Presentation on theme: "EU ENLARGEMENT Abridged by Joe Naumann UMSL"— Presentation transcript:
1EU ENLARGEMENT Abridged by Joe Naumann UMSL From Six to Fifteen and Beyond:an Historical PerspectiveAbridged by Joe NaumannUMSLDG Enlargement Information Unit
2Treaty of Rome25 March, 1957His Majesty the King of the Belgians, the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, the President of the French Republic, the President of the Italian Republic, Her Royal Highness the Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands,resolved by pooling their resources to preserve and strengthen peace and liberty and calling upon the other peoples of Europe who share their ideal to join in their efforts,have decided to create a European Community.
10Treaty of the European Union (TEU) Article 49 of the TEU: Any European State which respects the principles set out in Article 6(1) may apply to become a member of the Union.Article 6 of the TEU: The Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States.
11The Europe & Association Agreements Country Europe Europe OfficialAgreement signed Agreement came application forinto force EU MembershipBulgaria March 1993 February 1995 December 1995Czech Rep. October 1993 February 1995 January 1996Estonia June 1995 February 1998 November 1995Hungary December 1991 February 1994 March 1994Latvia June 1995 February 1998 October 1995Lithuania June 1995 February 1998 December 1995Poland December 1991 February 1994 April 1994Romania February 1993 February 1995 June 1995Slovakia October 1993 February 1995 June 1995Slovenia June 1996 February 1999 June 1996Country Association Association OfficialTurkey September 1963 December April 1987Malta December 1970 April July 1990Cyprus December 1972 June July 1990
12The Copenhagen Criteria Political criteria The applicant country must have achieved stability of its institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities.Economic criteria It must have a functioning market economy, as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the EU.Criteria of the adoption of the acquis It must have the ability to take on the obligations related to of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.
13Recommendations of the Commission 15 July 1997Based on the following conclusions:None of the candidates fully satisfy all the criteria at the present time;Nine countries satisfy the political conditions;Certain countries have made sufficient progress towards satisfying the economic conditions;The Commission considers that Hungary, Poland, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Cyprus could be in a position to satisfy all the conditions of membership in the medium-term.The Commission recommends the Council to open negotiations with these countries.
14The New Europe: Architecture The European Union4 liberties: Free movement ofpersonsgoodsservicescaptialSingle MarketSingle CurrencyPolitical UnionEconomic & Social CohesionTradeEnvironmentCulturePolitical consultationFuture membershipEFTA CountriesCandidate CountriesEEA TreatyEurope and Association Agreements
16The New Europe: Security Member of EU and NATOMember of EU but not NATOFuture EU Member also in NATOFuture EU Member & partner of NATONATO Members not in the EUNATO partners not in the EU
17The New Europe: Schengen EU Member States in the Schengen areaEU Member States not in the Schengen areaCandidate CountriesCountries in the Schengen area, not EU Member States and not Candidate Countries
18Berlin European Council 24-25 March 1999The Presidency Conclusions declared that:In light of the outcome on Agenda 2000, the European Council wishes to send a message of reassurance to the countries negotiating for accession. Enlargement remains an historic priority for the European Union. The accession negotiations will continue each in accordance with its own rhythm and as rapidly as possible. It calls upon the Council and the Commission to ensure that the pace of the negotiations is maintained accordingly.
19Accession Partnerships An Accession Partnership has been drawn up for each candidate country. This:Provides an assessment of the priority areas in which the candidate country needs to make progress in order to prepare for accession;Outlines the ways in which the Phare Programme will support such accession preparations;Mobilises all forms of EU support within a single framework for each country;Contains precise commitments on the part of the candidate countries relating in particular to democracy, macroeconomic stabilisation, industrial restructuring, nuclear safety and the adoption of the acquis.Is complemented by National Programmes for the Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA).
20Helsinki European Council 10-11 December 1999Impact on accessionThe European Council, meeting in Helsinki, decided in particular to:Launch official negotiations in February 2000 with Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and Slovakia;Consider each applicant on its own merits during the negotiations. This principle will apply both to the opening and the conduct of negotiations;Allow applicant countries that have just started the negotiating process to catch up with the countries already in negotiations within a reasonable time, provided they have made sufficient progress with their preparations;Ensure that progress in negotiations goes hand in hand with progress in incorporating the acquis into legislation and implementing it in practice.
