9Why do I care about Marzano? Leading educational researcherAuthor of “Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement”Meta-analysis of current researchDetermined the “Effect Size” of the strategies
10Effect SizeExpresses an increase or decrease in achievement of the experimental group.20 Effect size = small increase in achievement.50 Effect size = medium increase in achievement.80 Effect size = large increase in achievement
11Marzano’s 9 StrategiesIdentified 9 strategies that have a high probability of enhancing student achievement for all students in all subject areas at all grade levels
13Why do I care about Hattie? Leading educational researcherAuthor of “Visible Learning” and “Visible Learning for Teachers”Synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievementDetermined the “Effect Size” of the strategies
14Almost any intervention can stake a claim to making a difference to student learning Any intervention with an effect size over 0.0 has an effect on student achievementThis has lead to a culture of “everything works” – the bar is set to 0. According to Hattie, this is dangerous!
15For any intervention to be considered worthwhile, it must have at least an average effect size. Effect size (d) = 0.40 is the hinge point for identifying what is and what is not effective.
18Category Definition Effect Size Setting Objectives & Providing FeedbackProvide students with a direction for learning and with information about how well they are performing relative to a particular learning objective so they can improve their performance.Reinforcing Effort and Providing RecognitionEnhance students’ understanding of the relationships between effort and achievement by addressing students’ attitudes and beliefs about learning.Provide students with abstract tokens of recognition or praise for their accomplishments related to the attainment of a goal.Cooperative LearningProvide students with opportunities to interact with one another in ways that enhance their learning.Cues, Questions, and Advanced OrganizersEnhance students’ ability to retrieve, use, and organize what they already know about a topic.Nonlinguistic RepresentationsEnhance students’ ability to represent and elaborate on knowledge using mental images.Summarizing and Note TakingEnhance students’ ability to synthesize information and organize it in a way that captures the main ideas and supporting details.Assigning Homework and Providing PracticeExtend the learning opportunities for students to practice, review, and apply knowledge.Enhance students’ ability to reach the expected level of proficiency for a skill or process.Identifying Similarities and DifferencesEnhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve identifying ways in which items are alike and different.Generating and Testing HypothesesEnhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve making and testing hypotheses.Have participants guess which of Marzanos strategies are the top 2 most effective … bottom 2.Handout – copy of this slideDean, C. B., Hubbell, E. R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. J. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. 2nd Edition
19Category Definition Effect Size Setting Objectives & Providing FeedbackProvide students with a direction for learning and with information about how well they are performing relative to a particular learning objective so they can improve their performance..61Reinforcing Effort and Providing RecognitionEnhance students’ understanding of the relationships between effort and achievement by addressing students’ attitudes and beliefs about learning.Provide students with abstract tokens of recognition or praise for their accomplishments related to the attainment of a goal..80Cooperative LearningProvide students with opportunities to interact with one another in ways that enhance their learning..73Cues, Questions, and Advanced OrganizersEnhance students’ ability to retrieve, use, and organize what they already know about a topic..59Nonlinguistic RepresentationsEnhance students’ ability to represent and elaborate on knowledge using mental images..75Summarizing and Note TakingEnhance students’ ability to synthesize information and organize it in a way that captures the main ideas and supporting details.1.0Assigning Homework and Providing PracticeExtend the learning opportunities for students to practice, review, and apply knowledge.Enhance students’ ability to reach the expected level of proficiency for a skill or process..77Identifying Similarities and DifferencesEnhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve identifying ways in which items are alike and different.1.61Generating and Testing HypothesesEnhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve making and testing hypotheses.Yellow – highest twoGreen - lowestNote: All of these strategies have a medium – high effect size.
20Communicating Learning Outcomes How do you let your students know what they will be doing in class today?How can you get students engaged/interested in the lesson?
22Unwrapping Standards with Students - Process Underline the verbs.Circle the nouns.With your students, define any unfamiliar words. Write the words on the standard so that the students have something to reference during the lesson.When you teach, use the language of the standards. Encourage your students to use the language of the standard as well. Provide scaffolding (definitions) to ensure that all students can understand the standard.Handout – copy of this slide
23Example:SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.
24Example:Step 1: Underline the verbs. SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.
