2What you already know about the atom Nucleus containsprotons (+) and neutrons (neutral)Electrons (-) orbit the nucleus in “shells”1st shell:2 e-2nd shell:8e-
3Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) Which of Dalton’s four postulates do we believe to be correct today?1. All matter is made up of small indivisible particles called atoms. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed.(F: The atom was split in W W II.)
4Atoms of one element cannot be converted to atoms of another element. Too bad for alchemists.(F: Particle accelerators can convert the nucleus of one atom into that of another atom. This is nuclear chemistry and does not involve chemical change.)
5Atoms of a particular element are identical in terms of mass, size, etc. Atoms of each element have unique properties.(F: Existence of isotopes. An isotope of an element has the same number ofprotons in the nucleus, but different number ofneutrons.
6Isotopes of Carbon Isotope # p+ #no mass # 126C 6 6 12 136C 6 7 13 136C146C
7NOTE: The different macroscopic forms of carbon—and some other elements—are called allotropes.The allotropes of C are:diamondgraphitebuckyballsnanotubes.
8Atoms combine in specific proportions—small whole number ratios—to form compounds. (T: Consider NaCl, H2O, H2O2, CH4, C6H12O6,)
9History of Modern Atomic Theory Discovery of the electronJJ Thomson determined mass to charge ratio for the electronMillikan’s Oil Drop Exp’t (mass of e-)Discovery of the protonThomson’s Plum Pudding Model of the atomRutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment (discovery of nucleus)
10Mass Spectrometer—Atomic Mass Discovery of the Neutron9. Electron Configuration (next slide show)
11Discovery of the Electron Sir Wm Crookes (1832 – 1919)A “man of science”.Discovered thallium in 1861.Worked on pure and applied science, economic and practical problems, and psychic research.
12Cathode Ray TubeCrookes did a lot of work with a CRT
18What did these two observations suggest? 1. That the CRT “beam” had a (-) charge;That the beam emanated from the cathode—the (-) electrode—and traveled to the anode (+).There’s more . . .
19Crookes placed a paddlewheel in the CRT. The beam caused the paddle wheel to turn.
20Crookes coated the tips of the paddle with a phosphor. They glowed when struck by the CRT beam.
21This indicatedthat the beam had mass.ie. The beam was made up of (-) charged particles.
22Same behaviour observed when the CRT filled with different gases (all at low pressure) and when different metals used for the anode and cathode.This suggestedthat the (-) particle that made up the beam was common to all elements.This particle is calledan electron.
23Cathode ray’s path was also bent by external magnetic field.
24British Physicist JJ Thomson also experimented with a CRT British Physicist JJ Thomson also experimented with a CRT. He varied external magnetic and electric fieldsto determine the charge to mass ratio of an e- to be 1.76 x 108 C/g.(The coulomb (C) is the SI unit for electric charge.)
28Explanation of Oil Drop Exp’t Small drops of oil, when zapped with x-rays, picked up extra electrons.Charged oil drops were allowed to fall between two electrically charged plates.Millikan monitored the drops, measuring how the voltage on the plates affected their rate of fall.From these data, he calculated the charges on the drops.His experiment showed that the charges were always whole # multiples of 1.60 x C, which he deduced was the charge of a single electron.
29Millikan then calculated the mass of the electron by using his value for the charge, 1.60 x C, and Thomson's charge-to-mass ratio, 1.76 x 108 C/g:1.76 x 108 C = x C e- charge1 g ? g e- mass? = x gis the mass of one e-.This is ca X lighter than a H atom.
30Discovery of the Proton Eugene Goldstein made a CRT with a perforated cathode.
31Canal RaysHe noticed a beam traveling in the opposite direction from the cathode rays (violet glow).He called these canal rays.
32While the beam of electrons could be deflected by an external magnetic field, the canal rays are barely affected.The canal rays are composed of protons (+).If low pressure H2(g) is in the CRT, here’s what we have:H2(g) + E(from e- beam) 2H(g)2H + E(from e- beam) 2H e-protonstravel towards cathode (-)(protons are much heavier than e-s)
34Fun with a Crooke’s tube This demonstrates the phenomenon of discharge at different pressures of gas inside the tubes.
35Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model of the Atom The discovery of the electron lead to a simple model of the atom.Electrons randomly distributed in a positively charged “pudding”.Seemed to make sense at the time.
36Mass SpectrometerIn 1920s , F.W. Aston developed the mass spectrometer.This allowed the determination of atomic mass.And it showed a problem.Helium, for example, was observed a mass of 4 amu, not 2, as suggested by its 2 protons.
37What was missing from the atom? The neutron. Discovered in 1932.Why did it take so long?Neutrons are neutral and don’t respond to electric or magnetic fields.
38When James Chadwickshot alpha particles at beryllium(atomic number 4) the berylliumemitted a neutral radiation thatwas later determined to be astream of neutrons.So now we have the three subatomic particles:protonsneutronselectrons.
39Rutherford’s Gold Foil Exp’t Rutherford and his co-experimenter Ernst Geiger shot a beam of alpha (α) particles through a thin sheet of gold foil—only a few thousand atoms thick.α particle = He2+ (He nucleus)mass of α particle =4 amu
45Of his experimental observations, Rutherford said: “It was as if you fired a 15 inch shell against a piece of tissue paper, and it bounced back at you.”
46We’ve accounted for the subatomic particles and the nucleus We’ve accounted for the subatomic particles and the nucleus. But where are the electrons?In shells, you say?It’s a little more involved than that . . .Stay tuned.