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Status of SNF Pyro Reprocessing RIAR, Dimitrovgrad, Russia Mikhail Kormilitsyn Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR) Radiochemical Complex SSC Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Status of SNF Pyro Reprocessing RIAR, Dimitrovgrad, Russia Mikhail Kormilitsyn Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR) Radiochemical Complex SSC Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Status of SNF Pyro Reprocessing RIAR, Dimitrovgrad, Russia Mikhail Kormilitsyn Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR) Radiochemical Complex SSC Research Institute of Atomic Reactors. RUSSIA

2 RIAR General Goal Research Reactors PIE Radionuclide Productions Fuel Supply of BOR-60/MBIR Closing of FC Advanced Fuel development and testing Demo of Closed Fuel Cycle MA recycling R&D for MSR Fuel Cycle Fundamental Studies RAW Treatment 2

3 Universal technological platform for decisions in the field of Closed Fuel Cycle of Nuclear Power: No limitation for: fuel types (oxides, nitrides, metal, carbides, cermet, MSR, IMF) burn up, cooling time No limitation for requirements of decontamination factor (DF up to 10 6 ) 3 New Generation Technological Package “Pyro-Chemistry for CFC”

4 The Base System – Molten chlorides  The Base processes Dissolution of initial SNF ( chlorination or anodic dissolution) Electrolysis on solid and/or liquid cathodes Precipitation Purification of the melt Option – Technology of fluoride volatility Option – Partitioning in fluoride melt Option – chemistry and technology of molten fluoride fuel of MSR 4

5 R&D on SNF Pyro Reprocessing in a World Oxide SNF reprocessing into Oxide – RIAR (Russia), JNC/JAEA (Japan) Oxide SNF reprocessing into Metallic – CRIEPI (Japan), KAERI (Korea) Nitride SNF reprocessing – JAERI/JAEA (Japan), RIAR (Russia) Metallic SNF reprocessing – INL, ANL (US), CRIEPI (Japan), RIAR (Russia) SNF metallization – KAERI (Korea), RIAR (Russia) HLW partitioning in molten salts – CRIEPI (Japan), RIAR (Russia), KAERI (Korea), CEA (France), ITU (EU) Fluoride volatility processes – CRIEPI, Hitachi/TEPCO (Japan), Kurchatov Inst., RIAR (Russia), INR (Czech. Rep.) MSR Fuel Cycle – RIAR, Kurchatov Inst., CNRS (France), Institute for Applied Physics, Shanghai (China) Other application 5

6 RIAR Experience 6

7 RIAR activities in the field of CFC Since 1964 RIAR has been pursuing large-scale investigations in the following research lines: Pyrochemical production technology of vi-pack U and MOX fuel Pyrochemical reprocessing of SNF from nuclear reactors of various types. Fluoride volatility reprocessing of SNF 7

8 Milestones of Experience in Closed Fuel Cycle Pyro R&D- from early 1960-s Demo of fluoride volatility reprocessing – 1970s Pilot facility for pyro/vi-pack MOX fuel production for fast reactor – from late 1970-s BOR-60 full scale fuel supplying only on the base of own RIAR pyro/vi-pack fuel production facilities – from 1980 Pyro reprocessing experience – from 1991 Study on transmutation cycle, nitride fuels and others – from 1992 Start of industrial implementation of pyro/vi-pack MOX technology – 2012 Start of so called “high density” FR SNF (nitride, metal) Creation of “Poly-functional Radiochemical Complex” (PRC)

9 RIAR experience in reprocessing of spent fuel of the BOR-60 and BN-350 reactors Fuel type Burn-up % h.a. Cooling time, Yrs Weight, kgDate Reactor UO 2 7,752, BN-350 MOX4,7104,11991BN-350 MOX ,51995BOR-60 UO BOR-60 MOX …2001BOR-60 MOX BOR-60 U-Pu /Na6,4 19 0, BOR-60 (U,Pu)N /Pb0,53 8 0, BOR-60 U-Zr / Na 9,79,5 0, BOR-60 U-Pu-Zr /Na 9,79,5 0, BOR-60 MOX BOR-60 9

10 Dimitrovgrad Dry Process (DDP) – MOX Fuel Pyro processing Basic research of the molten salt systems allowed for the development of technological processes for production of granulated U and Pu dioxides and MOX. A distinctive feature of the Pyro technology is a possibility to perform all the deposit production operations in one apparatus - a chlorinator-electrolyzer Pyrochemical reprocessing consists of the following main stages Dissolution of initial products or spent nuclear fuel in molten salts Recovery of crystaline Pu dioxide or electrolytic MOX from the melt Processing of the cathode deposit and production of vi-pack 10