25Example:Step 1: Underline the verbs. SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.
26Example:Step 2: Circle the nouns. SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.
27Example:Step 2: Circle the nouns. SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.
28Example:Step 3: Define unfamiliar words. SS7G12 Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.Proportion of the population over age fifteen that can read and writeMake a judgment based on dataWhen you are teaching, which words are you going to use? The LOS – why???Degree of wealth and material comfort available to a family or community
29Activating Strategies What are they?Why do I need to use them?
31Sample ActivatorsRemember … these should be designed to peak students’ interest in the lesson; however, they should be aligned to the standard.
32Example:SS5CG1b Explain the freedoms granted and rights protected by the Bill of Rights
33Activator http://constitutioncenter.org/billofrightsgame/ Which is the better activator for the standard? Why?
34Instructional Delivery The teacher effectively engages students in learning by using a variety of instructional strategies in order to meet individual learning needs.
35What does instructional delivery mean? Instructional delivery is a process in which teachers apply a repertoire of instructional strategies to communicate and interact with students around academic content, and to support student engagement.
37What is direct instruction? Is it the same as lecture?No.Teacher decides the learning intentions and success criteria, makes them transparent to the students, demonstrates them by modeling, evaluates if they understand and ties it together with a closing.Handout
38Seven Steps to Direct Instruction Prior to lesson – teacher has a clear understanding of the learning intentionsDetermine the success criteria and inform students about the standards of performanceBuild commitment and engagement “hook”Present the lesson using a variety of methodsHandout – p. 204 – 207 from Hattie
39Provide opportunities for guided practice Allow for closure of the lesson.Allow for independent practice.These seven steps are key to designing effective lesson plans. You will have the opportunity to practice these steps later in the course.
40Lecture Method Instructor’s role Effective method for providing Facts Rules/regulationsClarificationsExamplesDefinitions
41Lecture Method Advantages One speaker can reach people in any size groupFormat is familiar to studentsThey are aware of what to expect and what is expected of them.Interactive lectures increase student retention of information by 20%.. Student accountability for learning during lectures increases retention of information by 55%.
42Lecture Method Disadvantages Overcoming the disadvantages Limited student/instructor interactionLack of student feedbackLimited use of sensesOvercoming the disadvantagesGenerate student interactionInclude discussion, illustration, demonstration, and activitiesAvoid presenting too much information at onceProvide supplemental information
43Lecture Strategies Collaborative Pairs/ Numbered Heads Pause Procedure Study Group/ FeedbackOpen-Ended ResponsiveThink/Write/DiscussDemonstrationHandout – Strategies for using Lecture
44How do I know which lecture strategy to use? ContentStudentsResources availableBe prepared for the unexpected problems – technology goes down, copier is broken, etc. Have a back-up plan.
45Lecture LengthWhen you are planning a lesson, how long should you plan to lecture?
46Discussion Method Benefits Allows interaction between instructor and studentsInstructor talks with the group, not to the groupTo be effective, students must have a basic knowledge of the subjectWorks bet for smaller groups of 10 – 15 students
47Discussion Method Guided Discussion Instructor presents a topic Ideas are discussed in an orderly exchange and are controlled or guidedGain knowledge from other members, modify their ideas, or develop new ones
48Demonstration Method Purpose The act of showing how to do something or how something operates
49Demonstration Method Guidelines Know what it is and its learning objectivePractice every stepCheck all equipment and accessoriesRepeat step-by-step while explaining each step slowlyAllow students to ask questions and clarify any misunderstandings
50Varying Instructional Styles Is it important to vary your instructional method? Why or why not?
51Let’s look at a standard …. SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, and physical characteristics on population distribution in Africa. a. Explain how the characteristics in the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, and tropical rain forest affect where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel.
