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GaTAPP Essentials: Engagement, Evidence, Environment, Ethics.

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Presentation on theme: "GaTAPP Essentials: Engagement, Evidence, Environment, Ethics."— Presentation transcript:

1 GaTAPP Essentials: Engagement, Evidence, Environment, Ethics

2 Engagement

3 Vocabulary Engagement Activity Strategy Essential Question Activator

4 3-Way Vocabulary You have either a term, definition, or visual. Find your partners to make a 3-way match. Monarch The king or queen ruling a country.

5 What is engagement?

6 Difference between activity and strategy A strategy is what the teacher does. An activity is what the student does.

7 What does the research say?

8 Robert Marzano

9 Why do I care about Marzano? Leading educational researcher Author of “Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement” Meta-analysis of current research Determined the “Effect Size” of the strategies

10 Effect Size Expresses an increase or decrease in achievement of the experimental group.20 Effect size = small increase in achievement.50 Effect size = medium increase in achievement.80 Effect size = large increase in achievement

11 Marzano’s 9 Strategies Identified 9 strategies that have a high probability of enhancing student achievement for all students in all subject areas at all grade levels

12 John Hattie

13 Why do I care about Hattie? Leading educational researcher Author of “Visible Learning” and “Visible Learning for Teachers” Synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement Determined the “Effect Size” of the strategies

14 Almost any intervention can stake a claim to making a difference to student learning Any intervention with an effect size over 0.0 has an effect on student achievement This has lead to a culture of “everything works” – the bar is set to 0. According to Hattie, this is dangerous!

15 For any intervention to be considered worthwhile, it must have at least an average effect size. Effect size (d) = 0.40 is the hinge point for identifying what is and what is not effective.

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18 CategoryDefinitionEffect Size Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback Provide students with a direction for learning and with information about how well they are performing relative to a particular learning objective so they can improve their performance. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Enhance students’ understanding of the relationships between effort and achievement by addressing students’ attitudes and beliefs about learning. Provide students with abstract tokens of recognition or praise for their accomplishments related to the attainment of a goal. Cooperative LearningProvide students with opportunities to interact with one another in ways that enhance their learning. Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers Enhance students’ ability to retrieve, use, and organize what they already know about a topic. Nonlinguistic Representations Enhance students’ ability to represent and elaborate on knowledge using mental images. Summarizing and Note Taking Enhance students’ ability to synthesize information and organize it in a way that captures the main ideas and supporting details. Assigning Homework and Providing Practice Extend the learning opportunities for students to practice, review, and apply knowledge. Enhance students’ ability to reach the expected level of proficiency for a skill or process. Identifying Similarities and Differences Enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve identifying ways in which items are alike and different. Generating and Testing Hypotheses Enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve making and testing hypotheses. Dean, C. B., Hubbell, E. R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. J. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. 2 nd Edition

19 CategoryDefinitionEffect Size Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback Provide students with a direction for learning and with information about how well they are performing relative to a particular learning objective so they can improve their performance..61 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Enhance students’ understanding of the relationships between effort and achievement by addressing students’ attitudes and beliefs about learning. Provide students with abstract tokens of recognition or praise for their accomplishments related to the attainment of a goal..80 Cooperative LearningProvide students with opportunities to interact with one another in ways that enhance their learning..73 Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers Enhance students’ ability to retrieve, use, and organize what they already know about a topic..59 Nonlinguistic Representations Enhance students’ ability to represent and elaborate on knowledge using mental images..75 Summarizing and Note Taking Enhance students’ ability to synthesize information and organize it in a way that captures the main ideas and supporting details. 1.0 Assigning Homework and Providing Practice Extend the learning opportunities for students to practice, review, and apply knowledge. Enhance students’ ability to reach the expected level of proficiency for a skill or process..77 Identifying Similarities and Differences Enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve identifying ways in which items are alike and different Generating and Testing Hypotheses Enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve making and testing hypotheses..61 Note: All of these strategies have a medium – high effect size.

20 Communicating Learning Outcomes How do you let your students know what they will be doing in class today? How can you get students engaged/interested in the lesson?