21Gothenburg European Council 15-16 June 2001The European Council, meeting in Gothenburg, reached the following conclusion, confirming the breakthroughs in the negotiations on enlargement:The enlargement process is irreversible;The roadmap is the framework for the successful completion of the enlargement negotiations;Completing negotiations by the end of 2002 for those candidate countries that are ready should be possible. The objective is that they should participate in the European Parliament elections of 2004 as members;Good progress has been made in implementing the pre-accession strategy for Turkey, including an enhanced political dialogue. However, in a number of areas such as human rights, further progress is needed.
22Brussels European Council 24-25 October 2002“The historic process launched in Copenhagen in 1993 to overcome the divisions throughout our continent is about to bear fruit ….… the biggest ever enlargement of the Union is now within reach”.
23Copenhagen European Council 12-13 December 2002“For the first time in history Europe will become one because unification is the free will of its people.… The deal that we have reached here in Copenhagen represents EU at its best: leadership, solidarity and determination”.R. Prodi
24Accession negotiations: Chapters 1. Free movement of goods2. Freedom of movement for persons3. Freedom to provide services4. Free movement of capital5. Company law6. Competition policy7. Agriculture8. Fisheries9. Transport policy10. Taxation11. Economic and monetary union12. Statistics13. Social policy and employment14. Energy15. Industrial policy16. Small and medium-sizedenterprises17. Science and research18. Education and training19. Telecommunications and IT20. Culture and audiovisual policy21. Regional policy and structural instruments22. Environment23. Consumers and health protection24. Justice and home affairs25. Customs union26. External relations27. Common foreign and security policy28. Financial control29. Financial and budgetary provisions30. Institutions31. Other
25Accession negotiations: Procedure Submission of negotiating positions by candidate country, chapter by chapter, following screening.The Commission (DG Enlargement in consultation with relevant "sectoral" DGs) prepares a draft common position (for each chapter), and submits it to the Council (meeting as an intergovernmental conference).The Council unanimously adopts a common position and unanimously decides to open the negotiations on the chapter.Common positions may be altered in the course of negotiations if the applicants submit fresh information or agree to withdraw a request for a transitional period.Chapter provisionally closed following unanimous decision by the intergovernmental conference. Chapters definitively closed only when all negotiations with the candidate country are concluded.
26Accession negotiations: Roadmap First half of 2001: opening of first chapters: internal market related matters, social matters and environment.Second half of 2001: provisional closure for chapters needing a longer preparation period in the second semester: competition, transport, energy, taxation, customs union, agriculture, justice and home affairs, financial control, Schengen.First half of 2002: provisional closure of remaining chapters and agreement on transitional measures: agriculture (remaining questions), regional policy and structural instruments, financial and budgetary provisions, institutions, other matters.
27Towards an Enlarged Europe 9 October Regular Reports:The Commission recommends conclusion of negotiations with ten candidate countries: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia.These countries will be ready for membership at the beginning of 2004.2007: indicative date for accession chosen by Bulgaria and Romania.Strengthening support for Turkey’s pre-accession preparations.
28The Future Member States Next steps for the candidate countries:Preparations for membership will continue and be monitored by the Commission.Special effort required in the following sectors: customs, agriculture, regional policy, financial control.A monitoring report will be issued by the Commission 6 months before envisaged date of accession.Spring 2003: signing of the Accession Treaty.A specific safeguard clause shoud be introduced in the Accession Treaty to allow the Commission to take measures in case of problems.380 million euros Institution Building Facility to support judicial reform and administrative improvements in the new Member States.
29Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey Next steps for Bulgaria and Romania:2007: target date to conclude negotiations.Detailed roadmaps to complete preparations.Judicial and administrative reform.Next steps for Turkey:to fully meet the political criterion.Enhanced support from the EUIncreased financial assistance from 2004.
