Presentation on theme: "LET’S RECAP WHAT WE HAVE DISCUSSED Congratulations on finishing this course. We hope that you will now be able to use this tools to your advantage and."— Presentation transcript:
LET’S RECAP WHAT WE HAVE DISCUSSED Congratulations on finishing this course. We hope that you will now be able to use this tools to your advantage and implement some techniques that you have learned during this time. Here is a summary of what we have discussed. Good Luck in growing your business! LearnEx Education
You must read. You must write. You should want to write. You need a feedback system to judge how you are doing, to know if your writing works. Good writing must be clear, concise, complete, and correct. Lesson one: Becoming a Good Writer
Lesson Two: The Rules of Writing 1.Use familiar words 2.Prefer short, simple words 3.Use concrete words 4.Prefer active to passive verbs 5.Avoid camouflaged verbs 6.Arrange sentences for emphasis and clarity 7.Keep sentences short 8.Ensure modifying words and phrases relate to nouns and pronouns 9.Use words economically
Lesson Three: The Readability Index 1.Mark out samples of 100 words each. 2.Divide the number of words in all the samples by the number of sentences. This will give you the average sentence length. 3.Count the number of words of three or more syllables in each 100 words. Don’t count proper or words which are combinations of short, easy words. 4.Add the average sentence length and the number of hard words per hundred. 5.Multiply the sum by 0.4. The resulting number corresponds to the grade-level reading ability.
Lesson Three: The Readability Index The Cognoman of Crane was not inapplicable to this person. He was tall but exceedingly lank with narrow shoulders, long arms and legs, hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves, feet that might have served for shovels, and his whole frame hung most loosely together. His head was small and flat at the top, with huge ears, green glassy eyes, and a long snipe nose, so that it looked like a weather-cock placed on his spindle neck, to tell which way the wind blew. To see him striding along the profile of a hill on a windy day, with his clothes bagging and fluttering about him, one might have mistaken him for the genius of famine, descending upon the earth, or some scarecrow, eloped from a cornfield.
Lesson Four: Paragraphs A paragraph is defined as a collection of sentences developing one topic. Paragraphs have a beginning (a statement of the theme), a middle (clearly and logically develops the theme), and an end (concludes the discussion and sometimes provides a link to the next paragraph). Limit each paragraph to one idea. A good length for ordinary report writing is 100 to 150 words.
Lesson Five: Emphasis To emphasise an idea in your reports, you can use: Underlining Italics and boldface Font changes All caps Dashes Tabs What are some other ways of making important points stand out? What are some ways of de-emphasising bad news?
Lesson Six: Unity and Coherence Unity means oneness. A paragraph has unity if it sticks to one subject. While planning a paragraph, ask yourself frequently, “Is this on the subject?” If it isn’t, cross it out.
Lesson Six: Unity and Coherence Coherence means sticking together. When referring to paragraphs, it includes the proper arrangement of ideas so they fit together. The different sentences that compose a paragraph should follow one another in natural and logical order. If they do not, the reader can become distracted and find it hard to keep the threads of the topic together.
Lesson Six: Unity and Coherence And Moreover Further Furthermore Also Likewise Similarly Too In like manner Again In the same way Besides
Lesson Six: Unity and Coherence But Nevertheless Otherwise On the other hand Conversely On the contrary However Yet Still
Lesson Six: Unity and Coherence To show time relation To indicate order To show space relations To introduce illustrations To indicate a consequence or conclusion To indicate the repetition of an idea To compare
In sentences with active-voice verbs, the subject is the doer of the action. In passive voice verbs, the subject is acted upon. Most writers prefer action verbs because such verbs tell the reader clearly who or what is performing the action. Lesson Seven: Active and Passive Voice
The new process is believed to be superior by the investigators. The office will be inspected by Mr. Hall. An appointment was made for January 12. A complete reorganisation was affected by the president. In response to your order, the documents are being sent today. This letter is being written to help you understand more about our personal computers.
Lesson Seven: Active and Passive Voice A check is being made about your order, and upon its completion, a full analysis will be sent to you. The letter was typed by Brian. It was felt by most readers that the report was too long and complex to be read by them. The tax return was completed before the April 30th deadline.
Lesson Eight: The Stages of Report Writing
Lesson Nine: The First Stage (Investigation) The Rules of Evidence 1.Look at the evidence and follow where it leads. 2.Look for the simplest explanation that accounts for all the evidence. 3.Look at all likely alternatives. 4.Beware of absolute statements.