21 Communicating Learning Outcomes - Research Marzano – Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback Hattie –

22 Unwrapping Standards with Students - Process 1. Underline the verbs. 2. Circle the nouns. 3. With your students, define any unfamiliar words. Write the words on the standard so that the students have something to reference during the lesson. 4. When you teach, use the language of the standards. Encourage your students to use the language of the standard as well. Provide scaffolding (definitions) to ensure that all students can understand the standard.

23 Example: SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.

24 Example: Step 1: Underline the verbs. SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.

25 Example: Step 1: Underline the verbs. SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.

26 Example: Step 2: Circle the nouns. SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.

27 Example: Step 2: Circle the nouns. SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.

28 Example: Step 3: Define unfamiliar words. SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living. Make a judgment based on data Proportion of the population over age fifteen that can read and write Degree of wealth and material comfort available to a family or community

29 Activating Strategies What are they? Why do I need to use them?

30 Reading Strategy – Conversation Questions Handout “Why Activate?” Article

31 Sample Activators Remember … these should be designed to peak students’ interest in the lesson; however, they should be aligned to the standard.

32 Example: SS5CG1b Explain the freedoms granted and rights protected by the Bill of Rights

33 Activator Which is the better activator for the standard? Why?

34 Instructional Delivery The teacher effectively engages students in learning by using a variety of instructional strategies in order to meet individual learning needs.

35 What does instructional delivery mean? Instructional delivery is a process in which teachers apply a repertoire of instructional strategies to communicate and interact with students around academic content, and to support student engagement.

36 Direct Instruction

37 What is direct instruction? Is it the same as lecture? No. Teacher decides the learning intentions and success criteria, makes them transparent to the students, demonstrates them by modeling, evaluates if they understand and ties it together with a closing.

38 Seven Steps to Direct Instruction 1. Prior to lesson – teacher has a clear understanding of the learning intentions 2. Determine the success criteria and inform students about the standards of performance 3. Build commitment and engagement “hook” 4. Present the lesson using a variety of methods

39 5. Provide opportunities for guided practice 6. Allow for closure of the lesson. 7. Allow for independent practice.

40 Lecture Method Instructor’s role Effective method for providing ◦ Facts ◦ Rules/regulations ◦ Clarifications ◦ Examples ◦ Definitions

41 Lecture Method Advantages ◦ One speaker can reach people in any size group ◦ Format is familiar to students ◦ They are aware of what to expect and what is expected of them. Interactive lectures increase student retention of information by 20%.. Student accountability for learning during lectures increases retention of information by 55%.

42 Lecture Method Disadvantages ◦ Limited student/instructor interaction ◦ Lack of student feedback ◦ Limited use of senses Overcoming the disadvantages ◦ Generate student interaction ◦ Include discussion, illustration, demonstration, and activities ◦ Avoid presenting too much information at once ◦ Provide supplemental information

43 Lecture Strategies Collaborative Pairs/ Numbered Heads Pause Procedure Study Group/ Feedback Open-Ended Responsive Think/Write/Discuss Demonstration

44 How do I know which lecture strategy to use? Content Students Resources available Be prepared for the unexpected problems – technology goes down, copier is broken, etc. Have a back-up plan.

45 Lecture Length When you are planning a lesson, how long should you plan to lecture?

46 Discussion Method Benefits ◦ Allows interaction between instructor and students ◦ Instructor talks with the group, not to the group ◦ To be effective, students must have a basic knowledge of the subject ◦ Works bet for smaller groups of 10 – 15 students

47 Discussion Method Guided Discussion ◦ Instructor presents a topic ◦ Ideas are discussed in an orderly exchange and are controlled or guided ◦ Gain knowledge from other members, modify their ideas, or develop new ones

48 Demonstration Method Purpose ◦ The act of showing how to do something or how something operates

49 Demonstration Method Guidelines ◦ Know what it is and its learning objective ◦ Practice every step ◦ Check all equipment and accessories ◦ Repeat step-by-step while explaining each step slowly ◦ Allow students to ask questions and clarify any misunderstandings

50 Varying Instructional Styles Is it important to vary your instructional method? Why or why not?

51 Let’s look at a standard …. SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, and physical characteristics on population distribution in Africa. a. Explain how the characteristics in the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, and tropical rain forest affect where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel.