30Financial issues (1) Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council 12-13 December 2002Conclusions of the Copenhagen European CouncilThe Overall Financial Agreement:€41 billion in commitments agreed for ;New Member States will benefit from the EU funds for the whole of 2004;Reduction by one-third of new Member States' contributions to EC budget in 2004.Structural actions:€22 billion agreed for , of which one third for the Cohesion Fund and two thirds for structural Funds.Agriculture:Progressive introduction of direct payment to new Member States farmers;€5 billion for rural development in
31Financial issues (2) Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council 12-13 December 2002Conclusions of the Copenhagen European CouncilInternal policies:€2.6 billion extra funds available to new Member States to participate in the EC internal policies programmes;Creation of a new Schengen facility (€850 million);€380 million for a transitional facility to support institution building in new Member States;€105 million to support nuclear safety in Lithuania and Slovakia.Lump-sum payment to new Member States:€2.4 billion as cash-flow lump sum, to prevent cash-flow difficulties in the first years of accession;Budgetary compensation payments available to ensure no new Member States would be worse off on accession compared to 2003 (Czech Republic, Slovenia, Malta and Cyprus).
32Accession: Financial Framework Financial framework for Enlargement :Maximum enlargement-related appropriations for commitments (Million €) for 10 new Member States200420052006Agriculture1 8973 7474 147Structural actions after capping6 0956 9408 812Internal policies and additional transitional expenditure1 4211 3761 351Administration503558612Total maximum commitment appropriations9 95212 65714 958Total commitment appropriation (Berlin 1999 scenario)11 61014 20016 780Payment appropriations (Enlargement)5 69610 49311 840Payment appropriations (Berlin 1999 scenario)8 89011 44014 220
33The Phare Programme Priorities for Action Institution building The candidate countries will be helped to strengthen their democratic institutions and their public administration in order to facilitate their introduction of the acquis and to ensure that they have the administrative and judicial structures to apply the acquis effectively (30% of the budget).Financing of investment Phare co-finances investment in (i) the regulatory infrastructure needed to ensure compliance with the acquis and (ii) in economic and social cohesion through measures similar to those supported in Member States through EU structural funds (70% of the budget).
34European Union: the biggest trading partner with candidate countries in 2001 EU 15 Trade with candidate countries in 2001 (million €)
35EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries in 2001 (per country) EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries (Share by Country) in 2001
36EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries in 2001 (per sector) EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries (Share by Sector) in 2001
37EU 15 Imports from candidate countries in 2001 (per country) EU 15 Imports from candidate countries (Share by Country) in 2001
38EU 15 Imports from candidate countries in 2001 (per sector) EU 15 Imports from candidate countries (Share by Sector) in 2001
39Candidate countries GDP in 1999 & 2000 GDP at PPPGDP in € (bn) 1999GDP in € (bn) 2000GDP/Pers in PPS € 1999GDP/Pers 2000% EU Average 1999% EU Average 2000Bulgaria40.644.34 9005 40024Cyprus11.612.417 50018 50082Czech Rep127.2135.112 40013 20058Estonia11.012.17 7008 4003637Hungary108.0117.010 70011 7005152Latvia14.215.65 9006 6002829Lithuania22.824.36 200Malta4.34.611 10011 90053Poland317.4340.28 2008 80039Romania129.4135.45 8006 00027Slovak Rep55.458.310 30010 80048Slovenia29.732.115 00016 1007172Turkey392.6433.36 1006 400CC-137 4007 90035EU-1521 20022 500100In % EU EU average15.8%16%35%Source: Eurostat PPP: Purchase Power Parity
40Communication Strategy for Enlargement: Objectives Adopted by the Commission in May 2000, the objectives of the Communication Strategy are:In Member StatesCommunicating the reasons for enlargement;Promoting dialogue and debate in society;Information about candidate countries.In Candidate CountriesImproving of public knowledge and understanding;Explaining of implications of accession;Explaining of preparation for membership.
41Communication Strategy for Enlargement: Budget Budget per country and for the Central Services (in € million)Country2000200120022003200420052006TotalCEECs: Turkey: Malta: Cyprus: Sub-total:MS*:0.55.49.7513.013.56.057.9CS**:18.104.22.1689.7TOTAL818.624.4529.2021.4515.85146.75*: Member States**: Central services
43New EU Constitution -2005 Soundly defeated in France Soundly defeated in the NetherlandsSignificance:A major setback in further unificationNot an insurmountable obstacle – it will probably take longer to achieve than had originally hoped and planned for.