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EU ENLARGEMENT Abridged by Joe Naumann UMSL

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1 EU ENLARGEMENT Abridged by Joe Naumann UMSL
From Six to Fifteen and Beyond: an Historical Perspective Abridged by Joe Naumann UMSL DG Enlargement Information Unit

2 Treaty of Rome 25 March, 1957 His Majesty the King of the Belgians, the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, the President of the French Republic, the President of the Italian Republic, Her Royal Highness the Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands, resolved by pooling their resources to preserve and strengthen peace and liberty and calling upon the other peoples of Europe who share their ideal to join in their efforts, have decided to create a European Community.

3 From Six To Fifteen 1957

4 From Six To Fifteen 1973

5 From Six To Fifteen 1981

6 From Six To Fifteen 1986

7 From Six To Fifteen 1995

8 From Six to Fifteen… and Beyond

9 Tomorrow's Europe 13 December 2002

10 Treaty of the European Union (TEU)
Article 49 of the TEU: Any European State which respects the principles set out in Article 6(1) may apply to become a member of the Union. Article 6 of the TEU: The Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States.

11 The Europe & Association Agreements
Country Europe Europe Official Agreement signed Agreement came application for into force EU Membership Bulgaria March 1993 February 1995 December 1995 Czech Rep. October 1993 February 1995 January 1996 Estonia June 1995 February 1998 November 1995 Hungary December 1991 February 1994 March 1994 Latvia June 1995 February 1998 October 1995 Lithuania June 1995 February 1998 December 1995 Poland December 1991 February 1994 April 1994 Romania February 1993 February 1995 June 1995 Slovakia October 1993 February 1995 June 1995 Slovenia June 1996 February 1999 June 1996 Country Association Association Official Turkey September 1963 December April 1987 Malta December 1970 April July 1990 Cyprus December 1972 June July 1990

12 The Copenhagen Criteria
Political criteria The applicant country must have achieved stability of its institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities. Economic criteria It must have a functioning market economy, as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the EU. Criteria of the adoption of the acquis It must have the ability to take on the obligations related to of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.

13 Recommendations of the Commission
15 July 1997 Based on the following conclusions: None of the candidates fully satisfy all the criteria at the present time; Nine countries satisfy the political conditions; Certain countries have made sufficient progress towards satisfying the economic conditions; The Commission considers that Hungary, Poland, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Cyprus could be in a position to satisfy all the conditions of membership in the medium-term. The Commission recommends the Council to open negotiations with these countries.

14 The New Europe: Architecture
The European Union 4 liberties: Free movement of persons goods services captial Single Market Single Currency Political Union Economic & Social Cohesion Trade Environment Culture Political consultation Future membership EFTA Countries Candidate Countries EEA Treaty Europe and Association Agreements

15 The New Europe: Integration
EFTA EU Applicants

16 The New Europe: Security
Member of EU and NATO Member of EU but not NATO Future EU Member also in NATO Future EU Member & partner of NATO NATO Members not in the EU NATO partners not in the EU

17 The New Europe: Schengen
EU Member States in the Schengen area EU Member States not in the Schengen area Candidate Countries Countries in the Schengen area, not EU Member States and not Candidate Countries

18 Berlin European Council
24-25 March 1999 The Presidency Conclusions declared that: In light of the outcome on Agenda 2000, the European Council wishes to send a message of reassurance to the countries negotiating for accession. Enlargement remains an historic priority for the European Union. The accession negotiations will continue each in accordance with its own rhythm and as rapidly as possible. It calls upon the Council and the Commission to ensure that the pace of the negotiations is maintained accordingly.

19 Accession Partnerships
An Accession Partnership has been drawn up for each candidate country. This: Provides an assessment of the priority areas in which the candidate country needs to make progress in order to prepare for accession; Outlines the ways in which the Phare Programme will support such accession preparations; Mobilises all forms of EU support within a single framework for each country; Contains precise commitments on the part of the candidate countries relating in particular to democracy, macroeconomic stabilisation, industrial restructuring, nuclear safety and the adoption of the acquis. Is complemented by National Programmes for the Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA).

20 Helsinki European Council
10-11 December 1999 Impact on accession The European Council, meeting in Helsinki, decided in particular to: Launch official negotiations in February 2000 with Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and Slovakia; Consider each applicant on its own merits during the negotiations. This principle will apply both to the opening and the conduct of negotiations; Allow applicant countries that have just started the negotiating process to catch up with the countries already in negotiations within a reasonable time, provided they have made sufficient progress with their preparations; Ensure that progress in negotiations goes hand in hand with progress in incorporating the acquis into legislation and implementing it in practice.

