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1. 2 Seminar Chemical Methods for Electronic Wastes Recovery Supervisor: Professor H. S. Ghaziaskar Department of Chemistry Isfahan University of Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 Seminar Chemical Methods for Electronic Wastes Recovery Supervisor: Professor H. S. Ghaziaskar Department of Chemistry Isfahan University of Technology."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 Seminar Chemical Methods for Electronic Wastes Recovery Supervisor: Professor H. S. Ghaziaskar Department of Chemistry Isfahan University of Technology Gholamhossein Paniri

3 3 Content What is electronic wastes What is electronic wastes Why E-Wastes are recycling Why E-Wastes are recycling E-waste recycling steps E-waste recycling steps Methods of materials chemical recovery Methods of materials chemical recovery Conclusions Conclusions References References

4 4 What is Electronic Waste? Electronic Waste E-Waste

5 5 Why E-Waste Recycling??? H.-Y. Kang, J.M. Schoenung / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 45 (2005) CRT 12% Metals 49% Plastics 33% Others 6%

6 6 Types material of E-Waste precious metals precious metals hazardous material hazardous material

7 7 PdAuAgZnPbAlCuFe Electronic waste scrap 11251011.55207PC 213513.80.10.31135MobilePhone 41.511.50.050.32523DVDPlayer 552.60.50.15362Calculator 0112.80.851.27104.5Printer 30.120.290.0380.21.23.40TV 00.20.280.31101028CRT Weight Percent of Metals in different Electronic Wastes J. Cui, L. Zhang / Journal of Hazardous Materials 158 (2008) 228–256

8 8 Pr i = the current price of metal i V i = Value distribution Wt i = Weight precent of metal i in the electronic scrap sample Vi=Vi=Vi=Vi= 100 Wt i Pr i Wt i Pr i ∑

9 9 Sum of Prcious metals PdAuAgZnPbAlCuFe Electronic waste scrap ─116600002449000043000031150358024757736300Prices ($/ ton ) 7913624311160PC 911967500080 Mobile phone 4223341113517 DVD player 734646800121Calculator 698663614191Printer 3003429820TV 3762565213394CRT Value-Share (%) a The metal price data are from London Metal Exchange (LME) official prices for cash seller and settlement on the 24th October, 2007.

10 10 Toxic Content of E-waste

11 11 14/427/000 kg Plastic 7.24 kg 3/962/700 kg 3/962/700 kgLead 1.98 kg 19/845kgBarium9.92g 9/891kgBeryllium4.94g 5/922 Kg Cadmium2.961g 3/969kgChromium 1.981 g 1/386kgMercury0.693g 819kgArsenic0.4095g E-waste hazards Average pc of approx. 31.5 kg Two million obsolete Wt. contains Pcs world mean www.toxicslink.org

12 12 Scope of the problem Rapidly growing E-waste stream 2002 4.5 2005 3 2009 2 H.-Y. Kang, J.M. Schoenung / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 45 (2008) 368–400

13 13 Why recycling E-waste? 1.E-Waste large amount of precious metals 2.E-Waste contain hazardous material 3.E-Waste is a huge secondary resource above (mine ground) should not wasted

14 14 E-waste recycling content 1.Ban export and disposal as well as incineration landfilling 2.Advertisement for recycling 3.Collection and transportation 4.Market for reuse 5.Materials recovery facility (MRF) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 45 (2005) 368–400

15 15 Ban export and disposal The Basel convention Disposal = reuse + recycling OthersKoreaCambodiaChainaMalaysiaThailandVietnam Hong Kong 180158598130111444027264653231978151354963 The amount of secondhand personal computer exported from Japan in 2005 OthersThailandChainaMyenmarMalaysiaCambodiaVietnam Hong Kong 45259354639277916601016772328112465829328356 The amount of seconhand television exported from Japan in 2005

16 16 Advertisement and sorting Advertisement Sorting

17 17 Collection and transportation

18 18 Market for reuse MRF Materials Recovery Facility

19 19 Electronic Waste in IRAN

20 20

21 21 Materials recovery of chemical methods 1. percious metals Recovery 2. hazardous materials Recovery

22 22 Precious metals recovery 1.Pyrometallurgical2.Hydrometallurgical

23 23 Recovery of precios metals from E- waste by pyrometallurgical processing 1.Incineration 2.Smelting in a blast furnace 3.Drossing4.Sintering 5.Reaction in a gas phase at high tempertures

24 24 Main results Metals recovered Techniques High recovery for Copper Cu, Au,Pt,Pd,Se,Te,Zn Noranda process at canada High recovery of Percious metals Cu,Ag,Au,Pd,Zn,Pb Boliden RÖnnskar Almost complete recovery Of Copper Cu,Ag,Pt,Pd,Au Umicore precious metal refining Recovering special matals Such as Sb,Bi, Sn,Se,Te,In Au Dunns patent for gold refining Platinum and palladium Were recovered with of 80.3% and 94.2% respectively Pt,Pd Days patent for refractory ceramic percious metals Gold were recovered Au Aleksandrovichs patent for Recovery of gold A summary of typical pyrometallurgical methods for recovery of metals from electronic waste

