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E.C. Aschenauer arXiv: 1212.1701 & 1108.1713. E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting 2014 2 Requirements from Physics:  High Luminosity ~ 10 33 cm -2 s -1.

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Presentation on theme: "E.C. Aschenauer arXiv: 1212.1701 & 1108.1713. E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting 2014 2 Requirements from Physics:  High Luminosity ~ 10 33 cm -2 s -1."— Presentation transcript:

1 E.C. Aschenauer arXiv: &

2 E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting Requirements from Physics:  High Luminosity ~ cm -2 s -1 and higher  Flexible center of mass energy  Electrons and protons/light nuclei (p, He 3 or D) highly polarised  Wide range of nuclear beams (D to U)  a wide acceptance detector with good PID (e/h and , K, p)  wide acceptance for protons from elastic reactions and neutrons from nuclear breakup neutrons from nuclear breakup Important EIC is a high luminosity machine > cm -2 s -1 such controlling systematics becomes crucial  luminosity measurement  lepton and hadron polarization measurement

3 E.C. Aschenauer 3 5 x 250 starts here 5 x 100 starts here hep-ph: (M.Stratmann, R. Sassot, ECA) cross section: pQCD scaling violations world data EIC User Meeting 2014 current data w/ eRHIC data

4 E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting Need systematics ≤ 2% arXiv: Dominant systematics: Luminosity Measurement  Relative Luminosity  needs to be controlled better then A LL  ~10 -4 at low x Absolut polarization measurements: electron P e and hadron P p relativeluminosity

5 E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting arXiv: relativeluminosity 2009: Relative Luminosity uncertainty same size as physics asymmetry R=1.18x x10 -3 A LL = 0.4 – 4 x 10 -3

6 E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting Polarisation: Hadrons in a storage ring: source instabilities Beam-Beam effects bunch-to-bunch emittance variation, Characteristic scale can be seen from AGS RHIC polarization profile variation for different bunches after acceleration leptons in a storage ring: Beam-Beam effects source instabilities leptons in eRHIC  What is the expected fluctuation in polarisation from cathode to cathode in the gatling gun in the gatling gun  from Jlab experience 3-5%  Is there the possibility for a polarization profile for the lepton bunches  if then in the longitudinal direction can be circumvented with 352 MHz RF Current: Hadrons & leptons in a storage ring: Variations in transfer efficiency from pre-accelerator to main ring  beam-beam interaction is important, it affects the bunch lifetime during the store leptons in eRHIC  What fluctuation in bunch current for the electron do we expect  limited by Surface Charge, need to see what we obtain from prototype gun

7 Polarized hydrogen Jet Polarimeter (HJet) Source of absolute polarization (normalization of other polarimeters) Slow (low rates  needs looong time to get precise measurements) Proton-Carbon Polarimeter RHIC and AGS Very fast  main polarization monitoring tool Measures polarization profile (polarization is higher in beam center) and lifetime Needs to be normalized to HJet Local Polarimeters (in PHENIX and STAR experiments) Defines spin direction in experimental area Needs to be normalized to HJet All of these systems are necessary for the proton beam polarization measurements and monitoring E.C. Aschenauer 7 EIC User Meeting 2014

8 E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting Fill in 2013: Beginning Fill in 2013: End P↑P↑P↑P↑ P↓P↓P↓P↓

9 E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting Fill in 2013: Beginning Fill in 2013: End P↑P↑P↑P↑ P↓P↓P↓P↓

10 E.C. Aschenauer PSTP-2013, Charlotesville, VA 10 Data from 2012-Run: Small anti-correlation between polarisation and bunch current at injection which washes out at collision energies

11 11 Account for beam polarization decay through fill  P(t)=P 0 exp(-t/  p ) growth of beam polarization profile R through fill pCarbonpolarimeter x=x0x=x0x=x0x=x0 ColliderExperiments correlation of dP/dt to dR/dt for all 2012 fills at 250 GeV Polarization lifetime has consequences for physics analysis  different physics triggers mix over fill  different  different Result: Have achieved 6.5% uncertainty for DSA and 3.4 for SSA will be very challenging to reduce to 1-2% E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting 2014

12 E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting 2014  H-Jet:  continuously monitor molecular fraction in the H-Jet o currently dominant systematics  factor 10 lower bunch current for eRHIC  precision per fill  pC-polarimeters  find longer lifetime and more homogenious target material for the pC polarimeters  can we calibrate energy scale of pC closer to E kin (C) in CNI  alternative detector technology for Si-detectors to detect C  smaller emittance of beam o reduced/eliminate x-y polarisation profile o harder to measure  polarised Deuterium and He-3 polarimetry will be challenging  to use CNI you need to make sure D and He-3 did not break up  local eRHIC  integrate a pC-polarimeter between the spin-rotators o disappearance of asymmetry means full longitudinal polarisation 12

13 E.C. Aschenauer nm pulsed laser 572 nm pulsed laser laser transport system: ~80m laser transport system: ~80m laser light polarisation measured laser light polarisation measured continuously in box #2 continuously in box #2 Multi-Photon Mode: Advantages: - eff. independent of brems. bkg and photon energy cutoff -  P/P = 0.01 in 1 min Disadvantage: - no easy monitoring of calorimeter performance A m = (   –    (   +       = P e P A p; A p =0.184Result: Have achieved 1.4% uncertainty at HERA EIC User Meeting 2014  Method: Compton backscattering, i.e. HERA LPOL

