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1 High Average Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources Fernando Sannibale Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory The Physics and Applications of High.

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Presentation on theme: "1 High Average Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources Fernando Sannibale Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory The Physics and Applications of High."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 High Average Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources Fernando Sannibale Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009

2 2 Outline High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale The real electron source: Issues and challenges of available technologies. The real electron source: Issues and challenges of available technologies. Examples of present and future sources (an incomplete list!). Examples of present and future sources (an incomplete list!). Why high-brightness and high-average power electron sources Why high-brightness and high-average power electron sources The ideal high-power high-brightness electron source. The ideal high-power high-brightness electron source.

3 3 The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Why High-Brightness, Why High-Brightness, High-Power Electron Sources High-Power Electron Sources High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale In FELs matching conditions on emittance and energy spread drive these quantities down: Very-high beam power (~ 100kW), low brightness e - sources. Very-high beam power (~ 100kW), low brightness e - sources. Industrial applications, sterilization by irradiation. High to very-high beam power, higher brightness e - sources. High to very-high beam power, higher brightness e - sources. FELs and ERL based light sources. In high-energy physics applications requirements in beam power are usually modest (ILC: tens of  A) and the emittance game is played in damping rings. Notable exception: ERLs used in electron cooling schemes (BNL) In high-energy physics applications requirements in beam power are usually modest (ILC: tens of  A) and the emittance game is played in damping rings. Notable exception: ERLs used in electron cooling schemes (BNL) In FELs and ERL operating at relatively long wavelengths (IR to NUV), the longer wavelength allows relaxing the normalized emittance (~ 10  m) and hence the brightness requirements while maintaining a relatively low beam energy. In FELs and ERL operating at relatively long wavelengths (IR to NUV), the longer wavelength allows relaxing the normalized emittance (~ 10  m) and hence the brightness requirements while maintaining a relatively low beam energy. Basic science (~ 1kW beam power) and military applications (up to ~250kW) At the same time, the number of electrons/bunch is pushed up and the bunch lengths are pushed down by gain requirements. In ERLs the requirements for high photon brightness translate into high brightness electron sources. Highbrightness

4 4 The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Why High-Brightness, Why High-Brightness, High-Power Electron Sources High-Power Electron Sources High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale Electron sources are nowadays playing a central role in Electron sources are nowadays playing a central role in 4 th generation X-ray light sources (FELs and ERLs operating in soft and hard X-ray frequency range) Not only high-brightness! Not only high-brightness! A growing user request pushes towards high-repetition rate, high-average power/ current electron sources. (https://hpcrd.lbl.gov/sxls/Workshop_Report_1stVersion.pdf) Low repetition rate sources have already brilliantly achieved the brightness performance required (LCLS, PITZ, Spring8, …) Low repetition rate sources have already brilliantly achieved the brightness performance required (LCLS, PITZ, Spring8, …) High repetition rate sources not yet! High Brightness becomes one of the main requirement for operating such a machines as well as the capability of controlling the 6D beam distribution. High Brightness becomes one of the main requirement for operating such a machines as well as the capability of controlling the 6D beam distribution. The required beam quality for all these modes of operation is set at the injector and in particular at the electron gun. The required beam quality for all these modes of operation is set at the injector and in particular at the electron gun.

5 5 The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, th Generation X-Ray Light Sources High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale ERLs. 100 MHz-GHz-like reprate, ERLs. 100 MHz-GHz-like reprate, very high average current: hundreds of mA, normalized emittances to m XFELO Oscillator. MHz-like reprate, XFELO Oscillator. MHz-like reprate, tens of pC bunches, m normalized emittance. Low reprate FELs. Few Hz to ~1 kHz reprate, or low reprate long trains of bunches, Low reprate FELs. Few Hz to ~1 kHz reprate, or low reprate long trains of bunches, sub-micron normalized emittances, < 10  A average currents. High reprate FELs. MHz-class reprates, High reprate FELs. MHz-class reprates, sub-micron emittances, several mA average currents Cornell LCLS-SLAC LBNL ANL Electron sources with the required performance exists only for the low reprate FEL category… Electron sources with the required performance exists only for the low reprate FEL category…

6 6 The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Multiple Modes of Operation High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale Cornell Case FELs: higher charge (> ~ 0.2 – 1 nC), higher charge (> ~ 0.2 – 1 nC), low charge (tens of pC), low charge (tens of pC), short bunches/broad spectra, short bunches/broad spectra, longer bunches/narrower spectra, longer bunches/narrower spectra, attosecond bunches, attosecond bunches, beam “blow-up” regime, beam “blow-up” regime, … …