52 Teacher Led  Teacher lectures on the four target physical features, including referencing the standard and element  Students take notes about the effects of physical features on population distribution, work, and transportation from a teacher- created PowerPoint  Teacher quizzes students over physical features and notes  Students write explanatory essay using a teacher-developed rubric Teacher Facilitated  Teacher posts and references the standard and element  Students use teacher-created Web quest to investigate the four target physical features  Students predict how the physical features might impact population distribution, work, and transportation; then check their responses against information provided by the teacher  Students use their research and predictions to write an explanatory essay using a teacher- developed rubric Instructional Groups  Teacher posts and references the standard and element  Teacher groups students based on criteria important to instruction (could be reading level) into four groups  Each group researches one of the four target physical features  Each group prepares a presentation on how its target physical feature affects population distribution, work and transportation  Students take notes on each group’s presentation  Students write an explanatory essay using a teacher-developed rubric (could focus on all four physical features or on one physical feature) Student Initiated  Students individually review the standard and element  Students decide as a group how they will divide research and reporting on that research  Students discuss their research findings, including the effects of the target physical features on population distribution, work, and transportation

53 Flexible Grouping What is it? Grouping and regrouping students – based on DATA in order to provide appropriate instruction Groups set up for short periods of time to meet specific needs – fluid Based on data rather than teacher perception or proximity

54 Common Instructional Configurations Handout – Which of the configurations on the handout are examples of flexible grouping and under what conditions? Discuss with your elbow partner.

55 How can I make flexible grouping work in my classroom?

56 Managing Flexible Groups 28 students in a heterogeneous class Pre- assessment data shows that 14 are ready for “required” = group A 7 need “required + review” = B 7 ready for “acceleration” = C Warm-up5 min.Everyone participates Instruction, Part 125 min. A and B do “required” focus lesson with teacher; C works on anchor activity Instruction, Part 225 min. C does “accelerated” focus lesson with teacher; Proof Place; Practice Plaza Closure5 min. Everyone participates in an Exit Card

57 A teacher is planning a field trip and will need school buses to transport students. A school bus holds 36 students. If 1,128 students will be transported, how many buses are needed? A. 31 B C. 32 D Let’s say this was your TOD. 1. What information does it tell you about each of your students? 2. How could this question help you with flexible grouping?

58 Progress Check 3 – 2 – 1 Name 3 things you learned about instructional methods/delivery modes Name 2 reasons why varying delivery modes is important List 1 question you still have about delivery modes Document strategy in your Strategy Log.

59 Teaching Styles Manner in which a teacher manages instruction and the classroom environment.

60 Major Teaching Styles Permissive Authoritarian Democratic Think – Pair – Share – How would you define each style?

61 Permissive – establish few rules and tend to be inconsistent in enforcing rules or applying consequences for misbehavior Authoritarian – teachers establish the classroom rules, learning is teacher- centered, student’s role is to comply with the rules and complete all work satisfactorily Democratic – establish a classroom environment that includes input on nearly all issues of management, voting privileges for students, and generally positive reactions to student desires and needs

62 1. Get with your circle partner. 2. Discuss pros and cons of each teaching style. 3. Use the Teaching Styles Worksheet to record your thoughts.

63 Authoritarian and democratic teaching styles tend to be the most effective because disruptions in the classroom are kept to a minimum. Teachers who exhibit a permissive teaching style sacrifice an orderly classroom by trying to allow the students to police themselves. Permissive teachers are generally hands-off, encouraging students to develop independence an individual responsibility.

64 Which type do you think most beginning teachers use? Which type do you think you lean toward?

65 Beginning teachers tend to be permissive in their dealings with students. Students quickly pick up on these tendencies to overlook minor infractions. Classroom control typically suffers as a result. It is recommended that new teachers develop a teaching style that leans toward authoritarian or democratic style personality types.

66 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Pair Reading

67 Hattie

68 Hattie, cont. The most effective vocabulary teaching methods included providing both definitional and contextual information, involved students in deeper processing, and gave students more than one or two exposures to the words they were to learn.