52Teacher LedTeacher lectures on the four target physical features, including referencing the standard and elementStudents take notes about the effects of physical features on population distribution, work, and transportation from a teacher-created PowerPointTeacher quizzes students over physical features and notesStudents write explanatory essay using a teacher-developed rubricTeacher FacilitatedTeacher posts and references the standard and elementStudents use teacher-created Web quest to investigate the four target physical featuresStudents predict how the physical features might impact population distribution, work, and transportation; then check their responses against information provided by the teacherStudents use their research and predictions to write an explanatory essay using a teacher-developed rubricInstructional GroupsTeacher groups students based on criteria important to instruction (could be reading level) into four groupsEach group researches one of the four target physical featuresEach group prepares a presentation on how its target physical feature affects population distribution, work and transportationStudents take notes on each group’s presentationStudents write an explanatory essay using a teacher-developed rubric (could focus on all four physical features or on one physical feature)Student InitiatedStudents individually review the standard and elementStudents decide as a group how they will divide research and reporting on that researchStudents discuss their research findings, including the effects of the target physical features on population distribution, work, and transportationHandout – copy of this slideDiscussion questions:What do all four methods have in common?Which method takes the most planning?Which method is likely the most engaging for students?
53Flexible Grouping What is it? Grouping and regrouping students – based on DATA in order to provide appropriate instructionGroups set up for short periods of time to meet specific needs – fluidBased on data rather than teacher perception or proximityHandout and assignment – Flexible Grouping
54Common Instructional Configurations Handout – Which of the configurations on the handout are examples of flexible grouping and under what conditions? Discuss with your elbow partner.Lead discussion –
55How can I make flexible grouping work in my classroom?
56Managing Flexible Groups 28 students in a heterogeneous classPre- assessment data shows that14 are ready for “required” = group A7 need “required + review” = B7 ready for “acceleration” = CWarm-up5 min.Everyone participatesInstruction, Part 125 min.A and B do “required” focus lesson with teacher; C works on anchor activityInstruction, Part 2C does “accelerated” focus lesson with teacher; Proof Place; Practice PlazaClosureEveryone participates in an Exit CardDiscuss this model for using Flexible Grouping.56
57A teacher is planning a field trip and will need school buses to transport students. A school bus holds 36 students. If 1,128 students will be transported, how many buses are needed?A. 31BC. 32DLet’s say this was your TOD.What information does it tell you about each of your students?How could this question help you with flexible grouping?
58Progress Check3 – 2 – 1 Name 3 things you learned about instructional methods/delivery modes Name 2 reasons why varying delivery modes is important List 1 question you still have about delivery modes Document strategy in your Strategy Log.
59Teaching StylesManner in which a teacher manages instruction and the classroom environment.
60Major Teaching Styles Permissive Authoritarian Democratic Think – Pair – Share –How would you define each style?
61Permissive – establish few rules and tend to be inconsistent in enforcing rules or applying consequences for misbehaviorAuthoritarian – teachers establish the classroom rules, learning is teacher- centered, student’s role is to comply with the rules and complete all work satisfactorilyDemocratic – establish a classroom environment that includes input on nearly all issues of management, voting privileges for students, and generally positive reactions to student desires and needs
62Get with your circle partner. Discuss pros and cons of each teaching style.Use the Teaching Styles Worksheet to record your thoughts.
63Authoritarian and democratic teaching styles tend to be the most effective because disruptions in the classroom are kept to a minimum.Teachers who exhibit a permissive teaching style sacrifice an orderly classroom by trying to allow the students to police themselves.Permissive teachers are generally hands-off, encouraging students to develop independence an individual responsibility.
64Which type do you think most beginning teachers use Which type do you think most beginning teachers use? Which type do you think you lean toward?
65Classroom control typically suffers as a result. Beginning teachers tend to be permissive in their dealings with students.Students quickly pick up on these tendencies to overlook minor infractions.Classroom control typically suffers as a result.It is recommended that new teachers develop a teaching style that leans toward authoritarian or democratic style personality types.Very few people are totally one teaching style or another – most of us are a blend – we may have a style that we “lean toward” or are more comfortable with; however, we can all work on using all of the styles.
68Hattie, cont.The most effective vocabulary teaching methods included providing both definitional and contextual information, involved students in deeper processing, and gave students more than one or two exposures to the words they were to learn.