21 Gothenburg European Council
15-16 June 2001 The European Council, meeting in Gothenburg, reached the following conclusion, confirming the breakthroughs in the negotiations on enlargement: The enlargement process is irreversible; The roadmap is the framework for the successful completion of the enlargement negotiations; Completing negotiations by the end of 2002 for those candidate countries that are ready should be possible. The objective is that they should participate in the European Parliament elections of 2004 as members; Good progress has been made in implementing the pre-accession strategy for Turkey, including an enhanced political dialogue. However, in a number of areas such as human rights, further progress is needed.

22 Brussels European Council
24-25 October 2002 “The historic process launched in Copenhagen in 1993 to overcome the divisions throughout our continent is about to bear fruit …. … the biggest ever enlargement of the Union is now within reach”.

23 Copenhagen European Council
12-13 December 2002 “For the first time in history Europe will become one because unification is the free will of its people. … The deal that we have reached here in Copenhagen represents EU at its best: leadership, solidarity and determination”. R. Prodi

24 Accession negotiations: Chapters
1. Free movement of goods 2. Freedom of movement for persons 3. Freedom to provide services 4. Free movement of capital 5. Company law 6. Competition policy 7. Agriculture 8. Fisheries 9. Transport policy 10. Taxation 11. Economic and monetary union 12. Statistics 13. Social policy and employment 14. Energy 15. Industrial policy 16. Small and medium-sized enterprises 17. Science and research 18. Education and training 19. Telecommunications and IT 20. Culture and audiovisual policy 21. Regional policy and structural instruments 22. Environment 23. Consumers and health protection 24. Justice and home affairs 25. Customs union 26. External relations 27. Common foreign and security policy 28. Financial control 29. Financial and budgetary provisions 30. Institutions 31. Other

25 Accession negotiations: Procedure
Submission of negotiating positions by candidate country, chapter by chapter, following screening. The Commission (DG Enlargement in consultation with relevant "sectoral" DGs) prepares a draft common position (for each chapter), and submits it to the Council (meeting as an intergovernmental conference). The Council unanimously adopts a common position and unanimously decides to open the negotiations on the chapter. Common positions may be altered in the course of negotiations if the applicants submit fresh information or agree to withdraw a request for a transitional period. Chapter provisionally closed following unanimous decision by the intergovernmental conference. Chapters definitively closed only when all negotiations with the candidate country are concluded.

26 Accession negotiations: Roadmap
First half of 2001: opening of first chapters: internal market related matters, social matters and environment. Second half of 2001: provisional closure for chapters needing a longer preparation period in the second semester: competition, transport, energy, taxation, customs union, agriculture, justice and home affairs, financial control, Schengen. First half of 2002: provisional closure of remaining chapters and agreement on transitional measures: agriculture (remaining questions), regional policy and structural instruments, financial and budgetary provisions, institutions, other matters.

27 Towards an Enlarged Europe
9 October Regular Reports: The Commission recommends conclusion of negotiations with ten candidate countries: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. These countries will be ready for membership at the beginning of 2004. 2007: indicative date for accession chosen by Bulgaria and Romania. Strengthening support for Turkey’s pre-accession preparations.

28 The Future Member States
Next steps for the candidate countries: Preparations for membership will continue and be monitored by the Commission. Special effort required in the following sectors: customs, agriculture, regional policy, financial control. A monitoring report will be issued by the Commission 6 months before envisaged date of accession. Spring 2003: signing of the Accession Treaty. A specific safeguard clause shoud be introduced in the Accession Treaty to allow the Commission to take measures in case of problems. 380 million euros Institution Building Facility to support judicial reform and administrative improvements in the new Member States.

29 Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey
Next steps for Bulgaria and Romania: 2007: target date to conclude negotiations. Detailed roadmaps to complete preparations. Judicial and administrative reform. Next steps for Turkey: to fully meet the political criterion. Enhanced support from the EU Increased financial assistance from 2004.

