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A.G. The Industrial Revolution Spreads. Setting the Scene By the 1880s, steel had replaced steam as the great symbol of the Industrial Revolution In huge.

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Presentation on theme: "A.G. The Industrial Revolution Spreads. Setting the Scene By the 1880s, steel had replaced steam as the great symbol of the Industrial Revolution In huge."— Presentation transcript:

1 A.G. The Industrial Revolution Spreads

2 Setting the Scene By the 1880s, steel had replaced steam as the great symbol of the Industrial Revolution In huge steel mills, visitors watched with awe as tons of molten metal were poured into giant mixers: “…The flashing fireworks, the terrific gusts of heat, the gaping, glowing mouth of the giant chest, the quivering light from the liquid iron, the roar of a near-by converter…combine to produce an effect on the mind that no words can translate.” –J.H. Bridge The first phase of the revolution had largely been forged from iron, powered by steam engines, and driven by the British textile industry. By the mid-1800s, it entered a new phase New factories, new sources of energy, and new processes turned out new products

3 New Industrial Powers During the early Industrial Revolution, Britain stood alone as the world’s industrial giant and to protect itself, Britain tried to enforce strict rules against exporting inventions The rules worked until 1807 when British mechanic William Cockerill opened factories in Belgium to manufacture spinning and weaving machines Belgium became the first European nation outside Britain to industrialize By the mid-1800s, other nations joined the race and challenged Britain’s industrial supremacy

4 The New Pacesetters Nations such as Germany, France, and the United States had more abundant supplies of coal, iron, and other resources than did Britain Latecomers often borrowed British experts or technology The first American textile was built with plans smuggled out of Britain Robert Fulton powered his steamboat with one of James Watt’s steam engines Two countries did move their way up to industrial power Germany became a powerful nation in 1871 and within a few decades, became Europe’s leading industrial power The US advanced more rapidly and by 1900 was leading the world in production

5 Uneven Development Other nations industrialized more slowly, especially in eastern and southern Europe They didn’t have the resources or capital Although Russia did have resources, social and political conditions slowed its economic development Russia didn’t industrialize until 100 years after Britain Japan had remarkable success after 1868 despite the fact it lacked many basic resources

6 Impact The new industrial nations underwent rapid urbanization Men, women, and children worked long hours in difficult and dangerous conditions The factory systems produced goods at a lower cost, so workers were buying goods that only wealthy people in the past could buy The demand created jobs, and the building of cities, railroads, and factories Political leaders had to meet the demands of an industrial society

7 Technology and Industry Early in the Industrial Revolution, inventions such as the steam engine were generally the work of gifted tinkerers By the 1880s, companies hired professional chemists and engineers to create new products and machinery

8 Steel In 1856, British engineer Henry Bessemer developed a process to purify iron ore and produce a new substance, steel It was lighter, harder, and more durable than iron Others improved the process to make steel more cheap In 1880, the average German steel mill produced less than five million metric tons of steel a year By 1910, that number reached nearly fifteen million metric tons

9 Chemicals Chemists created hundreds of new products, from medicines such as aspirin to perfumes and soaps Newly developed chemical fertilizers helped increase food production In 1866, Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel invented dynamite It was widely used in construction and warfare Dynamite earned him a huge fortune, which he willed to fund the famous Nobel prizes that are still awarded today

10 Electricity In the late 1800s, electricity replaced steam as the dominant source of industrial power Alessandro Volta actually developed the first battery in about 1800 Later, Michael Faraday created the first simple electric motor and the first dynamo, a machine that generates electricity Today, all electrical generators and transformers work on the principle of Faraday’s dynamo In the 1870s, Thomas Edison made the first electric light bulb Edison’s “incandescent lamps” soon illuminated whole cities Pace of city life quickened, and factories could work at night

11 New Methods of Production Factories still used large numbers of workers and power-driven machines to mass-produce goods throughout the 1800s To improve efficiency, manufacturers designed products with interchangeable parts, identical components that could be used in place of one another Interchangeable parts simplified assembly and repair By the early 1900s, manufacturers introduced another new method of production, the assembly line The assembly line made production faster and cheaper, lowering the price of goods

12 Technology Speeds Transportation and Communication Steamships replaced sailing ships, and railroad building took off In Europe and North America, rail lines connected inland cities and seaports, mining regions and industrial centers In the US, a transcontinental railroad provided rail service from the Atlantic to the Pacific Russians did something similar with the Trans-Siberian Railroad Passengers and goods rode on rails in India, China, Egypt, and South Africa