25 25

26 26 Advantages pyrometallurgical processing 1.High efficiency recovery precious metals from E-waste 2.Recovery of energy from PC waste gives an example for using of plastic in E-waste

27 27 Disavantages pyrometallurgical processing 1.Integrated smelters cannot recover aluminum and iron as metals 2.Ceramic componets and glass in the E-waste increase the amount of slag from Blast furnaces 3.Precious metals stay for a long time in the pyrometallurgical processing

28 28 Disavantages pyrometallurgical processing 4.Energy recovery and utilizing of organic constituents as a reducing agent are only on its beginning 5.Thermal processing of e-waste provides a feasible approach for recovery of energy from e-waste if a comprehensive emission control system is installed if a comprehensive emission control system is installed

29 29 Recovery of precious metals from E-Waste by hydrometallurgical processing The main steps in hydrometallurgical Separation and purification Processing consist of a series of acid Or caustic leaches of solid material Precipitation of impurities Solvent extraction Adsorption Cementation…..

30 30 Leaching of precious metals Cyanide leaching Halide leaching Thiourea leaching Thiosulfate leaching

31 31 Halide leaching Exceptions of flurine and astatine Gold forms both Au(I) and Au(III) complexes with all halogens Low pH High halogen level Icreased temperature High surface area

32 32 Aqua regia 2HNO 3 + 6HCl 2NO + 4H2O +3Cl 2 2Au + 11HCl + 3HNO 3 2HAuCl 4 + 3NOCl + 6H2O Advantage The process generally fast Low reagent consumption Halide leaching disavantage Highly corrosive acid Highly poisonous

33 33 Recovery of precious metale from leachate Cementation Crowe 1890 Zinc cementation 2Au(CN) 2 - +2e 2Au+4CN - Zn + 4CN - Zn(CN) 4 -2 + 2e PH 8-11

34 34 Crushed matter (0.3 mm) Sulfuric acid leaching of copper filtration Precipitation (NaCl) of Ag filtration Cu Recovery AgCl Chloride leaching of palladium filtration Cyanide leaching of gold and silver filtration Solid waste treatment Cementation ( Al ) filtrationRecycling Pd,Ag,Au Activeted Carbon Adsorption Ag,Au,Cu Recycling L S L S L S L S L S L S

35 35 Comparing with the pyrometallurgical processing hydrometallurgical methode is More exact More predictable More easily controlled

36 36 Recovery of hazardious metals from E-Waste Cathod Ray Tube C RT 0.5 – 5 kg pb

37 37 Cathode Ray Tube Recycling 1.Glass Funel glass, panel glass,solder glass,neck Sio2,Nao,Cao for coloring and Zno,Bao,Pbo for proctecting from X-Rays 2.Non glass Plastic,steel,copper,electron gun,phosphor coating CRT components

38 38 Cathode Ray Tube Recycling 1.Glass-to-glass recycling 2.Glass-to-lead recycling

39 39 collection sorting Vibratin scrren Magnetic separation Ferrous metals Eddy current separation Nonferrous metals Glass-to-lead recycling

40 40 Eddy current σ: electrical conductivity ρ : density σ/ρ : ratio of electrical conductivity to density Materials σ (10 -8 / Ώ m ) Ρ (10 3 Kg / m 3 ) σ / ρ (10 3 m 2 / Ώ kg ) Al0.352.713.1 Zn0.177.12.4 Ag0.6310.56 Cu0.598.96.6 Brass0.148.51.7 Pb0.0511.30.4 H.-Y. Kang, J.M. Schoenung / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 45 (2005) 368–400

41 41 pretreatment reverberatory furnace reductant slage disposal landfillsd Soft Pb 99.98% H.-Y. Kang, J.M. Schoenung / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 45 (2005) 368–400 PbO + C → Pb + CO

42 42 Conclusion 1.Recycling of electronic waste is an important subject 2. E-Waste is a huge secondary resource (maine above ground) 2. E-Waste is a huge secondary resource (maine above ground) Shouh not wasted Shouh not wasted 3.The major economic driver for recycling of electronic waste is from the recovery of precious metals is from the recovery of precious metals

43 43 References J.Cui,E.Fotssberg,Mechanical recycling of waste electronic and electric equipment : a reveiew, j.Hazard.mater.99 (3) (2003) 243-263 EPCEU,:Directive 2002 / 96/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 27 January 2003 on waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE),off.j.Eur.Union (2003) 24-38 T. Maruyama, H. Matsushita, Y. Shimada, et al., Proteins and protein-rich biomass as environmentally friendly adsorbents selective for precious metal ions, Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (4) (2007) 1359–1364, Feb 15 A.N. Mabbett, D. Sanyahumbi, P. Yong, et al., Biorecovered precious metals from industrial wastes: Single-step conversion of a mixed metal liquid waste to a bioinorganic catalyst with environmental application, Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 (3) (2006) 1015–1021, Feb 1 J. Shibata, S. Matsumoto, Development of Environmentally Friendly Leaching and Recovery Process of Gold and Silver from Wasted Electronic Parts, 2007-10-29, 2007 D. Morin, A. Lips, T. Pinches, et al., BioMinE – Integrated project for the development of biotechnology for metal-bearing materials in Europe, Hydrometallurgy 83 (1–4) (2006) 69–76.


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