69Adolescent Literacy Practice Guide Institute of Education SciencesAdolescent Literacy Practice GuideRecommendation 1 Provide Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Level of Evidence: StrongOne of the five recommendations from the IES Practice Guide for Improving Adolescent Literacy calls for providing explicit vocabulary instruction for all students. The panel which developed this practice guide considers the level of evidence supporting this recommendation to be strong.University of Oregon – Center for Teaching and Learning
70Research Includes Students From: Upper ElementaryMiddle/High SchoolDiverse Geographicand SocioeconomicbackgroundsOne of the five recommendations from the IES Practice Guide for Improving Adolescent Literacy calls for providing explicit vocabulary instruction for all students. The panel which developed this practice guide considers the level of evidence supporting this recommendation to be strong.
71Recommendations For Teachers Of: Reading and language arts classes Content area classes such as social studies and science, CTEThe recommendation of providing explicit vocabulary instruction goes beyond teachers in reading and language arts classes. Explicit vocabulary instruction should be provided by all teachers across the curriculum such as social studies, science, math, health and other content area teachers.In addition, the research discussed in the Practice Guide on Improving Adolescent Literacy includes students from a wide variety of grade levels as well as diverse backgrounds.
72Research to Support the Recommendation Vocabulary carries a large share of the meaning in content area texts.Implication:Integrating explicit vocabulary instruction into subject areas enhances students’ ability to acquire textbook vocabulary.When students are just beginning to read, a strong majority of the words in grade-level texts are familiar to these early readers as the words are part of their oral vocabulary as well.As students begin to progress through the grades, however, many words the students start to encounter are not a part of their oral vocabularies, particularly in content-area materials. In content-area texts it is more often the vocabulary that carries a large share of the meaning through specialized vocabulary, jargon, and topic-related concepts. Learning these specialized vocabularies is essential to the success of adolescent students. Research has shown that integrating explicit vocabulary instruction into the existing curriculum of subject areas such as science or social studies does enhance a student’s ability to acquire textbook vocabulary.
73Research to Support the Recommendation A meta-analysis indicates the probability of learning meanings of new words while reading is relatively low--about 15%.Implication:Explicit vocabulary instruction is needed to ensure all students acquire print vocabulary needed for academic success.Practitioners often are led to believe that students often learn new words incidentally from context. However, a meta-analysis of the literature conducted by Swanborn and de Glopper (1999) indicated adolescent students have, on average, about a 15% chance they will learn new words while reading.Teachers can conclude, therefore, that although incidental leaning helps students develop their vocabulary, additional explicit instruction needs to be provided to ensure that all students acquire the necessary print vocabulary for success for academic success.
74Research to Support the Recommendation Words are best learned through repeated exposure in multiple contexts and domains.Implication:Many content area texts contain specialized vocabulary students may not encounter outside their textbooks. Therefore, repeated exposures in varying contexts must be planned.Research does show that words are best learned through repeated exposure in multiple contexts and domains. The difficulty with this, however, is that many content area textbooks, such as those in biology and physics, include specialized vocabulary, jargon, and discipline-related concepts that students may not encounter outside their textbooks. This limits the amount of exposure students will have with these unfamiliar terms. As a result, planned explicit instruction of vocabulary incorporating repeated exposures must occur if students are to get around this difficulty and learn these specialized vocabularies.
75Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Two Major Approaches:Direct Instruction in Word MeaningsInstruction in Strategies to Promote Independent Vocabulary Acquisition SkillsExplicit vocabulary instruction can be divided into two major approaches. These include 1) direct instruction in word meaning, and 2) instruction in strategies to promote independent vocabulary acquisition skills. Research shows that both approaches can effectively promote students’ vocabulary. The first approach can add to students’ ability to learn a given set of words, while the second approach can help students generalize their skills to a variety of new texts in multiple contexts. As a result, the two approaches are complementary rather than conflicting.Direct instruction of word meanings include:using graphic displays of the relationships among words and concepts such as semantic mapsreading of words and their definitionsmatching words and their definitions-helping students memorize definitionsStrategies to promote independent vocabulary acquisition skills include:analyzing semantic, syntactic, or context clues to derive the meanings of words by using prior knowledge and the context in which the word is presented.The two approaches are complementary rather than conflicting.
76How to Carry Out the Recommendation The following slides contain specific steps for carrying out the recommendation of providing explicit vocabulary instruction.