13 The Automobile Age Begins German engineer, Nikolaus Otto, invented a gasoline- powered internal combustion engine In 1886, Karl Benz received a patent for the first automobile Which had three wheels and it wasn’t until a year later that the first four-wheeled car came along People laughed at the “horseless carriages” American Henry Ford started making models that reached the breathtaking speed of 25 miles an hour In the early 1900s, Ford began using the assembly line to mass-produce cars, making the US the leader in automobile industry

14 Conquest of the Air The internal combustion engine powered more than cars Motorized threshers and reapers boosted farm production It also made possible the dream of human flight In 1903, two American bicycle makers, Orville and Wilbur Wright, designed and flew a flimsy airplane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina Commercial passenger travel, however, would not begin until the 1920s

15 Rapid Communication Samuel F. B. Morse developed the telegraph, which could send coded messages over wires by means of electricity His first telegraph line went into service between Baltimore and Washington, D.C., in 1844 By the 1860s, messages could be sent between Europe and North America In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone By the 1890s, Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio In 1901, Marconi transmitted a radio message from Britain to Canada, using Morse’s dot-and-dash code

16 New Directions for Business New technologies required the investment of large amounts of money Entrepreneurs developed new ways of organizing business Owners sold stock, or shares in their companies, to investors Each stockholder became owner of a tiny part of a company

17 Rise of Big Business By the late 1800s, big business came to dominate industry Large-scale companies needed so much capital that they sold hundreds of thousands of shares The businesses formed giant corporations, businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock Stockholders risk only the amount they invest in the company and cannot be held personally responsible for any debts of the corporation With large amounts of capital, corporations could expand into many areas

18 Move Toward Monopolies Powerful business leaders created monopolies and trusts In Germany, Alfred Krupp inherited a steelmaking business from his father He bought up coal and iron mines as well as ore-shipping lines that fed the steel business Later, he and his son acquired plants that make tools, railroad cars, and weapons In the US, John D. Rockefeller built Standard Oil Company of Ohio into an empire By gaining control of oil wells, oil refineries, and oil pipelines, he dominated the American petroleum industry

19 Move Toward Monopolies (Cont.) To get a profit, ruthless business leaders destroyed competing companies With the competition gone, they were free to raise prices A group of large corporations would join forces and form a cartel, an association to fix prices, set production quotas, or control markets In Germany, a single cartel fixed prices for 170 coal mines British, German, French, Dutch, and Japanese shippers came close to setting freight rates on the sea lines of the world

20 Move Toward Regulation The rise of big business sparked a stormy debate Some people praised the Krupps and Rockefellers’ visions and skills They said their investment in things like railroad building created jobs Others called them “robber barons” Said they damaged the free-enterprise system By the 1900s, some governments did move against monopolies But the political and economic power of business leaders often hindered efforts at regulation

21 Looking Ahead By the late 1800s, European and American corporations were setting up factories, refineries, and other production facilities The bank invested vast sums in undertakings such as building ports, railroads, and canals As western capital flowed into Africa, Asia, and Latin America, western governments became increasingly involved in these areas

22 Review Dynamo- a machine that generates electricity Interchangeable Parts- identical components that could be used in place of one another Assembly Line- workers add parts to a product that moves along a belt Stock- shares in their companies Corporation- business owned by many investors who buy shares of stock Cartel- an association to fix prices, set production quotas, or control markets Bessemer Process- Created a process to purify iron ore and turn it into steel Alfred Nobel- Swedish chemist who invented dynamite

23 Review (Cont.) Michael Faraday- English chemist created first simple electric motor dynamo Thomas Edison- American inventor created the light bulb Henry Ford- American manufacturer who first used the assembly line to make cars Orville and Wilbur Wright- American bicycle makers designed and flew first airplane at Kitty hawk, North Carolina Guglielmo Marconi- Italian inventor created the first radio, transmitted Morse code from Great Britain to Canada in 1901 Alfred Krupp- German businessman who created a monopoly in steel making industry

24 Review (Cont.) How did the Industrial Revolution spread in the 1800s? A British mechanic opened a factory in Belgium in Other European countries, as well as the United States and Japan, eventually learned British technology and created their own inventions How did technology help industry expand? Scientists developed new products and technologies. Their achievements included a process fro producing steel, the development of dynamite, and the creation of the dynamo for generating electricity. How did the need for capital lead to new business methods? To raise needed capital, large companies became corporations and sold shares of the business to investors.

25 Bibliography Produced/news/0/image.jpg Produced/news/0/image.jpg https://missmanganssciencesite.pbworks.com/f/radio_picture_king%255B1%255D.jpg Created by Ahria Golden “All Rights Reserved”


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