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Cognitive thought styles - 1. Social scientists have been less interested in static frame taxonomies as in the dynamic process of framing. But they too.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognitive thought styles - 1. Social scientists have been less interested in static frame taxonomies as in the dynamic process of framing. But they too."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognitive thought styles - 1

2 Social scientists have been less interested in static frame taxonomies as in the dynamic process of framing. But they too have their own categories for this process.

3 Douglas’ grid-group heuristic taxonomy of these frames (which she refers to as “thought styles”) is supported by other more recent insights from scholars like Richard Shweder, Jonathan Haidt, and Allan Fiske, working in the areas of domains of moral judgment and the negotiation of human relations.

4 Community vs. Society Personal freedom Social solidarity

5 Community vs. Society Personal freedom Social solidarity

6 Isolate – Alienation Hierarchist – Cooperation within structure Individualist – Individual competition Enclavist ( – Enclavist (communitarian) – Cooperation in dissent Increasing limits on personal freedom //Increasing solidarity Cognitive Clusters (Douglas)

7 Four cognitive types, or “thought styles.” “If anyone protests that there are really fifteen, five hundred, or two thousand [cultural] types, or six or eight dimensions, they mistake the exercise. Eleven thousand or a million would not be enough to cover the variety that is out there.” Douglas, Missing Persons, p. 101.

8 Hybridization can be seen at work within the scheme, as individuals and groups negotiate meaning in three or four categories at the same time, or within different situations (but still within the polarities of freedom/solidarity).

9 Social WelfareCorporate Welfare Privacy - bedroom Privacy - gun closet Hierarchist Individualist / Enclavist U.S Politics

10 Hierarchist – Cooperation within structure Individualist – Individual competition Diagonal of Power

11 Isolate – Alienation Enclavist – Cooperation in dissent Diagonal of Dissent

12 Isolate – Donkeys Used by others Unorganized labor Hierarchist – Wolves Pack hunters Organized labor / management Individualist – Hawks Lone operators Entrepreneurs Enclavist – Vultures Solidarity/individuality Sales reps, semi-skilled craftsmen Increasing limits on personal freedom //Increasing solidarityOrganizations

13 Isolates-Fatalists:Hierarchists-Balancers: Nature is Capricious Nature is Robust within Limits Individualists-Entrepreneurs:Enclavists-Protectors: Nature is Robust Nature is FragileEcology

14 The negotiated self Missing Persons, p. 109 The negotiated self Missing Persons, p. 109

15 Ethics of community Ethics of autonomy Ethics of divinity Increasing limits on personal freedom //Increasing solidarity Shweder - ethical categories

16 hierarchy / ingroup harm/ reciprocity purity Increasing limits on personal freedom //Increasing solidarity Haidt - domains of moral judgment

17 null set authority ranking market pricingcommunal sharing/ equality matching(?) Increasing limits on personal freedom //Increasing solidarity Fiske - negotiating human relations

18 Douglasindividualisthierarchstenclavist / communitarian isolate Shwederautonomycommunitydivinity Haidtharm / reciprocity hierarchy / ingroup purity Fiskemarket pricing authority ranking communal sharing / equality matching(?) null set

19 Prototypes affect/determine categories: Families for Douglas would fit more in the hierarchist category, though she would no doubt admit the family often shows enclavist tendencies as well. Fiske, on the other hand, uses the family as his prototypical example of the community sharing form of human relations (and would have to admit families display hierarchical elements).

20 George Lakoff also has referred to both family types described here. Lakoff labels them as “strict father” versus “nurturant parent” conceptual metaphors. Lakoff sees these conceptual metaphors as underlying conservative versus liberal politics in the U.S.

21 Time Orientation (Zimbardo) Memory TypesNegotiation of relations (Fiske- Pinker) PastEpisodic (I had dinner at an Italian restaurant last night- FB, twitter) Hierarchy (traditional cultures) PresentProcedural (how to ride a bike/drive a car-YouTube) Communality (kinship, purity) FutureSemantic (Paris is the capital of France- Wikipedia) Reciprocity (competitive business)

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