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ENLARGEMENT DG 1 EU ENLARGEMENT DG Enlargement Information Unit From Six to Fifteen and Beyond: an Historical Perspective Abridged by Joe Naumann UMSL.

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Presentation on theme: "ENLARGEMENT DG 1 EU ENLARGEMENT DG Enlargement Information Unit From Six to Fifteen and Beyond: an Historical Perspective Abridged by Joe Naumann UMSL."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENLARGEMENT DG 1 EU ENLARGEMENT DG Enlargement Information Unit From Six to Fifteen and Beyond: an Historical Perspective Abridged by Joe Naumann UMSL

2 ENLARGEMENT DG 2 Treaty of Rome 25 March, 1957 His Majesty the King of the Belgians, the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, the President of the French Republic, the President of the Italian Republic, Her Royal Highness the Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands, resolved by pooling their resources to preserve and strengthen peace and liberty and calling upon the other peoples of Europe who share their ideal to join in their efforts, have decided to create a European Community.

3 ENLARGEMENT DG 3 From Six To Fifteen 1957

4 ENLARGEMENT DG 4 From Six To Fifteen 1973

5 ENLARGEMENT DG 5 From Six To Fifteen 1981

6 ENLARGEMENT DG 6 From Six To Fifteen 1986

7 ENLARGEMENT DG 7 From Six To Fifteen 1995

8 ENLARGEMENT DG 8 From Six to Fifteen… and Beyond 2002

9 ENLARGEMENT DG 9 Tomorrow's Europe 13 December 2002

10 ENLARGEMENT DG 10 Treaty of the European Union (TEU) Article 49 of the TEU: Any European State which respects the principles set out in Article 6(1) may apply to become a member of the Union. Article 6 of the TEU: The Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States.

11 ENLARGEMENT DG 11 The Europe & Association Agreements CountryEuropeEuropeOfficial Agreement signedAgreement cameapplication for into forceEU Membership BulgariaMarch 1993February 1995December 1995 Czech Rep.October 1993February 1995January 1996 EstoniaJune 1995February 1998November 1995 HungaryDecember 1991February 1994March 1994 LatviaJune 1995February 1998October 1995 LithuaniaJune 1995February 1998December 1995 PolandDecember 1991February 1994April 1994 RomaniaFebruary 1993February 1995June 1995 SlovakiaOctober 1993February 1995June 1995 SloveniaJune 1996February 1999June 1996 CountryAssociationAssociationOfficial Agreement signedAgreement cameapplication for into forceEU Membership TurkeySeptember 1963December April 1987 MaltaDecember 1970April July 1990 CyprusDecember 1972June July 1990

12 ENLARGEMENT DG 12 The Copenhagen Criteria Political criteria The applicant country must have achieved stability of its institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities. Economic criteria It must have a functioning market economy, as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the EU. Criteria of the adoption of the acquis It must have the ability to take on the obligations related to of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.

13 ENLARGEMENT DG 13 Recommendations of the Commission Based on the following conclusions: None of the candidates fully satisfy all the criteria at the present time; Nine countries satisfy the political conditions; Certain countries have made sufficient progress towards satisfying the economic conditions; The Commission considers that Hungary, Poland, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Cyprus could be in a position to satisfy all the conditions of membership in the medium-term. The Commission recommends the Council to open negotiations with these countries. 15 July 1997

14 ENLARGEMENT DG 14 The New Europe: Architecture Europe and Association Agreements EEA Treaty Candidate Countries EFTA Countries The European Union 4 liberties: Free movement of persons goods services captial Trade Environment Culture Political consultation Future membership Single Market Single Currency Political Union Economic & Social Cohesion

15 ENLARGEMENT DG 15 The New Europe: Integration EU EFTA EU Applicants

16 ENLARGEMENT DG 16 The New Europe: Security Member of EU and NATO Member of EU but not NATO NATO partners not in the EU Future EU Member also in NATO Future EU Member & partner of NATO NATO Members not in the EU

17 ENLARGEMENT DG 17 The New Europe: Schengen Countries in the Schengen area, not EU Member States and not Candidate Countries EU Member States not in the Schengen area Candidate Countries EU Member States in the Schengen area

18 ENLARGEMENT DG 18 Berlin European Council The Presidency Conclusions declared that: In light of the outcome on Agenda 2000, the European Council wishes to send a message of reassurance to the countries negotiating for accession. Enlargement remains an historic priority for the European Union. The accession negotiations will continue each in accordance with its own rhythm and as rapidly as possible. It calls upon the Council and the Commission to ensure that the pace of the negotiations is maintained accordingly March 1999

