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© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. Modeling and Simulation of HEV and EV Power Electronics Paul Goossens Vice President, Applications Engineering Dr. Sam Dao Applications Engineer

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© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. The HEV/EV Modeling Problem HEV and EV modeling presents new problems Complex, multi-domain models Difficult to run in realtime for HiL applications Coupling between domains can cause unexpected responses Batteries and power electronics are very complex Costly prototypes must be built to reveal system-level problems

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© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. The Need for Fast and Accurate Models Accurate system-level models require accurate battery and power electronics models Electro-chemical battery models are very complicated physical systems with complicated mathematical descriptions Interaction of battery with power electronics and vehicle dynamics reveals higher- order effects can be mitigated Access to system-level equations provides further insight

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HEV Components

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HEV Powertrain IC Engine Simple: controlled torque driver (ideal or lookup map) Mean Value: physical equations for overall power output and fuel consumption Cycle-by-cycle: detailed four-stroke model Engine/transmission coupling Controllable Friction Clutch (built into MapleSim library) Torque Converter (lookup tables for torque ratio and load capacity) Transmissions Basic components Decomposed planetary (planet-planet, planet-ring) Dual ratio planetary: co-rotating/counter-rotating planets Manual 5-speed Automatic 4-Speed (ZF 4HP22: 3 planetary gears, 12 clutches) 6-speed Dual-clutch Ravigneaux 4-speed Lepelletier 4-Speed CR-CR 4-speed Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) Ideal or Lossy (Lookup tables for meshing friction, torque friction, slip) Differentials Passive/Active Ideal/Lossy

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Energy Storage/Conversion Batteries/Fuel Cells Motors Generation/Regeneration Power Conversion State-of-charge control

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Vehicle Dynamics Multibody components for 3D Chassis Modeling Chassis/Suspension/Steering Stability Analysis and Control

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Example: Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

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FTP Drive Cycle: Simulation Results

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Power Split: Torque/Speed

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© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. Video

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Sam Dao, PhD, Maplesoft Battery Modeling in MapleSim

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Batteries Details Physics and Equivalent Circuit: Lead-Acid Ni-MH Li-Ion for the following chemistries: LiNiO2, LiCoO2, LiV2O5, LiFePO4 (Lithium- iron/iron phosphate), LiMn2O4, LiMn2O4 low plateau, LiTiS2, LiWO3, NaCoO2. © 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.

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Approaches to Battery Modeling Circuit-based models: represents battery behaviour as electrical circuit conceptually simple hides the battery physics Chemistry-based models more accurate modeling of all battery characteristics many configuration parameters complicated model © 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.

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Circuitry Battery Model © 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. Pros: Simple and easy to understand Accurate model and fast to simulate Cons: Does not include temperature effects New model has to be developed when battery parameters are changed Battery capacity Short and long time response, charge depletion and recovery Open-circuit voltage Relate SOC to component values based on experimental data

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Circuitry Battery Model © 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. Comparison with actual battery discharge:

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Physics-Based Battery Models © 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. Lithium-Ion battery modeling using porous electrode theory: Cathode: Anode: Porous negative electrode contains graphite Porous separator Porous positive electrode contains metal oxides

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Physics-Based Battery Models © 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. Distribution of liquid-phase concentration over x:

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Physics-Based Battery Models © 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. Discharge voltage with pulse current (30 A) Battery voltage with different cathode chemistries

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Paul Goossens, Maplesoft Power Electrical Components and Circuits in MapleSim

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Basic Components Semiconductors BJT (NPN, PNP) MOSFET (N, P) Diodes Triggered components Thyristor, GTO Multi-phase components

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Motors/Generators DC Permanent Magnet, Excited Armatures Equivalent Circuit AC Synchronous and Asynchronous Multi-phase Stepper Brushless DC

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Power electrical subsystems

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IGBT © 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.

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IGBT Single-stage Driver © 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.

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Three-phase IGBT Drive © 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. Asynchronous Induction Motor Speed

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© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. What is MapleSim? MapleSim is a truly unique physical modeling tool: Built on a foundation of symbolic computation technology Handles all of the complex mathematics involved in the development of engineering models Multi-domain systems, plant modeling, control design Leverages the power of Maple to take advantage of extensive analytical tools Reduces model development time from months to days while producing high- fidelity, high-performance models

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Summary Complex physical modeling is becoming increasingly important – and increasingly complex – particularly in EV and HEV systems design, testing and integration MapleSim is the ideal tool for rapid development of complex multi-domain physical models of EV and HEV systems for full- powertrain simulation and testing Extensive range of battery and power-electronic models is available to give you the fidelity you need

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Thank You Questions?

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