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First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Class outline Cognitive issues in L2 learning Information processing Consciousness Attention Skills.

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Presentation on theme: "First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Class outline Cognitive issues in L2 learning Information processing Consciousness Attention Skills."— Presentation transcript:

1 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Class outline Cognitive issues in L2 learning Information processing Consciousness Attention Skills aspect

2 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo L2 learning Linguistic aspectSkills aspect

3 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo L2 learning Linguistic aspectSkills aspect Explicit and implicit knowledge Controlled & automatic processes

4 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Learners have a limited processing capacity (channel capacity: “room in the mind”) How can L2 learners maximize this processing ability? –By routinizing skills, that is by automatizing certain processing skills. –By restructuring stored information

5 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Automization (Johnson, 2001): When a skill is newly learnt it takes up a great deal of conscious attention (channel capacity) Lower level skills must become automatic (e.g. tense, differentating sounds this/thing, etc) for higher level skills to occur (ensure a message is properly conveyed). How? For example, by giving the learner increasingly demanding activities, pushing him towards producing the tense with less and less channel capacity available.

6 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Controlled processes: Short-term memory Require attention & effort Operate in linear sequence

7 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Automatic processes: Long-term memory No attention required Operate in parallel

8 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Restructuring (McLaughlin in Johnson, 2001): As people learn, the way they “view” what they are learning changes. Example: Simple mathematical problem of adding up ten twos. 1.(2+2=4+2=6 and so on) Restructuring 2. (2x10=20)

9 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo The role of attention: Noticing Does input processing require noticing features in the input, that is, conscious attention? Noticing  Features in the input are attended to and so become intake (stored in temporary memory), but may or may not be subsequently accommodated in the interlanguage system.

10 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Attention: “The control process that transfers information into focal awareness.” (Schmidt, 1990) Noticing the gap  Schmidt and Frota suggest that for noticed input to become intake, learners have to carry out a mental comparison of what they have observed in the input with what they are producing (output).

11 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo FACTORS THAT FAVOR NOTICING FREQUENCY PERCEPTUAL SALIENCE: how prominent is a form? (Cf. unstressed forms) INSTRUCTION: The role of instruction is not necessarily in the clarity or explanation it provides, but rather in the way it channels attention and brings L2 features into awareness (Schmidt´s learning experience: what had been unstructured undifferentiated input became noticeable and analyzable.)

12 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo OUTPUT in SLA “Practice makes perfect”  Audiolingualism (Behaviorism, 60s) Only a sign of the second language acquisition that has taken place  Krashen (80s)

13 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo

14 Rediscovering OUTPUT in SLA SKILLS ASPECT LINGUISTIC ASPECT

15 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Rediscovering OUTPUT in SLA SKILLS ASPECT FLUENCY Proceduralization of declarative knowledge (ACT*Model) Routinization (Mc Laughlin)

16 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Rediscovering OUTPUT in SLA LINGUISTIC ASPECT The Output Hypothesis (Swain, 1995) ACCURACY (Form & function in a context-sensitive task) “PUSHED” OUTPUT Helps to stretch interlanguage to meet communicative goals (p.127) Has a role in the development of syntax and morphology (p.128)

17 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Endangered Species

18 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Teachers: Endangered Species

19 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo 1.Teachers are leaving their profession at an alarming rate. 2. A recent poll showed that the number of teachers with more than twenty years´experience has dropped by half in the last fifteen years.

20 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo 3. One third of the teachers contacted in the poll said that they would not choose teaching if they had the chance over again. 4. Only sixty per cent of those polled said they planned to teach until retirement.

21 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo 5. Many interviewed said that factors like stress isolation, powerlessness, and alienation had contributed to the current climate of dissatisfaction within the profession.

