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Cells and Potentials
Voltaic Cells In spontaneous oxidation- reduction (redox) reactions, electrons are transferred and energy is released. © 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Voltaic Cells We can use that energy to do work if we make the electrons flow through an external device. We call such a setup a voltaic cell. © 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Voltaic Cells A typical cell looks like this. The oxidation occurs at the anode. The reduction occurs at the cathode. © 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Voltaic Cells Once even one electron flows from the anode to the cathode, the charges in each beaker would not be balanced and the flow of electrons would stop. © 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Voltaic Cells Therefore, we use a salt bridge, usually a U- shaped tube that contains a salt solution, to keep the charges balanced. Cations move toward the cathode. Anions move toward the anode. © 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Voltaic Cells In the cell, then, electrons leave the anode and flow through the wire to the cathode. As the electrons leave the anode, the cations formed dissolve into the solution in the anode compartment. © 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Voltaic Cells As the electrons reach the cathode, cations in the cathode are attracted to the now negative cathode. The electrons are taken by the cation, and the neutral metal is deposited on the cathode. © 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Electromotive Force (emf) Water only spontaneously flows one way in a waterfall. Likewise, electrons only spontaneously flow one way in a redox reaction— from higher to lower potential energy. © 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Electromotive Force (emf) © 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. The potential difference between the anode and cathode in a cell is called the electromotive force (emf). It is also called the cell potential and is designated E cell.
© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Cell Potential Cell potential is measured in volts (V). 1 V = 1 JCJC
© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Standard Reduction Potentials Reduction potentials for many electrodes have been measured and tabulated.
© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Standard Hydrogen Electrode Their values are referenced to a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). By definition, the reduction potential for hydrogen is 0 V: 2 H + (aq, 1M) + 2 e − H 2 (g, 1 atm)
© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Standard Cell Potentials The cell potential at standard conditions can be found through this equation: E cell = E red (cathode) − E red (anode) Because cell potential is based on the potential energy per unit of charge, it is an intensive property.
© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Cell Potentials For the oxidation in this cell, For the reduction, E red = −0.76 V E red = V
© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Cell Potentials E cell = E red (cathode) − E red (anode) = V − (−0.76 V) = V
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