14 E.C. Aschenauer 14 e p PolarimeterLaser laser polarisation needs to be monitored  Measure Polarization at IP  overlap of bremsstrahlungs and compton photons  only possible if we have number of empty p-bunches = # cathods  luminosity loss  need to know polarisation is fully longitudinal  segmented Calorimeter  longitudinal polarization  Energy asymmetry  transverse polarization component  position asymmetry  Measure after / before IP need to measure at location spin is fully longitudinal or transverse longitudinal or transverse  1/6 turn should rotate spin by integer number of π  After IP:  does collision reduce polarization  problem at ILC  for eRHIC very small  need to measure at location, where bremsstrahlung contribution is small  Before IP:  need to find room for photon calorimeter  Want to measure both the compton photon and the scattered lepton Comptonphotondetector EIC User Meeting 2014 # of cathods in gattling gun: 20 golden number This guarantees that a hadron bunch collides always with the electrons produced from one particular cathode, avoiding/reducing significantly harmful beam-beam effect of electron beam parameter variations on the hadrons

15 EIC User Meeting 2014  Concept: Use Bremsstrahlung ep  ep  as reference cross section  different methods: Bethe Heitler, QED Compton, Pair Production  Hera: reached 1-2% systematic uncertainty  eRHIC BUTs:  with cm -2 s -1 one gets on average of 23 bremsstrahlungs photons/bunch for proton beam  A-beam Z 2 -dependence  this will challenge single photon measurement under 0 o  coupling between polarization measurement uncertainty and uncertainty achievable for lumi-measurement  no experience no polarized ep collider jet  have started to calculate a with the help of Vladimir Makarenk (NC PHEP BSU, Minsk), the CERN CLIC-QED calculations expert  hopefully a is small E.C. Aschenauer 15 Goals for Luminosity Measurement:  Integrated luminosity with precision δL< 1%  Measurement of relative luminosity: physics-asymmetry/10  Fast beam monitoring for optimization of ep-collisions and control of mid-term variations of instantaneous luminosity

16 E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting 2014  The need for bunch by bunch polarisation information was documented  there is need to monitor not only the polarization level but also polarization bunch current correlations  the polarimeter technology needs to allow for this information  the known challenges to measure polarisation have been discussed  but EIC will be the first polarised ep collider, therefore there might be surprising effects influencing hadron and lepton polarisation o the unknown unknowns 16

17 E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting BACKUP

18 E.C. Aschenauer 18 EIC User Meeting 2014 Bremsstrahlung ep  e  p: Bethe-Heitler (collinear emission):  very high rate of ‘zero angle’ photons and electrons, but  sensitive to the details of beam optics at IP requires precise knowledge of geometrical acceptance requires precise knowledge of geometrical acceptance  suffers from synchrotron radiation  sperature limitation  pile-up QED Compton (wide angle bremsstrahlung):  lower rate, but  stable and well known acceptance of central detector  Methods are complementary, different systematics NC DIS:  in (x,Q 2 ) range where F 2 is known to O(1%)  for relative normalisation and mid-term yield control HERA Concept:  normally only  is measured  Hera: reached 1-2% systematic uncertainty

19  zero degree calorimeter  high rate  measured energy proportional to # photons  subject to synchrotron radiation  alternative pair spectrometer 19 VacuumChamber L3L3L3L3  e + /e -  e-e-e-e- e+e+e+e+ Dipole Magnet very thin Converter L2L2L2L2 L1L1L1L1 SegmentedECal   The calorimeters are outside of the primary synchrotron radiation fan   The exit window conversion fraction reduces the overall rate   The spectrometer geometry imposes a low energy cutoff in the photon spectrum, which depends on the magnitude of the dipole field and the transverse location of the calorimeters E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting 2014

20 E.C. Aschenauer 20 Summarized at: https://wiki.bnl.gov/eic/index.php/IR_Design_Requirements Hadron Beam: 1.the detection of neutrons of nuclear break up in the outgoing hadron beam direction  location/acceptance of ZDC 2.the detection of the scattered protons from exclusive and diffractive reaction in the outgoing proton beam direction the detection of the spectator protons from 3 He and Deuterium the detection of the spectator protons from 3 He and Deuterium  location/acceptance of RP;  impact of crab-cavities on forward scattered protons Lepton Beam: 3.the beam element free region around the IR 4.minimize impact of detector magnetic field on lepton beam  synchrotron radiation  synchrotron radiation 3.space for low Q 2 scattered lepton detection 4.space for the luminosity monitor in the outgoing lepton beam direction 5.space for lepton polarimetry Important EIC is a high luminosity machine cm -2 s -1 such controlling systematics becomes crucial  luminosity measurement  lepton and hadron polarization measurement EIC User Meeting 2014

21 21  eRHIC design is using the idea of a “Gatling” electron gun with a combiner?  20 cathodes  20 cathodes  one proton bunch collides always with electrons from one specific cathode  one proton bunch collides always with electrons from one specific cathode Important questions:  What is the expected fluctuation in polarisation from cathode to cathode in the gatling gun  from Jlab experience 3-5%  What fluctuation in bunch current for the electron do we expect  limited by Surface Charge, need to see what we obtain from prototype gun  Do we expect that the collision deteriorates the electron polarization. A problem discussed for ILC A problem discussed for ILC  influences where we want to measure polarization in the ring  How much polarization loss do we expect from the source to flat top in the ERL.  Losses in the arcs have been significant at SLC  Is there the possibility for a polarization profile for the lepton bunches  if then in the longitudinal direction can be circumvented with 352 MHz RF Challenge: Integrate Compton polarimeter into IR and Detector design together with Luminosity monitor and low Q 2 -tagger  longitudinal polarization  Energy asymmetry  segmented Calorimeter  to measure possible transverse polarization component  position asymmetry E.C. Aschenauer EIC User Meeting 2014


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