7 7 To achieve the goals of these high-repetition rate, high-average current applications, the electron source should allow for: repetition rates from few tens of kHz up to ~ 1 GHz repetition rates from few tens of kHz up to ~ 1 GHz charge per bunch from few tens of pC to ~ 1 nC, charge per bunch from few tens of pC to ~ 1 nC, sub (low charge) to m normalized beam emittance, sub (low charge) to m normalized beam emittance, beam energy at the gun exit greater than ~ 500 keV (space charge), beam energy at the gun exit greater than ~ 500 keV (space charge), electric field at the cathode greater than ~ 10 MV/m (space charge limit), electric field at the cathode greater than ~ 10 MV/m (space charge limit), bunch length control from tens of fs to tens of ps for handling space charge effects, and for allowing the different modes of operation, bunch length control from tens of fs to tens of ps for handling space charge effects, and for allowing the different modes of operation, compatibility with magnetic fields in the cathode and gun regions (mainly for emittance compensation) compatibility with magnetic fields in the cathode and gun regions (mainly for emittance compensation) Torr operation vacuum pressure (high QE photo-cathodes), Torr operation vacuum pressure (high QE photo-cathodes), “easy” installation and conditioning of different kind of cathodes, “easy” installation and conditioning of different kind of cathodes, high reliability compatible with the operation of a user facility. high reliability compatible with the operation of a user facility. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 The Ideal Electron Source The Ideal Electron Source High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale Injector cost is a small fraction of a 4 th generation light source cost. Minimizing costs is usually not a high priority requirement.

8 8 In high-repetition rates photo-sources high quantum efficiency photo- cathodes (QE>~ 1 %) are required to operate with present laser technology. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009Cathodes High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale Thermionic cathodes can in some cases, offer low thermal emittances but require sophisticate compression schemes. Thermionic cathodes can in some cases, offer low thermal emittances but require sophisticate compression schemes. (CeB 6 at SCSS-Spring 8, XFELO-ANL) Photo-cathodes (most of present injector schemes) Photo-cathodes (most of present injector schemes) Other cathodes under study (photo-assisted field emission, needle arrays, photo-thermionic, diamond amplifiers) The ideal cathode should allow for high brightness (have a low thermal/intrinsic normalized emittance, low energy spread, high current density) full control of the bunch distribution, and long lifetimes. The ideal cathode should allow for high brightness (have a low thermal/intrinsic normalized emittance, low energy spread, high current density) full control of the bunch distribution, and long lifetimes. Cathodes are obviously a fundamental part of electron sources. Cathodes are obviously a fundamental part of electron sources. The gun performance heavily depends on cathodes In the low charge regime (tens of pC/bunch) the ultimate emittance performance is set by the cathode thermal emittance In the low charge regime (tens of pC/bunch) the ultimate emittance performance is set by the cathode thermal emittance

9 9 PEA Semiconductor: Alkali Antimonides eg. SbNa 2 KCs, CsK 2 Sb, … - <~ps pulse capability (studied at BOING, INFN-LASA, BNL, Daresbury, LBNL, ….) - reactive; requires ~ Torr pressure - high QE > 1% - requires green/blue light (eg. 2 nd harm. Nd:YVO4 = 532nm) - for nC, 1 MHz reprate, ~ 1 W of IR required PEA Semiconductor: Cesium Telluride Cs 2 Te (used at FLASH for example) - <~ps pulse capability - relatively robust and un-reactive (operates at ~ Torr) - successfully tested in NC RF and SRF guns - high QE > 1% - photo-emits in the UV ~250 nm (3 rd or 4 th harm. conversion from IR) - for 1 MHz reprate, 1 nC, ~ 10 W 1060nm required The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Examples of Photo-Cathodes & Lasers Photo-Cathodes & Lasers High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale NEA Semiconductor: Gallium Arsenide GaAs (used at Jlab for example) - tens of ps pulse capability - reactive; requires UHV <~ Torr pressure - high QE (typ. 10%) - Photo-emits already in the NIR, - low temperature source due to phonon scattering - for nC, 1 MHz, ~50 mW of IR required - operated only in DC guns at the moment - Allow for polarized electrons FLASH INFN-LASA

10 10 SC RF guns High freq.(> ~1 GHz) NC RF guns DC guns The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Available Electron Available Electron Gun Technologies High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale Low freq. (<~ 700 MHz) NC RF guns

