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Module #8 Page 1 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Module #8 – Miscellaneous & Advanced Topics Agenda 1.Latchup Announcements 1.Read Chapter 13.

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Presentation on theme: "Module #8 Page 1 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Module #8 – Miscellaneous & Advanced Topics Agenda 1.Latchup Announcements 1.Read Chapter 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module #8 Page 1 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Module #8 – Miscellaneous & Advanced Topics Agenda 1.Latchup Announcements 1.Read Chapter 13

2 Module #8 Page 2 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Latchup Latchup - the various P and N junctions that are used to create the MOSFET structure also form unwanted, parasitic bi-polar transistors in the silicon substrate - these parasitic junctions can form a circuit known as a “Silicon Controlled Rectifier” (SCR) - an SCR is a device that controls current flow just like a thyrister - the term “SCR” is GE’s trade name for their own type of thyrister

3 Module #8 Page 3 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Latchup Latchup - an SCR is made using 4 alternating material types (P-N-P-N) - this can be thought of as two bipolar transistors (PNP and NPN) connected as follows: - the entire SCR device operates as a 3 –terminal device with: 1) An Anode (the outermost P-region) 2) A Cathode (the outermost N-region) 3) A Gate (the inner P-region)

4 Module #8 Page 4 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Latchup Latchup OFF State- the device restricts current flow when the “Gate-to-Cathode” voltage is below a threshold ON State - when the Gate-to-Cathode voltage exceeds a threshold, it will turn ON the device and the device will conduct current - the unique behavior of an SCR is that the device will REMAIN ON even after the Gate-to-Cathode voltage drops back below the threshold as long as enough current flows through the device - the amount of current necessary for the SCR to stay ON after the Gate-to-Cathode voltage has been removed is called the Holding Current - to turn the device OFF, the SCR must fall below the Holding Current

5 Module #8 Page 5 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Latchup Latchup - the major problem in MOSFETS is that these SCR circuits are parasitic - if a spike of noise enters the gate of the SCR, then it will turn ON and remain ON - this unwanted current path can destroy the IC - SCR’s are present when using N-well CMOS

6 Module #8 Page 6 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Latchup Latchup SCR Location SCR Anode:P = Source & Drain of PMOS N = PMOS N-well SCR Gate:P = P-type Substrate SCR Cathode N = Source of NMOS Q1 Location (PNP) Emitter:P = Source & Drain of PMOS Base: N = PMOS N-well Collector:P = P-type Substrate Gainβ = Q2 Location (NPN) Collector:N = PMOS N-well Base: P = P-type Substrate Emitter:N = Source & Drain of NMOS Gainβ = 1-10

7 Module #8 Page 7 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Latchup Latchup R-well - resistance in the N-well material - R well = 1k - 2k ohms R-sub - resistance of the substrate - R sub = ohms Operation - since the resistances are high they can be neglected, thus the SCR is only triggered by an external event - if the collector current of one transistor is temporarily increased, a positive feedback loop will occur due to a gain greater than 1: - this turns on the SCR and current will flow even after the external event as been removed

8 Module #8 Page 8 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Latchup Latchup Triggers V DD Slew - Initial turn-on of the IC causes a fast change in the voltage of the supply from 0-to-V DD - this causes enough charge displacement in the substrate to bias the SCR Signals Larger than V DD - if input signals have large amounts of overshoot resulting in voltages larger than V DD or less than V SS they will cause a bias of the SCR - this can be due to transmission line reflections or inductive loads Electro Static Discharge (ESD) - ESD strikes can put thousands of volts on the IC and provide enough bias to turn on the SCR Supply Transients - Large current spikes in the V DD or V SS rails due to simultaneous switching of signals can provide enough current bias to turn on the SCR Radiation - high energy particles that pass through the semiconductor materials can cause electron/hole pairs. The loose electrons cause voltages as they pass through impedances and can create enough bias to turn the SCR on

9 Module #8 Page 9 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Latchup Avoiding Latchup Reduce the Gain of the BJT’s - Gold has been used to dope the substrate in order to lower the minority carrier lifetime of the substrate without increasing leakage Guard Bands - if we put p+ diffusion rings around the NMOS transistors and n+ diffusion rings around the PMOS transistors, they will break up the PNPN junctions - they will also reduce the R well and R sub resistances. Lowering these resistances provides a low resistance path for the bias current to flow instead of it going into the bipolar transistors Substrate Contacts - place substrate and N-well contacts close to the transistors in order to reduce the R well and R sub resistances Avoid Forward Biasing of S/D Junctions - using a lightly doped epitaxial layer on top of a heavily doped substrate will shunt lateral currents from the vertical transistor through the low-resistance substrate - eliminate overshoot/undershoot using sound design principles for off-chip interfacing Placement of MOSFETS - place NMOS’s near the V SS rails to reduce resistances - place PMOS’s near the V DD rails to reduce resistances

10 Module #8 Page 10 EELE 414 – Introduction to VLSI Design Latchup Avoiding Latchup Current Chokes on Supply - During start-up, the total current into the IC can be limited so that if an SCR turns on, it will not sink enough current to destroy the device. The device can then be safely powered down. ESD Diodes - ESD diodes are placed on I/O pads in order to sink any high currents directly into the substrate upon an ESD strike


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