11 Production and testing of vi-pack MOX fuel Fuel type Number of FAs Burn-up, max.% Load, kW/m Temperature, 0 С Reactor (U, Pu)O 2 Civil grade/ or weapon quality 33030,351,5720BOR-60 UO 2 + PuO 2 Civil grade/ or weapon quality 13214,845705BOR-60 (U, Pu)O 2 Weapon grade2611,146680BN-600 (U, Pu)O 2 Civil grade4 development of the production technique BN

12 DDP MOX  PuO 2 flow sheet Cathode (pyrographite) Stirrer UO 2 2+ O 2 Pu 4+ PuO Pu 4+ UO 2 2+ UO 2 PuO 2 UO 2 2+ UO 2 + NpO 2 Cl 2 Ar (Cl 2 )Cl 2 +O 2 +Ar Stirrer Cathode Na 3 PO 4 + Fuel chlorination 700 о С pyrographite bath, NaCl - KCl Preliminary electrolysis 680 о С Precipitation crystallization 680 о С Electrolysis- additional 700 о С Melt purification 700 о С UO 2 2+ PuO 2 Cl - (MA,REE) RW 4 UO 2 MA,RE E NpO 2 + Cathode (pyrographite) Stirrer UO Pu 4+ UO 2 2+ UO 2 PuO 2 Cl 2 Cl 2 +O 2 +Ar Stirrer Cathode Na 3 PO 4 Fuel chlorination 650 о С pyrographite bath, NaCl -2CsCl Electrolysis- additional 630 о С Melt purification 6500 о С Cl - (MA,REE) RW 4 MA,RE E UO 2 2+ UO 2 + NpO 2 Ar (Cl 2 ) + Preliminary electrolysis 630 о С NpO 2 + DDP MOX  MOX flow sheet UO 2 2+ MOX Cl2+O2+Ar + Main MOX electrolysis 630 о С PuO 2 + MOX 12

13 MOX-MOX Reprocessing 2004 Year MOX g Pu content - 33,5 % wt Year MOX g Pu content - 10 % wt. 13

14 Pyro HLW treatment Salt residue Salt purification Pyroreprocessing Na 3 PO 4 Phosphates Fission products Radioactive Cs NaCl CsCl NdPO 4 C ePO 4 WastePhosphatesSalt residue Special features contain fission products Alkaline metal chlorides, high activity, significant heat release Basic elements 11 wt. % Nd 4,4 wt. % Ce 81,96 wt.% CsCl 18,04 wt.% NaCl Quantity * <0,15 kg/kg of fast reactor SNF <0,03 kg/kg of fast reactor SNF 14 * - TOSHIBA estimation for DDP

15 Characteristic HLW type Phosphate precipitate Spent salt electrolyte Phosphate precipitate + spent salt electrolyte Glass matrix type Pb(PO 3 ) 2 NaPO 3 NaPO 3, AlF 3 Al 2 O 3 NaPO 3, AlF 3 Al 2 O 3 Introduction method vitrification, Т=950 0 С vitrification without chloride conversion, Т=950 0 С Introduced waste amount, % Cs leaching rate as of the 7 th day, g/cm 2 * day 7* *10 -6 Thermal resistance, 0 С400 Radiation resistance 10 7 Gr (for  and  )  -decay/g Vitrification of HLW from pyro process 15

16 Characteristics Type of high-level wastes Phosphate depositSpent salt electrolyte Type of ceramicsmonaziteCosnarite (NZP) Method of introduction into ceramics pressing, calcination, Т=850 0 С Conversion to NZP from the melt or aqueous solution, pressing, calcination, Т= С Quantity of waste introduced into ceramics, % Leaching rate of 137 Cs on 7-th day, g/cm 2 * day 1* *10 -6 Thermal stability, 0 С Radiation resistance 5*10 8 Gy( for  and  )  - decay/g Ceramization of HLW arising from pyro process 16

17 RIAR R&D PROGRAM DOVITA Since 1992 Dry technologies Oxide fuel with MA Vi-pack Integrated disposition on the same site with the reactor TA Transmutation of Actinides 17

18 18

19 Experience in DOVITA Program Irradiated (U,Np)O 2 fuel, 19% burn-up Pyrochemical technology of adding Np into oxide fuel (5- 20%) has been developed Performance of vi-pack fuel with (U,Np)O 2 fuel has been validated experimentally to ~20% burnup in BOR-60 No evidence of significant difference in performance of fuel rods with (U,Np)O 2 fuel compared with UO 2 or MOX fuel rods has been noticed Pyrochemical process of codeposition of Am with MOX fuel (2-4%) has been developed Methods of Am/REE separation in melts has been tested Special vi-pack targets containing Am oxide with UO2 or inert matrix have been developed Transmutation of Np, Am, Cm is being studied in BOR-60 19

20 New times consideration: DOVITADOVITA  Dry technologies  Oxide fuel with MA  Vi-pack  Integrated disposition same site with the reactor  TA Transmutation of Actinides  Dry technologies  On-site reprocessing  Various type of fuel with MA  Integration of MA recycling into FR Closed Fuel Cycle  TA - Transmutation of Actinides 20