19 ENLARGEMENT DG 19 Accession Partnerships Provides an assessment of the priority areas in which the candidate country needs to make progress in order to prepare for accession; Outlines the ways in which the Phare Programme will support such accession preparations; Mobilises all forms of EU support within a single framework for each country; Contains precise commitments on the part of the candidate countries relating in particular to democracy, macroeconomic stabilisation, industrial restructuring, nuclear safety and the adoption of the acquis. Is complemented by National Programmes for the Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA). An Accession Partnership has been drawn up for each candidate country. This:

20 ENLARGEMENT DG 20 Helsinki European Council The European Council, meeting in Helsinki, decided in particular to: 1.Launch official negotiations in February 2000 with Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and Slovakia; 2.Consider each applicant on its own merits during the negotiations. This principle will apply both to the opening and the conduct of negotiations; 3.Allow applicant countries that have just started the negotiating process to catch up with the countries already in negotiations within a reasonable time, provided they have made sufficient progress with their preparations; 4.Ensure that progress in negotiations goes hand in hand with progress in incorporating the acquis into legislation and implementing it in practice. Impact on accession December 1999

21 ENLARGEMENT DG 21 Gothenburg European Council The enlargement process is irreversible; The roadmap is the framework for the successful completion of the enlargement negotiations; Completing negotiations by the end of 2002 for those candidate countries that are ready should be possible. The objective is that they should participate in the European Parliament elections of 2004 as members; Good progress has been made in implementing the pre- accession strategy for Turkey, including an enhanced political dialogue. However, in a number of areas such as human rights, further progress is needed June 2001 The European Council, meeting in Gothenburg, reached the following conclusion, confirming the breakthroughs in the negotiations on enlargement:

22 ENLARGEMENT DG 22 “The historic process launched in Copenhagen in 1993 to overcome the divisions throughout our continent is about to bear fruit …. … the biggest ever enlargement of the Union is now within reach”. Brussels European Council October 2002

23 ENLARGEMENT DG 23 Copenhagen European Council “For the first time in history Europe will become one because unification is the free will of its people. … The deal that we have reached here in Copenhagen represents EU at its best: leadership, solidarity and determination”. R. Prodi December 2002

24 ENLARGEMENT DG 24 Accession negotiations: Chapters 1. Free movement of goods 2. Freedom of movement for persons 3. Freedom to provide services 4. Free movement of capital 5. Company law 6. Competition policy 7. Agriculture 8. Fisheries 9. Transport policy 10. Taxation 11. Economic and monetary union 12. Statistics 13. Social policy and employment 14. Energy 15. Industrial policy 16. Small and medium-sized enterprises 17. Science and research 18. Education and training 19. Telecommunications and IT 20. Culture and audiovisual policy 21. Regional policy and structural instruments 22. Environment 23. Consumers and health protection 24. Justice and home affairs 25. Customs union 26. External relations 27. Common foreign and security policy 28. Financial control 29. Financial and budgetary provisions 30. Institutions 31. Other

25 ENLARGEMENT DG 25 Accession negotiations: Procedure Submission of negotiating positions by candidate country, chapter by chapter, following screening. The Commission (DG Enlargement in consultation with relevant "sectoral" DGs) prepares a draft common position (for each chapter), and submits it to the Council (meeting as an intergovernmental conference). The Council unanimously adopts a common position and unanimously decides to open the negotiations on the chapter. Common positions may be altered in the course of negotiations if the applicants submit fresh information or agree to withdraw a request for a transitional period. Chapter provisionally closed following unanimous decision by the intergovernmental conference. Chapters definitively closed only when all negotiations with the candidate country are concluded.

26 ENLARGEMENT DG 26 Accession negotiations: Roadmap First half of 2001: opening of first chapters: internal market related matters, social matters and environment. Second half of 2001: provisional closure for chapters needing a longer preparation period in the second semester: competition, transport, energy, taxation, customs union, agriculture, justice and home affairs, financial control, Schengen. First half of 2002: provisional closure of remaining chapters and agreement on transitional measures: agriculture (remaining questions), regional policy and structural instruments, financial and budgetary provisions, institutions, other matters.

27 ENLARGEMENT DG 27 Towards an Enlarged Europe 9 October Regular Reports: The Commission recommends conclusion of negotiations with ten candidate countries: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. These countries will be ready for membership at the beginning of : indicative date for accession chosen by Bulgaria and Romania. Strengthening support for Turkey’s pre-accession preparations.

28 ENLARGEMENT DG 28 The Future Member States Next steps for the candidate countries: Preparations for membership will continue and be monitored by the Commission. Special effort required in the following sectors: customs, agriculture, regional policy, financial control. A monitoring report will be issued by the Commission 6 months before envisaged date of accession. Spring 2003: signing of the Accession Treaty. A specific safeguard clause shoud be introduced in the Accession Treaty to allow the Commission to take measures in case of problems. 380 million euros Institution Building Facility to support judicial reform and administrative improvements in the new Member States.