69 69 Recommendation 1 Provide Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Level of Evidence: Strong Institute of Education Sciences Adolescent Literacy Practice Guide University of Oregon – Center for Teaching and Learning

70 70 Research Includes Students From: Upper Elementary Middle/High School Diverse Geographic and Socioeconomic backgrounds

71 71 Recommendations For Teachers Of: ◦ Reading and language arts classes ◦ Content area classes such as social studies and science, CTE

72 72 Vocabulary carries a large share of the meaning in content area texts.Implication: Integrating explicit vocabulary instruction into subject areas enhances students’ ability to acquire textbook vocabulary. Research to Support the Recommendation

73 73 A meta-analysis indicates the probability of learning meanings of new words while reading is relatively low--about 15%.Implication: Explicit vocabulary instruction is needed to ensure all students acquire print vocabulary needed for academic success. Research to Support the Recommendation

74 74 Words are best learned through repeated exposure in multiple contexts and domains. Research to Support the Recommendation Implication: Many content area texts contain specialized vocabulary students may not encounter outside their textbooks. Therefore, repeated exposures in varying contexts must be planned.

75 75 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Two Major Approaches: Instruction in Strategies to Promote Independent Vocabulary Acquisition Skills Direct Instruction in Word Meanings The two approaches are complementary rather than conflicting.

76 76 How to Carry Out the Recommendation

77 77 1. Dedicate a portion of each regular classroom lesson to explicit vocabulary instruction.

78 78 2. Use repeated exposure to new words in multiple oral and written contexts and allow sufficient practice opportunities.

79 79 3. Give sufficient opportunities to use new vocabulary in a variety of contexts through activities such as discussions, writing, and extended reading.

80 80 4. Provide students with strategies to make them independent vocabulary learners.

81 81 Other Considerations Although explicitly teaching vocabulary in each content area lesson requiring reading will take a few minutes of additional time…it will pay substantial dividends for student learning in the long run.

82 Marzano Robert Marzano & Debra Pickering developed a six-step process for teaching new vocabulary. 2 categories: Introducing the term Reinforcing the term

83 Direct Vocabulary Instruction Example Read the example. Discuss the following with your circle partner. ◦ What step of Marzano & Pickering’s process does this represent? ◦ Is this activity enough for the students to have the words become part of their speaking and writing vocabulary? If not, what else does the teacher need to provide?

84 Vocabulary Activities Handout – Examples of Vocabulary Activities

85 Distributed Practice & Distributed Summarizing

86 Traditional Lessons

87 Distributed Practice - Skills

88 Hattie

89 Distributed Summarizing - Content

90 Introduction to Bloom’s Taxonomy

91 Bloom’s Taxonomy Developed by Benjamin Bloom in the 1950’s Hierarchy identifying 6 levels of cognitive learning

92 Higher levels of thinking Lower levels of thinking

93 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy In 2000, former colleagues of Bloom revised his taxonomy. They placed Synthesis above Evaluation and changed the level names from nouns to verbs.

94 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy SynthesisCreating EvaluationEvaluating AnalysisAnalyzing ApplicationApplying ComprehensionUnderstanding KnowledgeRemembering

95 Video – Higher Order Questions Take notes on 3 questions as you watch: 1. How does Ms. Francisco help her students develop higher order questions? 2. What do students learn from both writing and discussing questions? 3. How do students test the validity of their questions? Why is this step important?

96 Little Red Riding Hood Activity

97 Let’s Practice … Choose one of your standards (or two if need be). Write 2 lower-level questions and 2 higher-level questions.

98 Instructional Resources Video – 9 th Grade Social Studies As you watch the video clip, list all of the instructional resources that the teacher uses during the clip

99 Video Discussion 1. Talk to your elbow partner about the resources that you saw used in the clip – chart on paper. 2. Why do you think the teacher chose these resources? 3. Are there other resources that may have enhanced the lesson? 4. What delivery method(s) did the teacher use during the clip?

100 Purposeful Choosing of Resources Teachers have a wide array of different resources available. Selection of resources must be purposeful – designed to meet the needs of the students in the classroom

101 Graphic Organizers What are they? Communication devices Show the organization or structure of concepts Show the relationship between concepts Visual organizers

102 Summarizing Learning How will students demonstrate what they know, understand, and are able to do?

103 What does the research say?

104 Progress Check This is what I thought you said ____________________________. Document strategy in your Strategy Log.

105 Questions????


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