22 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo DICTOGLOSS (also dictocomp) WHAT IS A DICTOGLOSS? Note-taking of a text Individual reconstruction Small group reconstruction Error analysis

23 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo FEATURES Context-based task procedure designed to help L2 students towards a better understanding of how grammar works on a text basis

24 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Learner-needs based: exposes learner´s language shortcomings Interaction provides scaffolding for SLA Teaching while testing

25 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo STEPS Preparation: arouse interest / pre-teach vocabulary / explain stages of procedure /organize learners in groups

26 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Dictation: Learners just hear the dictation Learners write down content words Text is dictated at normal spoken speed Pauses are made between sentences (5´´)

27 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Reconstruction: Individual reconstruction of text Collective reconstruction through “scribe” Teacher monitors but does not help Teacher may help to correct peripheral errors

28 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Analysis and correction: The first sentence of each group is discussed Original text´s sentence is shown

29 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo CONTRIBUTION TO SLA Learners understand and use grammar in discourse Learners develop explicit knowledge by reflecting on their hypotheses (negotiation about form) Motivation is fostered by spotting learners´ language needs and satisfying affiliation needs

30 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Function 1: Noticing/Noticing the gap  Consciousness-raising role Notice an L2 feature or a gap in interlanguage Function 2: Implicit Hypothesis-testing  Trying out new forms (well-formedness and comprehensibility) Stretch interlanguage to meet communicative needs Modified or reprocessed utterances represent the leading edge of a learner’s interlanguage The Output Hypothesis

31 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Function 3: Explicit hypothesis-testing (Metalingual function: Conscious reflection, Swain) Negotiation about form in the context of a meaning-based task (E.g. Dictogloss, planned conversations, etc) Context-sensitive knowledge of grammar (form, function and meaning) The Output Hypothesis

32 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Dialogic interaction & SLA Vygotsky (1986)  cognitive processes arise from interaction inter-mental  intra-mental (linguistic change) Donato  Scaffolding (supportive conditions to outperform competence) L2 features in 80% of negotiated solutions were learned in post-tests

33 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Vygotsky´s Zone of proximal development: The distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem- solving and the level of potential development as determined thru problem-solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers (scaffolding).

34 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Information gap activity. Instructions for drawing. Example of negotiation of meaning. What type of knowledge does it contribute to? A: A man is uh drinking c-coffee or tea with the saucer of the uh uh coffee set is uh in his knee B: In him knee A: uh on his knee B: Yeah A: on his knee B: so sorry. On his knee (Gass and varonis 1986:81)

35 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Example: Keith and George are trying to determine whether the correct form is nous tracasse or nous tracassons. Keith: Nous tracassons George: Oh (beginning to realize what is happening) Keith: Yeah? George: The problems which are worrying us. Like the …it’s the problems …like, that concerns us. Keith: Yes, but tracasse isn’t it o-n-s? George: Tracasse it’s not a, it’s not a, yeah, I dunno Keith: OK, it says, the problems which worry us. Therefore is tracasse a verb? That you, that you have to conjugate? Teacher: Uh huh. Keith: So is it tracassons? Teacher: It’s the problems which are worrying us. George: Us, it’s, it’s not, it’s not, yeah, it’s the problems, it’s not, it’s not us. Keith: Ah! E-n-t (third person plural ending), OK, OK. Dictogloss. What type of knowledge does it help to develop?

36 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo Pedagogical implications Different pedagogical implications arise: Opportunities for both intentional and incidental language learning are needed Pedagogy should provide opportunities for practice to ensure that controlled processes are automatized (skill-building) Pedagogy should find ways of promoting “noticing” (e.g. by means of interpretation tasks) Pedagogy should focus on developing explicit knowledge and enabling learners to make use to facilitate acquisition.

37 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo LET´S RECAP Answer the following questionnaire based on the article by Swain on output. 1.Why is output referred to as “pushed” output in the article? 2.How do processes involved in comprehension differ from those involved in production? In general terms, how does pushed output contribute to develop more accurate interlanguages? 3.Complete: Negotiation of meaning may help to develop ……… knowledge. Negotiation about form may develop ……………… knowledge. 4.What is the connection between Vygotskyan theory and the metalinguistic function of output?

38 First & second language acquisition – Prof. Pampillo


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