11 kV DC gun DC operation DC operation Pros: Higher energies require further R&D and significant technology improvement. Higher energies require further R&D and significant technology improvement. Challenges: DC guns reliably operated at 350 kV (JLAB) for many years, ongoing effort to increase the final energy (Cornell, Daresbury, Jlab, …). DC guns reliably operated at 350 kV (JLAB) for many years, ongoing effort to increase the final energy (Cornell, Daresbury, Jlab, …). Extensive simulations (Cornell, …) “demonstrated” the capability of sub-micron emittances at ~ 1 nC, if a sufficient beam energy is achieved Extensive simulations (Cornell, …) “demonstrated” the capability of sub-micron emittances at ~ 1 nC, if a sufficient beam energy is achieved Compatible with most photo-cathodes. Compatible with most photo-cathodes. (The only one operating GaAs cathodes) Full compatibility with magnetic fields. Full compatibility with magnetic fields. In particular, improvement of the high voltage breakdown ceramic design and fabrication. In particular, improvement of the high voltage breakdown ceramic design and fabrication. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 DC Guns High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale Excellent vacuum performance Excellent vacuum performance Developing and test new gun geometries (inverted geometry, SLAC, JLab) Developing and test new gun geometries (inverted geometry, SLAC, JLab) Very interesting results from a “pulsed” DC gun at Spring-8. Very interesting results from a “pulsed” DC gun at Spring-8. JLab Minimizing field emission for higher gradients (>~ 10 MV/m) Minimizing field emission for higher gradients (>~ 10 MV/m)

12 12 Potential for relatively high Potential for relatively high gradients (several tens of MV/m) gradients (several tens of MV/m) Pros: Move technology from R&D to mature phase Move technology from R&D to mature phase Challenges: Rossendorf CW operation CW operation Evaluate and experimentally verify cathode compatibility issues Evaluate and experimentally verify cathode compatibility issues (Promising results with Cs 2 Te at Rossendorf, DC-SRF Peking approach) Develop schemes compatible with emittance compensation (“cohabitation” with magnetic fields, HOM schemes, …). Develop schemes compatible with emittance compensation (“cohabitation” with magnetic fields, HOM schemes, …). Brookhaven National Laboratory – April 17, 2009 Excellent vacuum performance. Excellent vacuum performance. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009Super-Conducting RF Guns High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale

13 13 High gradients ~50 to ~140 MV/m High gradients ~50 to ~140 MV/m “Mature” technology. “Mature” technology. Compatible with most photocathodes Compatible with most photocathodes Full compatibility with magnetic fields. Full compatibility with magnetic fields. Pros: High power density on the RF structure (~ 100 W/cm 2 ) limits the High power density on the RF structure (~ 100 W/cm 2 ) limits the achievable repetition rate at high gradient to ~ 10 kHz (LUX). Challenges: Proved high-brightness performance. (LCLS and PITZ) Proved high-brightness performance. (LCLS and PITZ) Brookhaven National Laboratory – April 17, 2009 Relative small volume and small apertures can limit the vacuum performance. Relative small volume and small apertures can limit the vacuum performance. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Normal Conducting L and S Band RF Guns High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale LCLS PITZ

14 14 Can operate in CW mode Can operate in CW mode Based on mature RF and mechanical technology. Based on mature RF and mechanical technology. Compatible with most photo-cathodes Compatible with most photo-cathodes Full compatibility with magnetic fields. Full compatibility with magnetic fields. Pros: Gradient and energy increase limited by heat load in the structure Gradient and energy increase limited by heat load in the structure Challenges: Potential for excellent vacuum performance. Potential for excellent vacuum performance. Brookhaven National Laboratory – April 17, 2009 The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Normal Conducting Low Frequency RF Guns High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale Beam Dynamics similar to DC but with higher gradients and energies Beam Dynamics similar to DC but with higher gradients and energies CW high brightness performance still to be proved CW high brightness performance still to be proved LBNL

15 15 The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Gun - 4 th Generation Light Source Matching High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale ERL Up to hundreds of MHz reprate DC gun, SC RF Gun, Low freq. NC RF Gun >~ 1 GHz reprate DC gun, SC RF Gun, FEL Reprate < ~ 10kHz High freq. NC RF Gun, pulsed DC gun Up to hundreds of MHz reprate Up to hundreds of MHz reprate DC gun, SC RF Gun, Low freq. NC RF Gun XFELO Few MHz reprate Low freq. NC RF Gun with, DC guns DC guns