Lesson Nine: The First Stage (Investigation) 360 degree performance reviews How much succession planning New England farmers have done Efficiency of different types of project management software Alternative energy sources that your company could use Safety issues in your workplace Trends in the shipping industry
Lesson Nine: The First Stage (Investigation) Styles of documentation : MLA (Modern Language Association) The APA (American Psychological Association) The CBE (Council of Biology Editors) The Chicago Manual of Style
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) Structure of a Report IntroductionBody or DiscussionConclusionsRecommendations
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) Purpose P Audience A Format F Evidence E Organisation O
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) The first letter of PAFEO stands for purpose, but in report writing it can also be a reminder of the need to define the problem. Purpose and problem need to be considered in two ways: Find out what purpose management had in mind in ordering the report. Define the problem as precisely as you can.
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) This series of questions can help you describe the dimensions of a problem. What is the problem? Where is the problem? When is the problem? What is the extent of the problem?
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) Who will your audience or audiences be? How much background do I need to give this reader? What does the reader need to know and how can I best provide this information? How is my credibility with this reader? Is the reader likely to agree or disagree with my position? What tone would be most appropriate in view of this agreement of disagreement?
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) Ways to highlight your material: Bullets Bold Italics Headings Sub headings
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) The direct approach contains: Synopsis Recommendations Body/Discussion Summary Conclusions
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) The indirect approach contains: Executive Summary Introduction Body/Discussion Conclusions Recommendations
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) Which approach do you think might be best with the following topics? Restricting the age limit of ATVs Recommending flu shots be administered to small children Discussion paper on immunisation for all beef cattle The best use of school buildings during silent hours
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) The Rules of Evidence 1.Look at the evidence and follow where it leads. 2.Look for the simplest explanation that accounts for all the evidence. 3.Look at all likely alternatives. 4.Beware of absolute statements.
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) Using a Summary A report in miniature Gets quickly to the point Sets up framework that helps the reader follow your line of thinking in the entire report. Use headings to divide and clarify each part
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) Organising the Report Introduction: Prepares the reader for the report to follow Body of the report: Contains your findings Report ends with conclusions and recommendations
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) Organising your Research Experienced writers often use file cards/post-it notes when they collect information. These can be easily arranged and rearranged. By arranging them in piles, you can create and organise information into a plan.
Lesson Ten: The Second Stage (Planning) Organising your Research Time Place Factor Problem-analysis-solution Order of importance
First, review your problem/purpose statement. Then, review your report outline. After that, concentrate on getting your ideas down on paper, not on the niceties of style. Once you have completed your first draft, go over it carefully, penciling in improvements. Lesson Eleven: The Third Stage (Writing )
Lesson Twelve: The Fourth Stage (Revising) Check the facts Check the length Check the organisational structure Check the style Check the spelling, grammar, and punctuation
Lesson Thirteen: Formal Reports Cover Letter of Transmittal Title Page Synopsis or Executive Summary Table of Contents List of Illustrations Introduction Body/Discussion Summary Conclusions Recommendations Appendix
Lesson Fourteen: How to Use Headings MAJOR HEADING MAJOR SUB-HEADING Minor Sub-Heading Secondary Minor Sub-Heading.
Lesson Fifteen: Charts and Graphs Area Graph
Lesson Fifteen: Charts and Graphs Bar Graph
Lesson Fifteen: Charts and Graphs Column Graph
Lesson Fifteen: Charts and Graphs Curve Chart
Lesson Fifteen: Charts and Graphs Surface Chart
Lesson Fifteen: Charts and Graphs Use graphics in your report: If your data is complex and using a table or chart will help the reader understand your point. If compiling the data in a table or chart will save the reader time. If a list, chart, or table will conveniently collect information the reader may want to refer to later.
Lesson Fifteen: Charts and Graphs Keep tables and charts as brief a possible. Signal the reader when a table or chart is coming up. Label graphics clearly and specifically. Number tables and charts consecutively. Use a graphic only if it will help the reader understand your point. Don’t interrupt the text with a graphic. Point out the significance of the table/chart. Keep the graphic as simple as possible. Use white space and labeling.
Lesson Sixteen: Writing Proposals
Lesson Seventeen: The Finishing Touches The Acid Test Does the reader know me? Does the reader like me? Does the reader want to do business with me?
Lesson Seventeen: The Finishing Touches The Six Steps of Persuasion 1.You must get your message to the audience. 2.You must get someone to pay attention to it. 3.The message must be understandable. 4.Your arguments must be convincing. 5.The audience must be willing to give in or to yield. 6.They must remember their new attitude and be willing to act.
Lesson Seventeen: The Finishing Touches Design your message to take advantage of any helpful qualities your organization, your department, or you have. Credibility is an important quality. Being liked helps make persuasion more successful. Perceived power is another characteristic that leads to effective persuasion. Can you think of any additional helpful characteristics to develop in your proposals?
Lesson Seventeen: The Finishing Touches Should you only give one side of the story in your message? Which side should you give first? Should you make conclusions specific or let the audience draw its own conclusions? Do fear techniques work? Is it better to use an emotional or a factual argument?