Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

KING, LORDS, AND COMMONS. TREATY OF WINCHESTER (1153) Signed between factions of Matilda and Stephen Established hereditary principle for monarchy Declared.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "KING, LORDS, AND COMMONS. TREATY OF WINCHESTER (1153) Signed between factions of Matilda and Stephen Established hereditary principle for monarchy Declared."— Presentation transcript:

1 KING, LORDS, AND COMMONS

2 TREATY OF WINCHESTER (1153) Signed between factions of Matilda and Stephen Established hereditary principle for monarchy Declared Matilda’s son, Henry of Anjou, man with the best hereditary claim

3 HENRY II ( ) French possessions exceeded those of French monarch Son of Jeffrey of Anjou; husband of Eleanor of Aquitane Developed system of government that could function without king (Son Richard I ( ) spent only five months of reign in England)

4 HENRY II ( ) (CONTINUED) Restored public order Destroyed castles erected without royal permission 1166 Assize of Clarendon introduced grand jury royal court in each shire heard indictments and judged offenders individuals encouraged to bring civil cases to Court of Common Pleas itinerant justices brought king’s justice to the people feudal holders of courts often resented the royal extension of justice

5 HENRY II ( ) (CONTINUED) 1170 Inquest of Sheriffs sheriffs dismissed and replaced by officials trained in Exchequer 1164 Constitutions of Clarendon no judicial appeals to Rome bishops and abbots to do homage to king before consecration clerks convicted in ecclesiastical courts subject to royal punishment

6 CHURCH V. STATE Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, denounced Constitutions of Clarendon 1170 Becket murdered by four of Henry’s knights Henry forced to do penance and renounce royal jurisdiction over criminal clerics

7 KING V. LORDS Richard I ( ) spent most of reign in Holy Land campaigns supported by taxes on land and movables and feudal aids sheriffdoms sold to highest bidder (story of London)

8 KING V. LORDS (CONTINUED) John ( ) managed to lose much of Northern France (including Normandy) to the French king feudal custom of scutage turned into a regular tax (eleven in fifteen years) sold wardships for outrageous fees raised price of customary feudal dues 1215 barons revolted and forced John to sign Magna Carta limited abuse of feudal practices defined vague feudal relationships forbade king from raising customary fees and rents

9 KING V. LORDS (CONTINUED) Successive kings granted money in return for confirmations of Magna Carta (principle of consent to taxation eventually developed)

10 KING V. LORDS (CONTINUED) Henry III ( ) inherited as child; first real test of primogeniture affairs while minor dealt with by barons in council 1227 announced he would chose own officials

11 KING V. LORDS (CONTINUED) 1258 Henry III made alliance with Pope against the Germans in Italy his son would be King of Sicily, barons forced Henry to concede Provisions of Oxford national affairs into hands of Council of fifteen nobles (earls) controlled by assembly (parliament) of twelve barons sheriffs to be local men of property, appointed annually and paid salary by king N.B. First real constitutional document in English history - supplied machinery for conduct of central government

12 ORIGINS OF PARLIAMENT Edward I ( ) gave lords more secure control over lands and more disciplinary power over officials military policies were expensive 1290 on at war in Wales, in Scotland, in Flanders need for money and political support led to development of parliament

13 ORIGINS OF PARLIAMENT (CONTINUED) Beginning in 1240’s judges postponed difficult law cases to law terms could discuss colleagues and royal council parliaments (discussions) took place three to four times per year citizens took advantage of meetings to petition king for justice kings used sessions to advantage

14 ORIGINS OF PARLIAMENT (CONTINUED) Kings summoned representatives from shires to consent to taxation first such summons issued by Henry III in 1254 Edward I and advisors developed writ of summons (bound communities to act on promises of representatives)

15 KING, LORDS, AND COMMONS Edward II ( ) was a disaster as king 1327 magnates deposed and murdered him replaced him with fifteen-year old son Edward III ( ) led nobility against French in Hundred Years War English victories at Crecy and capture of Calais brought loot and ransoms great expansion in woolen cloth trade (tax on wool paid for military expenses)

16 KING, LORDS, AND COMMONS (CONTINUED) Richard II ( ) inherited throne as child 1379 advisors recommended poll taxes in 1379 led to Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 king later resorted to forced loans demanded sealed "blank charters" from offenders disinherited Henry, Duke of Lancaster, son of John of Gaunt 1399 Henry forcibly recovered lands, dethroned Richard II, and proclaimed himself Henry IV

17 DOMINANT THEMES Who should run the government? Who should pay for it?


Download ppt "KING, LORDS, AND COMMONS. TREATY OF WINCHESTER (1153) Signed between factions of Matilda and Stephen Established hereditary principle for monarchy Declared."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google