Presentation on theme: "Ch. 3.2 Atomic Structure On your bell work sheet, answer the following. When are zeros significant? When do you use the fewest number of Significant Figures?"— Presentation transcript:
1Ch. 3.2 Atomic StructureOn your bell work sheet, answer the following.When are zeros significant?When do you use the fewest number of Significant Figures?
2Chapter 3.2 Atomic Structure Preview ObjectivesThe Structure of the AtomProperties of Subatomic ParticlesDiscovery of the ElectronDiscovery of the Atomic NucleusGold Foil ExperimentGold Foil Experiment on the Atomic LevelComposition of the Atomic NucleusThe Sizes of Atoms
3Ch. 3.2 ObjectivesSummarize the observed properties of cathode rays that led to the discovery of the electron.Summarize the experiment carried out by Rutherford and his co-workers that led to the discovery of the nucleus.List the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons.Define atom.
4The Structure of the Atom An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element.The nucleus is a very small region located at the center of an atom.The nucleus is made up of at least one positively charged particle called a proton and usually one or more neutral particles called neutrons.
5The Structure of the Atom Surrounding the nucleus is a region occupied by negatively charged particles called electrons.Protons, neutrons, and electrons are often referred to as subatomic particles.
8J.J. THOMSON 1856-1940 What particle did Thomson discover? J.J. Thomson discovered that atoms are made of smaller negatively-charged particles called electrons.Thomson’s discovery was the result of doing experiments with “cathode ray tubes”
9THOMSON’S CATHODE RAY EXPERIMENT Stream of electrons is attracted to positively charged plate here.“What are these particles? Are they atoms, or molecules, or matter in a still finer state of subdivision?” quote by Thomson
10Cathode Rays Attracted to the positive electrode Not visible but could make things “glow”Traveled in a straight lineCould be bent by electric or magnetic fieldsA plate in it’s path acquired a negative chargeSame regardless of material
11THE PLUM PUDDING MODELThomson did not know how the electrons in an atom were arranged. He believed they were mixed throughout an atom.He proposed that the atom was a sphere of positively charged material.Spread throughout the atom were the negatively charged electrons similar to plums in a pudding or chocolate chips in ice cream.
12Discovery of the Electron Charge and Mass of the ElectronJoseph John Thomson’s cathode-ray tube experiments measured the charge-to-mass ratio of an electron.Robert A. Millikan’s oil drop experiment measured the charge of an electron.With this information, scientists were able to determine the mass of an electron.
13Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment Visual ConceptFile 498
14Awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of alpha particles, positively charged particles emitted from radioactive elementsWas a student of J.J. Thomson but disagreed with the “Plum Pudding Model”ERNEST RUTHERFORD ( )
15Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus Ernest Rutherford and his associates Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden wanted to investigate the atom more.The results of their gold foil experiment led to the discovery of a very densely packed bundle of matter with a positive electric charge.Rutherford called this positive bundle of matter the nucleus.
17WHAT DID MOST OF THE PARTICLES SHOT AT THE GOLD FOIL DO? Most of the particles traveled straight through the gold foilWhat was the surprising behavior of a few of the particles?A few of the particles were deflected and some even bounced back
18Gold Foil Experiment on the Atomic Level File 46
19Composition of the Atomic Nucleus Except for the nucleus of the simplest type of hydrogen atom, all atomic nuclei are made of protons and neutrons.A proton has a positive charge equal in magnitude to the negative charge of an electron.Atoms are electrically neutral because they contain equal numbers of protons and electrons.A neutron is electrically neutral.
20Composition of the Atomic Nucleus The nuclei of atoms of different elements differ in their number of protons and therefore in the amount of positive charge they possess.Thus, the number of protons determines that atom’s identity.
21Composition of the Atomic Nucleus Forces in the NucleusWhen two protons are extremely close to each other, there is a strong attraction between them.A similar attraction exists when neutrons are very close to each other or when protons and neutrons are very close together.The short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron forces that hold the nuclear particles together are referred to as nuclear forces.
23The Sizes of AtomsThe radius of an atom is the distance from the center of the nucleus to the outer portion of its electron cloud.Because atomic radii are so small, they are expressed using a unit that is more convenient for the sizes of atoms.This unit is the picometer, pm.
24WHY IS THE HEAD OF A PIN COMPARED TO THE DIAMETER OF A STADIUM LIKE AN ATOM? The diameter of a pinhead is 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a stadium. Likewise the diameter of the nucleus of an atom is 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of an atom
25Open Socrative, take the exit ticket over today’s lesson Summarize the observed properties of cathode rays that led to the discovery of the electron.Summarize the experiment carried out by Rutherford and his co-workers that led to the discovery of the nucleus.List the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons.Define atom.