on the screen is not the same distance from both slits. Depending on the path length difference, the wave can interfere constructively (bright spot) or destructively (dark spot).
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. We can use geometry to find the conditions for constructive and destructive interference: and
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Between the maxima and the minima, the interference varies smoothly.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Conceptual Example Interference pattern lines. (a) Will there be an infinite number of points on the viewing screen where constructive and destructive interference occur, or only a finite number of points? (b) Are neighboring points of constructive interference uniformly spaced, or is the spacing between neighboring points of constructive interference not uniform?
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example Line spacing for double-slit interference. A screen containing two slits mm apart is 1.20 m from the viewing screen. Light of wavelength λ = 500 nm falls on the slits from a distant source. Approximately how far apart will adjacent bright interference fringes be on the screen?
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Conceptual Example Changing the wavelength. ( a)What happens to the interference pattern in the previous example if the incident light (500 nm) is replaced by light of wavelength 700 nm? (b)What happens instead if the wavelength stays at 500 nm but the slits are moved farther apart?
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Since the position of the maxima (except the central one) depends on wavelength, the first- & higher-order fringes contain a spectrum of colors.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example Wavelengths from double-slit interference. White light passes through two slits 0.50 mm apart, and an interference pattern is observed on a screen 2.5 m away. The first-order fringe resembles a rainbow with violet and red light at opposite ends. The violet light is about 2.0 mm and the red 3.5 mm from the center of the central white fringe. Estimate the wavelengths for the violet and red light.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Intensity in the Double-Slit Interference Pattern (A starred section, we’ll skip it!!) The electric fields at the point P from the two slits are given by where.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The two waves can be added using phasors, to take the phase difference into account:
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The time-averaged intensity is proportional to the square of the field:
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. This plot shows the intensity as a function of angle.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Example Two radio antennas are located close to each other, separated by a distance d. The antennas radiate in phase with each other, emitting waves of intensity I 0 at wavelength λ. (a) Calculate the net intensity as a function of θ for points very far from the antennas. (b) For d = λ, determine I and find in which directions I is a maximum and a minimum. (c) Repeat part (b) when d = λ/2.
Diffraction around an edge and through an aperture Huygens’ principle is consistent with diffraction: The larger the wavelength with respect to the aperture.
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