30 Financial issues (1) Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council
12-13 December 2002 Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council The Overall Financial Agreement: €41 billion in commitments agreed for ; New Member States will benefit from the EU funds for the whole of 2004; Reduction by one-third of new Member States' contributions to EC budget in 2004. Structural actions: €22 billion agreed for , of which one third for the Cohesion Fund and two thirds for structural Funds. Agriculture: Progressive introduction of direct payment to new Member States farmers; €5 billion for rural development in

31 Financial issues (2) Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council
12-13 December 2002 Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council Internal policies: €2.6 billion extra funds available to new Member States to participate in the EC internal policies programmes; Creation of a new Schengen facility (€850 million); €380 million for a transitional facility to support institution building in new Member States; €105 million to support nuclear safety in Lithuania and Slovakia. Lump-sum payment to new Member States: €2.4 billion as cash-flow lump sum, to prevent cash-flow difficulties in the first years of accession; Budgetary compensation payments available to ensure no new Member States would be worse off on accession compared to 2003 (Czech Republic, Slovenia, Malta and Cyprus).

32 Accession: Financial Framework
Financial framework for Enlargement : Maximum enlargement-related appropriations for commitments (Million €) for 10 new Member States 2004 2005 2006 Agriculture 1 897 3 747 4 147 Structural actions after capping 6 095 6 940 8 812 Internal policies and additional transitional expenditure 1 421 1 376 1 351 Administration 503 558 612 Total maximum commitment appropriations 9 952 12 657 14 958 Total commitment appropriation (Berlin 1999 scenario) 11 610 14 200 16 780 Payment appropriations (Enlargement) 5 696 10 493 11 840 Payment appropriations (Berlin 1999 scenario) 8 890 11 440 14 220

33 The Phare Programme Priorities for Action
Institution building The candidate countries will be helped to strengthen their democratic institutions and their public administration in order to facilitate their introduction of the acquis and to ensure that they have the administrative and judicial structures to apply the acquis effectively (30% of the budget). Financing of investment Phare co-finances investment in (i) the regulatory infrastructure needed to ensure compliance with the acquis and (ii) in economic and social cohesion through measures similar to those supported in Member States through EU structural funds (70% of the budget).

34 European Union: the biggest trading partner with candidate countries in 2001
EU 15 Trade with candidate countries in 2001 (million €)

35 EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries in 2001 (per country)
EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries (Share by Country) in 2001

36 EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries in 2001 (per sector)
EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries (Share by Sector) in 2001

37 EU 15 Imports from candidate countries in 2001 (per country)
EU 15 Imports from candidate countries (Share by Country) in 2001

38 EU 15 Imports from candidate countries in 2001 (per sector)
EU 15 Imports from candidate countries (Share by Sector) in 2001

39 Candidate countries GDP in 1999 & 2000
GDP at PPP GDP in € (bn) 1999 GDP in € (bn) 2000 GDP/Pers in PPS € 1999 GDP/Pers 2000 % EU Average 1999 % EU Average 2000 Bulgaria 40.6 44.3 4 900 5 400 24 Cyprus 11.6 12.4 17 500 18 500 82 Czech Rep 127.2 135.1 12 400 13 200 58 Estonia 11.0 12.1 7 700 8 400 36 37 Hungary 108.0 117.0 10 700 11 700 51 52 Latvia 14.2 15.6 5 900 6 600 28 29 Lithuania 22.8 24.3 6 200 Malta 4.3 4.6 11 100 11 900 53 Poland 317.4 340.2 8 200 8 800 39 Romania 129.4 135.4 5 800 6 000 27 Slovak Rep 55.4 58.3 10 300 10 800 48 Slovenia 29.7 32.1 15 000 16 100 71 72 Turkey 392.6 433.3 6 100 6 400 CC-13 7 400 7 900 35 EU-15 21 200 22 500 100 In % EU EU average 15.8% 16% 35% Source: Eurostat PPP: Purchase Power Parity

40 Communication Strategy for Enlargement: Objectives
Adopted by the Commission in May 2000, the objectives of the Communication Strategy are: In Member States Communicating the reasons for enlargement; Promoting dialogue and debate in society; Information about candidate countries. In Candidate Countries Improving of public knowledge and understanding; Explaining of implications of accession; Explaining of preparation for membership.

41 Communication Strategy for Enlargement: Budget
Budget per country and for the Central Services (in € million) Country 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Total CEECs: Turkey: Malta: Cyprus: Sub-total: MS*: 0.5 5.4 9.75 13.0 13.5 6.0 57.9 CS**: 2.5 3.7 4.7 29.7 TOTAL 8 18.6 24.45 29.20 21.45 15.85 146.75 *: Member States **: Central services

42 Expanded EU, 2004

43 New EU Constitution -2005 Soundly defeated in France
Soundly defeated in the Netherlands Significance: A major setback in further unification Not an insurmountable obstacle – it will probably take longer to achieve than had originally hoped and planned for.

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