16 16 Cathodes (cathode test facilities capable of accepting all kind of cathodes, vacuum performance, load-lock, …). Cathodes (cathode test facilities capable of accepting all kind of cathodes, vacuum performance, load-lock, …). The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Required R&D High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale The performance of an electron source is never fully characterized and demonstrated until the source is integrated in an injector The performance of an electron source is never fully characterized and demonstrated until the source is integrated in an injector Pursue development of various electron source schemes Pursue development of various electron source schemes Important to built R&D injector facilities that allow testing and optimization of: Important to built R&D injector facilities that allow testing and optimization of: Emittance compensation and beam manipulation techniques, emittance exchange, velocity bunching, … Emittance compensation and beam manipulation techniques, emittance exchange, velocity bunching, … Beam diagnostics (especially when considering high repetition rate very low charge and very short bunches Beam diagnostics (especially when considering high repetition rate very low charge and very short bunches

17 17 The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 The Road to Hana High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale A long and difficult way to go A long and difficult way to go A lot of it has been already done … A lot of it has been already done …, but potentially very rewarding!

18 18 Courtesy of C. Hernandez-Garcia

19 19 Courtesy of C. Hernandez-Garcia

20 20 Courtesy of C. Hernandez-Garcia

21 21 Courtesy of C. Hernandez-Garcia

22 22 The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Cornell DC Gun High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale Courtesy of I. Bazarov Present operation limited to ~ 250kV to limit field emission and minimize probability of field punctuation of the ceramic (750kV initial design). Present operation limited to ~ 250kV to limit field emission and minimize probability of field punctuation of the ceramic (750kV initial design). A new ceramic with bulk resistivity is being installed. Same ceramic material was used in Daresbury to get to over ~450kV. The present gun was in beam operation for a number of years allowing for a rich experimental program. For ensuring continuity of such program, the present and funded plan is to build a second DC gun (~500kV) as an R&D effort separated from the beam running.

23 23 Courtesy of Boris Militsyn

24 ALICE photocathode gun. Performance so far … 24 Courtesy of Boris Militsyn

25 25 Based on mature technology. Based on mature technology. Compatible with most photocathodes Compatible with most photocathodes Full compatibility with magnetic fields. Full compatibility with magnetic fields. Pros: Modulator technology limits maximum repetition rate (60 Hz presently, can it go to kHz?). Modulator technology limits maximum repetition rate (60 Hz presently, can it go to kHz?). Challenges: Proved high brightness performance. (SCSS) Proved high brightness performance. (SCSS) Brookhaven National Laboratory – April 17, 2009 Significant injector system complexity when used with thermionic cathodes (“adiabatic” compression requires chopper and multiple RF frequencies) Significant injector system complexity when used with thermionic cathodes (“adiabatic” compression requires chopper and multiple RF frequencies) The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Pulsed DC Gun High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. SannibaleSCSS The pulsed nature relaxes manyThe pulsed nature relaxes many DC gun issues

26  m sliced norm. emittance, at ~0.3 nC 0.6  m sliced norm. emittance, at ~0.3 nC ~300 X compression factor at the injector exit, ~300 X compression factor at the injector exit, 2  s, 1 A at the gun, 500 kV, 5 cm gap, ~ 10 MV/m 500 kV, 5 cm gap, ~ 10 MV/m 60 Hz reprate 60 Hz reprate T. Shintake et al., PRST-AB 12, (2009) The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Spring 8 Pulsed DC Gun High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale

27 27 Courtesy of Thorsten Kamps

28 28 Cs 2 Te cathodes at 77 K, cavity at 2K, QE ~ (poor vacuum transfer chamber) The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009BESSY-DESY-FZD-MBI SC RF Gun High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale Gradient limited by damaged cavity 1.3 GHz TESLA-like cells. J. Teichert et al., FEL08, Gyeongju, Korea p.467

29 BNL Low Frequency RF Gun Courtesy of Ilan Ben-Zvi RG gun for electron cooling of RHIC at low energy. Investigate the potential of SRF guns at low frequency. Also motivated by BNL/C-AD work on low frequency SRF cavities, e.g. 56 MHz beta=1 QWR resonator for RHIC storage. Motivation

30 Status The niobium has been procured and fabrication of the forming and machining dies is complete. Fabrication of the niobium cavity components is complete. The niobium to stainless-steel flanges have been successfully brazed and leak checked. Preparations are being made concurrently for electron beam (EB) welding of the niobium cavity components. The cathode beam tube and inner and outer conductors have been EB welded and future necessary weld fixtures are being designed and fabricated. The design of the stainless-steel helium vessel is complete, and the nitrogen and Mu metal shields are currently being designed. BNL Cryogenics/Pressure Safety issues are currently being implemented. Courtesy of Ilan Ben-Zvi