21 DOVITA-2 Fuel type/ Stages Oxide vi-pack Oxide pellet Nitride vi-pack MetalMolten salt Concept Studies ++++/-+ R&D +-/++/--+ Fuel Production Irradiation Testing PIE Reprocessing -/+---+/- DOVITA-1 21

22 Current R&D 2

23 In the Frame of Federal Target Program For the First Time in a World – pyrochemical reprocessing of FBR spent U-Pu nitride fuel and metal fuel ~ 0,6 kg SF 2 Cd ingots for fabrication of fuel Oxide concentrate FP for wastes preparation 2323

24 Experimental Tests of Spent Nitride Fuel Reprocessing Methods The empty pies of cladding after anodic dissolution of nitride SNF in chloride melt The sample of fluoride-phosphate glass with real immobilized FPs after reprocessing 2424

25 100% PuO 2 Pyro Pellets Melted salt3LiCl-2KClNaCl-2CsCl Pellets density, g/sm Visual view no cracksno cracs PuO 2 Pellets (NaCl-2CsCl, T=550 o C) PuO 2 Pellets (3LiCl-2KCl, T=450 o C) PuO 2 Pellets Characteristics 25

26 80%UO %PuO 2 MOX Pyro Pellets Batch № 1Technical Requirements* Pellet density, g/sm Deviation of pellet density, g/sm O/Me Impurities content, % масс. <0.3<0.4 Average size of crystalline granules, microns < 50 Visual view no cracks Porosityuniform *Reshetnikov Ph.G. and et al. Working out, production and operation of fuel rods of power reactors-M:.Energoizdat, p. MOX Pellets Characteristics 26

27 μmμm Content, wt% Composition of pelletMedium of powder production Insoluble residue, % wt. Residue composition, wt% 80wt%UO 2 +20wt%PuO 2 3LiCl-2KCl0.14(Pu 0.81, U 0.19 )O 2 3LiCl-2KCl0.14(Pu 0.49, U 0.51 )O 2 NaCl-2CsCl0.40(U 0.65, Pu 0.31,Am 0.04 )O 2 EPMA Solubility test in 8M HNO 3 at о C, duration – 10 hrs. Pickled pelletUnpickled pellet Microstructure of MOX pellets Pyro MOX pellets (80%UO %PuO 2 ) 27

28 Fuel pin #TM0-01 with pyro MOX pellets Dismountable BOR-60 FAs 28

29 Fundamental Studies Curium containing salt for spectroscopy studies NaCl-2CsCl-CmCl 3 (0.115mol/kg) 29

30 Spectrum of curium-containing melt under atmosphere of Ar- HCl-H 2 O NaCl-2CsCl-CmCl 3 (0.115mol/kg) 750 o C log(P 2 HCl/PH 2 O)=-7.14 Cm 3+ Am 3+ CmO + 30

31 Cavity from optical quartz Oxygen sensor Oxygen pump CE RE Gas-supply tube Synchronized potentiometric titration by oxygen pump and spectroscopy 31

32 MA and FP Partitioning Ga cathod Run # T, o CWeight, gContent in melt, %E, V (Li,K,Cs)ClGaAmCe

33 Experimental Facilities till

34 RIAR Site Post Irradiation complex RadioWaste complex Chemical- Technological complex Radiochemical Complex R&D on Reprocessing and Refabrication of Advanced Fuels Post Irradiation Examination MBIR Вибро MOX or other fuel Пиро Refabricated Fuel Отходы на хранение electricity Heat power radionuclides Pyro Vi-pack RAW RIAR Radiochemical Complex CFC Pyro technology for International RIAR-based Center of Excellence MOX Production Facility 35

35 Federal Tasks-oriented Program “New Generation Nuclear Power Technologies ” Large Poly-functional Radiochemical Complex (PRC)  Molten salt Reprocessing Facility (1 st hot cell line) capacity – up to 1-2 tons of FR SNF per Year (fuel type: oxide, nitride, metallic, IMF)  Advanced water-technology Facility, (2 nd hot cell line)  capacity – up to 1-2 tons kg of SNF per Year New Lab for Experimental and Innovative Fuel Production – (incl. Fuel and Targets with MA) New facility for HLW treatment Demonstration of Closing Fuel Cycle Testing and Demonstration of Closing FR Fuel Cycle for MA Develop the full scale Design of Industrial plants for FR SNF Reprocessing 36

36 List of Advanced R&D for PRC Testing of prototypes of technological equipment Development and testing of automatic and robotics systems Comparative FS for different technologies Advanced thermo-chemical decladding technologies Voloxidation Pyrochemical molten salt technologies MOX fuel Mixed Nitrides Metallic IMF, MSR Remote control fabrication technologies Vi-pack Pelletizing Metallic RAW treatment Vitrification Ceramization 37

37 38

38 THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION! RIAR Radiochemical Complex

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