29 ENLARGEMENT DG 29 Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey Next steps for Bulgaria and Romania: 2007: target date to conclude negotiations. Detailed roadmaps to complete preparations. Judicial and administrative reform. Next steps for Turkey: to fully meet the political criterion. Enhanced support from the EU Increased financial assistance from 2004.

30 ENLARGEMENT DG 30 Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council The Overall Financial Agreement: €41 billion in commitments agreed for ; New Member States will benefit from the EU funds for the whole of 2004; Reduction by one-third of new Member States' contributions to EC budget in Structural actions: €22 billion agreed for , of which one third for the Cohesion Fund and two thirds for structural Funds. Agriculture: Progressive introduction of direct payment to new Member States farmers; €5 billion for rural development in Financial issues (1) December 2002

31 ENLARGEMENT DG 31 Financial issues (2) Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council Internal policies: €2.6 billion extra funds available to new Member States to participate in the EC internal policies programmes; Creation of a new Schengen facility (€850 million); €380 million for a transitional facility to support institution building in new Member States; €105 million to support nuclear safety in Lithuania and Slovakia. Lump-sum payment to new Member States: €2.4 billion as cash-flow lump sum, to prevent cash-flow difficulties in the first years of accession; Budgetary compensation payments available to ensure no new Member States would be worse off on accession compared to 2003 (Czech Republic, Slovenia, Malta and Cyprus) December 2002

32 ENLARGEMENT DG 32 Accession: Financial Framework Maximum enlargement-related appropriations for commitments (Million €) for 10 new Member States Agriculture Structural actions after capping Internal policies and additional transitional expenditure Administration Total maximum commitment appropriations Total commitment appropriation (Berlin 1999 scenario) Payment appropriations (Enlargement) Payment appropriations (Berlin 1999 scenario) Financial framework for Enlargement :

33 ENLARGEMENT DG 33 The Phare Programme Priorities for Action Institution building The candidate countries will be helped to strengthen their democratic institutions and their public administration in order to facilitate their introduction of the acquis and to ensure that they have the administrative and judicial structures to apply the acquis effectively (30% of the budget). Financing of investment Phare co-finances investment in (i) the regulatory infrastructure needed to ensure compliance with the acquis and (ii) in economic and social cohesion through measures similar to those supported in Member States through EU structural funds (70% of the budget).

34 ENLARGEMENT DG 34 European Union: the biggest trading partner with candidate countries in 2001 EU 15 Trade with candidate countries in 2001 (million €)

35 ENLARGEMENT DG 35 EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries in 2001 (per country) EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries (Share by Country) in 2001

36 ENLARGEMENT DG 36 EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries in 2001 (per sector) EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries (Share by Sector) in 2001

37 ENLARGEMENT DG 37 EU 15 Imports from candidate countries in 2001 (per country) EU 15 Imports from candidate countries (Share by Country) in 2001

38 ENLARGEMENT DG 38 EU 15 Imports from candidate countries in 2001 (per sector) EU 15 Imports from candidate countries (Share by Sector) in 2001

39 ENLARGEMENT DG 39 Candidate countries GDP in 1999 & 2000 Source: Eurostat PPP: Purchase Power Parity GDP at PPP GDP in € (bn) 1999 GDP in € (bn) 2000 GDP/Pers in PPS € 1999 GDP/Pers 2000 % EU Average 1999 % EU Average 2000 Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Rep Estonia Hungary Latvia Lithuania Malta Poland Romania Slovak Rep Slovenia Turkey CC EU In % EU EU average 15.8%16%35%

40 ENLARGEMENT DG 40 Communication Strategy for Enlargement: Objectives Adopted by the Commission in May 2000, the objectives of the Communication Strategy are: In Member States Communicating the reasons for enlargement; Promoting dialogue and debate in society; Information about candidate countries. In Candidate Countries Improving of public knowledge and understanding; Explaining of implications of accession; Explaining of preparation for membership.

41 ENLARGEMENT DG 41 Communication Strategy for Enlargement: Budget Budget per country and for the Central Services (in € million) *: Member States **: Central services Country Total CEECs: Turkey: Malta: Cyprus: Sub-total: MS*: CS**: TOTAL

42 ENLARGEMENT DG 42 Expanded EU, 2004

43 ENLARGEMENT DG 43 New EU Constitution Soundly defeated in France Soundly defeated in the Netherlands Significance: –A major setback in further unification –Not an insurmountable obstacle – it will probably take longer to achieve than had originally hoped and planned for.

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