77Dedicate a portion of each regular classroom lesson to explicit vocabulary instruction. The amount of time designated each day to explicit vocabulary instruction will depend upon the vocabulary load of the text to be read as well as the students’ general prior knowledge of the new vocabulary.In addition to direct instruction of vocabulary by teachers, computer-assisted instruction can be another effective way to provide practice on newly-introduced vocabulary words.Other methods for direct instruction include using graphic organizers and semantic maps to teach the relationships among words and concepts.
78Use repeated exposure to new words in multiple oral and written contexts and allow sufficient practice opportunities.The number of exposures it takes students to learn new vocabulary varies greatly. Researchers estimate it could 3-4 exposures for some students to as many as 17 exposures for students to learn a new word.Practice opportunities could be in the same lesson passage. However, research indicates these practice opportunities will be most effective if they appear over an extended period of time.When selecting words to teach explicitly, words that appear only once or twice in text are typically not words that should be targeted for explicit instruction because there simply may never be enough exposure to learn the word completely. These generally are highly technical words used within a specific content area. For these words, students should be provided with the definitions of these infrequent words.
79Give sufficient opportunities to use new vocabulary in a variety of contexts through activities such as discussions, writing, and extended reading.By providing a variety of contexts through which students practice using new vocabulary words, students begin to acquire a range of productive meanings for these new words based upon different contexts.In addition, by actually using the words within discussions, students are learning the correct way to use these words orally rather than simply being able to recognize them in print.
80Provide students with strategies to make them independent vocabulary learners. There are a number of strategies which can be taught to enhance students’ abilities to determine the meaning of unknown vocabulary words on their own. These include:Using components of words such as prefixes, roots, and suffixes to derive the meaning of unfamiliar words-Analyzing semantic, syntactic or context clues to derive the meaning of words by using their prior knowledge and the context in which the word is presented.-Teaching students to make use of reference materials such glossaries included in their textbooks.
81Other ConsiderationsAlthough explicitly teaching vocabulary in each content area lesson requiring reading will take a few minutes of additional time…it will pay substantial dividends for student learning in the long run.
82MarzanoRobert Marzano & Debra Pickering developed a six-step process for teaching new vocabulary.2 categories:Introducing the termReinforcing the termHandout – 6 step process for vocabulary instruction
83Direct Vocabulary Instruction Example Read the example.Discuss the following with your circle partner.What step of Marzano & Pickering’s process does this represent?Is this activity enough for the students to have the words become part of their speaking and writing vocabulary? If not, what else does the teacher need to provide?Handout – Direct Vocabulary Instruction with Article on Sudan
84Vocabulary Activities Handout – Examples of Vocabulary ActivitiesDiscussVocabulary Paint Chips video linked to graphic
85Distributed Practice & Distributed Summarizing Handout – Distributed Practice & Summarizing
95Video – Higher Order Questions Take notes on 3 questions as you watch:How does Ms. Francisco help her students develop higher order questions?What do students learn from both writing and discussing questions?How do students test the validity of their questions? Why is this step important?Graphic has link to video: Higher order questions – a path to deeper learning
97Let’s Practice … Choose one of your standards (or two if need be). Write 2 lower-level questions and 2 higher-level questions.
98Instructional Resources Video – 9th Grade Social StudiesAs you watch the video clip, list all of the instructional resources that the teacher uses during the clip
99Video DiscussionTalk to your elbow partner about the resources that you saw used in the clip – chart on paper.Why do you think the teacher chose these resources?Are there other resources that may have enhanced the lesson?What delivery method(s) did the teacher use during the clip?Watch 6:50 of the HS Danielson video – 9th Grade SS – stop video when observers get up to watch class.
100Purposeful Choosing of Resources Teachers have a wide array of different resources available.Selection of resources must be purposeful – designed to meet the needs of the students in the classroomThis means that the resources that effective with your students this year may not be effective with your class next year.
101Graphic Organizers What are they? Communication devices Show the organization or structure of conceptsShow the relationship between conceptsVisual organizersHandouts – Three Reasons to use graphic organizersSample Graphic Organizers
102Summarizing LearningHow will students demonstrate what they know, understand, and are able to do?
103What does the research say? Handout – Summarizing- Note: Share/discuss how several of the strategies that they have documented in their Strategy Log could be used as summarizers.
104Progress Check This is what I thought you said ____________________________.Document strategy in your Strategy Log.