31 31 A SRF 200 MHz Cavity Design for the WIFEL, the Wisconsin FEL Courtesy of Robert Legg The WIFEL accelerator is required to supply each of the six FEL end stations simultaneously at up to a 1 MHz repetition Cs2Te cathode, beam blow up regime 30 fs ~0.9 mm hemispherical transverse profile, 37 MV/m at cathode, 200 MHz SRF cavity, 5MeV final energyCs2Te cathode, beam blow up regime 30 fs ~0.9 mm hemispherical transverse profile, 37 MV/m at cathode, 200 MHz SRF cavity, 5MeV final energy

32 32 Beam Dynamics Simulations of Injector using Blow Out Bunches Gun Cryomodule Courtesy of Robert Legg 200 pC

33 33 The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 Peking DC-SRF Gun High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale Brings the cathode out of the cryogenic environment 1.5 cell already in operation 3.5 cell under fabrication THz/IR ERL FEL Jiankui Hao, et al., SRF2009, p 205, Berlin, Germany

34 34 Derived by the BNL-SLAC-UCLA design (S-Band). Great care in minimizing dipolar and quadrupolar field components. Courtesy of Dave Dowell The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 SLAC NC S-Band RF Gun High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale 0.5 microns emittance at 250 pC 0.14 microns emittance at 20 pC Up to date best performance In operation

35 GHz Copper Courtesy of Frank Stephan The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 PITZ NC RF L-band Gun High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale In operation

36 36 Courtesy of D. Nguyen and B. Carsten The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009LANL/AES NC CW 700 MHz Gun High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale 700 MHz CW normal- conducting gun. Hundreds of kW dissipated in the glidcop structure. Part of a 100 mA injector for ~ 100kW IR FEL RF conditioning successfully completed. First beam tests in spring summer 2010

37 37 Based on mature and reliable normal-conducting RF and mechanical technologies. Based on mature and reliable normal-conducting RF and mechanical technologies. The Berkeley normal-conducting scheme satisfies all the LBNL FEL requirements simultaneously. Frequency 187 MHz Operation mode CW Gap voltage 750 kV Field at the cathode MV/m Q0Q Shunt impedance 6.5 M  RF Power 87.5 kW Stored energy 2.3 J Peak surface field 24.1 MV/m Peak wall power density 25.0 W/cm 2 Accelerating gap 4 cm Diameter 69.4 cm Total length 35.0 cm 187 MHz compatible with both 1.3 and 1.5 GHz super-conducting linac technologies. 187 MHz compatible with both 1.3 and 1.5 GHz super-conducting linac technologies. K. Baptiste, et al, NIM A 599, 9 (2009) J. Staples, F. Sannibale, S. Virostek, CBP Tech Note 366, Oct At the VHF frequency, the cavity structure is large enough to withstand the heat load and operate in CW mode at the required gradients. At the VHF frequency, the cavity structure is large enough to withstand the heat load and operate in CW mode at the required gradients. Also, the long RF allows for large apertures and thus for high vacuum conductivity. Also, the long RF allows for large apertures and thus for high vacuum conductivity. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 The LBNL The LBNL CW NC VHF gun High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale In fabrication

38 38 The vacuum system has been designed to achieve an operational pressure down into the low Torr range. The vacuum system has been designed to achieve an operational pressure down into the low Torr range. NEGs pumps are used (very effective with H 2 O, O 2, CO, …). This arrangement will allow testing a variety of cathodes including "delicate" semiconductor cathodes. The nominal laser illumination configuration for the cathode is quasi-perpendicular with laser entrance in the beam exit pipe. An additional 30 deg laser entrance port has been added to allow testing of more exotic cathodes (surface plasma wave cathodes,...) Cathode area designed to operate with a vacuum load-lock mechanism (based on the FLASH, FNAL, INFN design) for an easy in-vacuum replacement or reconditioning of photocathodes. Cathode area designed to operate with a vacuum load-lock mechanism (based on the FLASH, FNAL, INFN design) for an easy in-vacuum replacement or reconditioning of photocathodes. An ion pump accounts for noble gasses and hydrocarbons. An ion pump accounts for noble gasses and hydrocarbons. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 A Cathode Test Facility High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale

39 39 Courtesy of Kwan-Je Kim

40 40 Courtesy of Kwan-Je Kim

41 41 Mahalo! The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams - Maui, USA, November 18, 2009 High Power, High Brightness Electron Beam Sources F. Sannibale


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